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Department ofBotany



No. 120
April 1993


Editor: Jane Villa-Lobos


GARDENER'S GUIDE TO PLANT CONSERVATION


Review by Jane MacKnight

Gardeners can have a significant impact on wild plant species. Excessive harvesting of wild species may reduce plant populations to unviable levels. Pressure from concerned gardeners can encourage more ethical collection and labelling of species from the world. In The Gardener's Guide to Plant Conservation, Nina Marshall addresses these issues in a useful, easy-to-understand book for gardeners who want information about their favorite plants before purchasing.

The 187-page book was written to assist gardeners in making choices about the most commonly available plants found in North American temperate gardens. In the first four chapters Ms. Marshall gives a concise overview of the plant trade including CITES, how collection affects wild species, the gardener's role and offers consumer tips for concerned gardeners.

The heart of The Guide lies in the four reference chapters: native North American wildflowers, bulbs, insectivorous plants and terrestrial orchids. Each chapter provides information on origin of the species and whether the species is commonly wild collected or artificially propagated. Hundreds of species are covered, but bulbs are discussed most extensively, as the result of an earlier WWF study on the bulb trade. A quick glance through the species lists and it is obvious that gardeners still need to use their discretion. Many of the species in trade are both wild collected and artificially propagated. The Guide does not recommend one species over another, but gives gardeners adequate information to make wise decisions. A selection of excellent photographs illustrates each plant category.

One of the closing chapters refers the reader to other sources of information, for example, native plant societies. A very comprehensive bibliography provides additional information about the plant trade, endangered plants and plant conservation.

The book, published by World Widlife Fund and the Garden Club of America, is available for $12.95 from WWF, P.O. Box 4866, Hampden Post Office, Baltimore, MD 21211. Tel: (301) 516-6951.


ECOSYSTEM APPROACH TO ENDANGERED SPECIES CONSERVATION


A special issue of the Endangered Species UPDATE , entitled, "Exploring an Ecosystem Approach to Endangered Species Conservation", contains 13 articles and an introductory note by authors from universities, conservation organizations and government agencies that address the theory and implementation of the ecosystem approach to protecting biodiversity. The Special Issue tackles ecosystem approach questions within three sections: Science and Management, Policy, and Education. Unique and timely in its coverage of an emerging approach to conservation, the Special Issue offers great material for policy planning and training sessions, courses, and discussion. The 62-page issue contains photographs, figures and tables, and "Literature Cited" sections within each article.

Single copies of the Special Issue can be purchased for $6 (including postage). For orders of 20 or more, the price is $5. For orders outside the U.S., please add $1 per issue for shipping. Send check or money order (payable to The University of Michigan) to: Endangered Species UPDATE, School of Natural Resources & Environment, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1115. (Regular subscriptions to the UPDATE , which include special issues, are available for $23 ($18 for students and senior citizens). For more information, call (313) 763-3243.


SCHOLARSHIP


The Amazon Basin Scholarship Program is a collaboration between the Latin American Scholarship Program of American Universities (LASPAU) and Wildlife Conservation International (WCI) to train future environmental leaders from the Amazon. The Program has established a goal to train 50 scholars over five years at the certificate, master's and doctoral degree levels in the United States. Amazon Basin Scholars will return to conduct research, to exert scientific and policy leadership, and to train others in environmental affairs critical to the region's survival. A pilot program, begun in 1991 and sponsored by the Fulbright Academic Exchange Program of the United States Information Agency, has already provided support for six scholars. In addition, it has enabled LASPAU to establish the Amazon Basin institutional network necessary to sustain a scholarship program that encompasses six countries, including the support of many key institutions in the Amazon Basin, such as organizations of many indigenous peoples, the Instituto Nacional de Desarrollo de Recursos Naturales of Colombia, and the Secretariat of Science and Technology of Brazil. For more information, please contact: LASPAU, 25 Mt. Auburn St., Cambridge, MA 02138; Tel: (617) 495-5255; Fax: (617) 495-8990.


EDUCATIONAL MATERIALS


The Vermont Natural Resources Council has produced a special curriculum to educate middle school students about how they can help save tropical rain forests. Titled "Tropical Rain Forests: The Vermont Connection", the 100-page guide explains why rain forests are important and how habits and lifestyles in Vermont can affect tropical forests. For more information, write: Vermont Natural Resources Council, 9 Bailey Ave., Montpelier, VT 05602.

Concepts and application of phylogenetic systematics are presented in a two-part 25 minute video. Part I describes the development of a cladogram. In Part II, cladistics is applied to an ethological phylogenetic anaylsis of relationships among cyprinid minnows that breed over gravel substrates. The video, accompanied by an Instructor's Manual, is an educational tool that can be used as an introduction to phylogenetic systematics. The video is available at cost (including postage/handling): US standard video format (NTSC), $55 US; PAL/SECAM format, $90 US. Send US check/money order or purchase order payable to University of Richmond to: Dr. Eugene G. Maurakis, Biology Department, University of Richmond, Richmond, VA 23173. Tel: (804) 289-8977.

The Dian Fossey Fund offers educational materials available for middle and high school teachers. A 30-day interdisciplinary, middle school curriculum, covering conservation issues and using mountain gorillas as an example of an endangered species, comes packaged with a 50-minute videotape and snares collected from the Rwandan rainforest. The cost is $55 postage-paid. The other, a 7- day interdisciplinary unit for high school students, focuses on balancing population, economy and conservation. Students become analysts using World Population Data sheets and atlases. They observe mountain gorilla behavior and take field notes from a scientist's videotape of a gorilla research group near Karisoke. With an understanding of culture, environment, and wildlife, students assume the roles of experts in one of four viewpoints: veterinarian, government official, tourism, or antipoaching. They devise a plan to benefit all positions, and later discover how closely their plans parallel the plan in Rwanda today. The curriculum and videotape sell for $20, including shipping. Proceeds from both materials benefit the Dian Fossey Gorilla Fund.

For details, contact the Dian Fossey Gorilla Fund at 45 Inverness Drive East, Suite B, Englewood, Colorado 80122-5480. Tel: (303) 790-2349.


JOB ANNOUNCEMENT


The North Carolina Nature Conservancy is looking for a Southeast Coastal Plain Steward to manage the nature preserves located in the Southeast Coastal Plain of the state. These preserves support a wide range of ecosystems, including longleaf pine communities, pocosins, Atlantic white cedar communities, cypress swamps, and pine plantations. The steward will establish and maintain cooperative management relationships with the managers of other preserves and public lands in the district, and manage the Southeast Coastal Plain Stewardship Office in Wilmington, NC. Qualifications: University degree in natural resources management, ecology, or a related science, and at least 2 years of experience with fire management; or professional experience of equivalent value. To apply, contact: Sam Pearsall, Director of Science and Stewardship, Carr Mill Suite D12, Carrboro, NC 27510. Tel: (919) 967-7007; Fax: (919) 929-7710).


FUTURE MEETINGS


May 20-23. "Alternative Medicine, Wellness, & Health Care Reform: Preparing for a Sustainable Future" will be held at the National Museum of Health and Medicine (Walter Reed Army Medical Center, Maryland) and the Dirksen Senate Office Building, Washington, DC. In the midst of the national debate on health care reform, the timely forum for health care professionals, practitioners, policy analysts, scientists, and the general public will explore developments in alternative medicine and wellness practices and alternative health and self-care practices, including health practices of indigenous populations. A live display of medicinal plants will open at the U.S. Botanic Garden May 20 and continue through June 19. Early registration (by May 14): $65/day; $250/4 days (includes lunch). For more information, contact: EEI, Attn.: Alison Malone, 66 Canal Center Plaza, Suite 200, Alexandria, VA 22314. Tel: (703) 684-2116; Fax: (703) 683-4915.

June 1-5. "Tropical Montane Cloud Forests" , an international state-of-knowledge symposium and workshop, will be held in San Juan, Puerto Rico in conjunction with the Association of Tropical Biology 30th anniversary meeting. For more information, contact: Dr. Lawrence Hamilton or Dr. James O. Juvik, EAPI East-West Center, 1777 East-West Road, Honolulu, Hawaii 96848. Fax: (808) 944-7970.

June 9-13. The 7th Annual Meeting of the Society for Conservation Biology will be held at Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona. Registration: $90 before May 1; $115 afterwards. For information, contact: W.L. Minckley, Dept. of Zoology, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287-1501.

June 14-20. The Fifth Annual Society for Ecological Restoration Conference will be held in Irvine, California. Major themes will include: restoration of islands, arid and semi-arid lands, animal reintroductions, ethics and mitigation, and urban planning. For more information, contact: Society for Ecological Restoration, 1207 Seminole Highway, Madison, Wisconsin 53711. Tel: (608) 262-9547.

June 21-26. "Neotropical Montane Forests: Biodiversity and Conservation" symposium will be held at the New York Botanical Garden, Bronx, New York. Registration deadline: April 30. Registration fee: $120. For more information, contact: Dr. James Luteyn, Institute of Systematic Botany, New York Botanical Garden, Bronx, NY 10458-5126. Tel: (718) 817-8645.

June 22-25. 20th Annual Natural Areas Conference, "Conservation in Working Landscapes", will be held at the Univeristy of Maine, Orono, Maine. The conference will focus on: biological diversity in working landscapes, conservation in marine ecosystems, inventory and monitoring natural areas, and conserving endangered species and natural communities. For a brochure and registration form, contact: Hank Tyler, Maine State Planning Office, Station 38, Augusta, Maine 04333. Tel: (207) 624-6041.

June 23-27. The 1993 meeting of the Society for Economic Botany will be held at the Fairchild Tropical Garden in Miami, Florida. In addition to six sessions of contributed papers, a one-day symposium, "Invading Species - Their Threat and Potential" is planned. Registration: $60 (Members), $70 (Non- members) by May 15; $10 more after May 15. Registration information from: SEB Annual Meeting, Fairchild Tropical Garden, 10901 Old Cutler Road, Miami, Florida 33156-4296.

September 14-16. "Low Temperature Aspects of Seed Conservation" will be held at the Isle of Thorns Training Centre, Chelwood Gate, Sussex, England. The symposium will focus on the effects of low temperature on the germination and storage of seeds. Registration, accommodation, meals, visit to Wakehurst Place and conference dinner will cost approximately 225 pounds sterling. For more information, contact: Simon Linington, Wakehurst Place, Ardingly, Haywards Heath, West Sussex RH17 6TN, England.


CURRENT LITERATURE


Anon. 1993. Center and U.S. Forest Service join forces to conserve rare plants. Plant Conservation 7(2): 7. (Plant conservation in national forests and on grasslands)

Anon. 1993. Colombia's biologically rich Choco forest faces increasing threats. Focus 15(2): 1,6.

Anon. 1993. Creating enduring conservation networks. Focus 15(2): 2. (Central and Eastern Europe)

Anon. 1993. El Angel Ecological Reserve. BirdLife Int. Pan American Bull. 8(1): 3. (Paramos in northern Ecuador)

Anon. 1993. Endangered birds in the Alcatrazes Archipelago. BirdLife Int. Pan American Bull. 8(1): 4. (Southeastern Brazil)

Anon. 1993. Endod: a case study of the use of African indigenous knowledge to address global health and environmental problems. RAFI Communique (Rural Advancement Foundation Int.) March: 1-4. (African soapberry used to control schistosomiasis)

Anon. 1993. Key addition helps secure protection for Delmarva Bay. The Nature Conservancy of Maryland 17(1): 1. (Pristine Pines Preserve, Queen Anne's county, MD, home of rare plants & carpenter frog)

Anon. 1993. Logging and illegal trade threaten world's temperate and tropical forests. Focus 15(2): 4.

Anon. 1993. Networking in ornithology: AVIFAUNA. BirdLife Int. Pan American Bull. 8(1): 1-2. (ICBP and Red Cientifica Peruana create on-line forum for neotropical bird researchers)

Anon. 1993. Poaching upsurge in Nepal prompts WWF emergency grant. Focus 15(2): 1,6. (Tigers and greater one-horned rhinos in Royal Bardia Nat. Park, Nepal)

Anon. 1993. Sideling Hill Creek yields another rare species. The Nature Conservancy of Maryland 17(1): 1. (Maryland; rare tiger beetle found)

Anon. 1993. Suits threatened on Asia projects. Defenders 68(1): 7-8. (Three Gorges Dam project, Yangtze River, China)

Anon. 1993. WWF's innovation grants spark local conservation efforts in the United States. Focus 15(2): 3. (Small grants program)

Alexander, D. 1993. Southern Ozark headwaters ecosystem reserve. Wild Earth 3(1): 67-72. (Arkansas)

Anderson, L. 1993. The view from breadloaf. Wilderness 56(200): 10-19. (Vermont's Green Mountain National Forest)

Anderson, S. and Stone, C. 1993. Snaring to control feral pigs Sus scrofa in a remote Hawaiian rain forest. Biol. Conserv. 63(3): 195-202.

Attere, A. 1992. Conservation and utilization of germplasm in East and southern Africa: an overview. Dinteria 23: 19- 30. (Proceedings of the 1st Workshop on Plant Genetic Resources, Nov. 1991)

Auston, G. 1993. Rainforest Preservation Foundation. Buzzworm 5(2): 79.

Barbour, D. and Young, M. 1993. Ecology and conservation of the Kentish glory moth in eastern Scotland. The Entomologist 112(1): 25-33.

Barzetti, V. and Rovinski, Y. (Eds.) 1992. Toward a Green Central America. Integrating Conservation and Development. Kumarian Press, West Hartford, Connecticut.

Basler, B. 1993. A bird haven on the edge of China. New York Times Travel, Sec. 5(February 21): 16, 29. (Mai Po Marshes Nature Reserve, Hong Kong/China border)

Batista Calmon, R. 1990. Bibliografia sobre conservacao da flora. Albertoa 3(5): 41-44. (Brazil)

Batista Calmon, R. 1992. Bibliografia sobre conservacao da flora. Albertoa 3(13): 129-130. (Brazil)

Baucus, M. 1993. The trade challenge. Defenders 68(1): 46-47. (North American Free Trade Agreement)

Bennett, A. 1993. Fauna conservation in box and ironbark forests: a landscape approach. The Victorian Naturalist 110(1): 15-23.

Blakers, M. 1993. Making it happen: strategies needed to conserve box and ironbark forests. The Victorian Naturalist 110(1): 45-48.

Bowden, C. and Martin, P. 1993. Treasure in the Sierra Madre. Defenders 68(1): 20-25. (Threatened tropical forest, Mexico)

Cardenas, E., Ojeda, M., Torres, T., and Olivares Saenz, E. 1993. Micropropagation of Astrophytum capricorne, an endangered cactus from N.E. Mexico. Botanic Gardens Micropropagation News 1(6): 75-76.

Christensen, J. 1993. Amazing Amazon. Buzzworm 5(2): 46-53.

Cunningham, A. 1992. The role of ethnobotany and indigenous knowledge in conservation of plant genetic resources. Dinteria 23: 119-131. (Proceedings of the 1st Workshop on Plant Genetic Resources, Nov. 1991)

Davis, M. 1993. Studds expected to defend endangered species. Wild Earth 3(1): 46-47.

du Plessis, W. 1992. In situ conservation in Namibia: the role of national parks and nature reserves. Dinteria 23: 132-141. (Proceedings of the 1st Workshop on Plant Genetic Resources, Nov. 1991)

Dubov, G. 1993. Escaping to school in the Peruvian rainforest. Buzzworm 5(2): 59. (International rainforest workshop)

Egan, T. 1993. Can tourists learn to tread lightly? New York Times Travel, Sec. 5(February 21): 15, 32. (Ecotourism)

Fromard, F. and Sauquelin, T. 1993. Thuriferous juniper stands in Morocco: research and conservation for an endangered environment and species. Unasylva 172(44): 52-58.

Ghazanfar, S. and Al-Sabahi, A. 1993. Medicinal plants of northern and central Oman (Arabia). Econ. Bot. 47(1): 89- 98.

Glamser, D. 1993. In 'wild country", a test of wills. USA Today March 4: A10. (Conservation & economics clash in Pacific Northwest)

Goulding, M. 1993. Flooded forests of the Amazon. Scientific American 266(3): 113-120.

Gup, T. 1993. The land lord. Time 141(10): 38. (Interior Secretary Babbitt plans to revitalize National Park Service and increase protection of endangered species)

Halloy, S. 1992. Threats to biodiversity in Latin America and the rights to genetic resources. In R. Rabel (Ed.), Latin America in a Changing World Order. University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand. pp. 120-134.

Hanson, J., Mtambo, P., and Ruredzo, T. 1992. Conservation of forage germplasm with an emphasis on application of tissue culture techniques in a genebank. Dinteria 23: 60-69. (Proceedings of the 1st Workshop on Plant Genetic Resources, Nov. 1991)

Hawkins, J. and Roberts, C. 1993. Effects of recreational scuba diving on coral reefs: trampling on reef-flat communities. J. Applied Ecology 30(1): 25-30.

Holroyd, G. and Banasch, U. 1993. Raptors in jeopardy in Canada. Wingspan 2(1): 6-7.

Jones, L. 1993. Can ecotourism save the world? Buzzworm 5(2): 34-38.

Jones, L. 1993. Jungle journal. Plummeting toward Amazonia. Buzzworm 5(2): 54-57.

Jukofsky, D. 1993. They're our rain forests too. Nat. Wildlife 31(3): 18-28, 33-37. (Economic uses)

Kalash, A. 1993. Ecotourism in Venezuela: what about the people? Buzzworm 5(2): 60.

Kanamini, L. 1993. Babbitt planting seeds of change at Interior. USA Today March 4: A2. (Changes in government management of public lands)

Kanamini, L. 1993. Florida boaters resent speed limits. USA Today March 4: A10. (Manatees)

Kanamini, L. 1993. In Florida, loggers vs. bird-watchers. USA Today March 4: A10. (Red-cockaded woodpecker)

Kanamini, L. 1993. Stakes are very high for both sides. USA Today March 4: A1-2. (Species protection)

Kanamini, L. 1993. Texans wage war over water species. USA Today March 4: A10. (Endangered species in San Antonio aquifer)

Kenworthy, T. 1993. Las Vegas deal shows value of risk in conservation planning. Washington Post March 21: A20. (Desert tortoise)

Kiviat, E. 1993. Under the spreading water-chestnut. Hudsonia 9(1): 1-6. (Introduced species affect native ecosystems)

Klungness, K. 1992. Northwoods wilderness recovery. Wild Earth 3(1): 54-55. (Michigan's Upper Peninsula & northeast Wisconsin)

Koopowitz, H. 1992. A stochastic model for the extinction of tropical orchids. Selbyana 13: 115-122.

Lledo, M., Crespo, M., and Amo-Marco, J. 1993. Preliminary remarks on micropropagation of threatened Limonium species (Plumbaginaceae). Botanic Gardens Micropropagation News 1(6): 72-74. (Spain)

MacNeille, S. 1993. Where the ecotours are. New York Times (Sec. 5) February 21: 15, 26. (Ecotourism)

Maggs, G. 1992. The role of the National Herbarium of Namibia in the conservation of plant genetic resources. Dinteria 23: 99-101. (Proceedings of the 1st Workshop on Plant Genetic Resources, Nov. 1991)

Malithano, D. 1992. FAO global system for conservation and utilization of plant genetic resources. Dinteria 23: 38- 49. (Proceedings of the 1st Workshop on Plant Genetic Resources, Nov. 1991)

Marshall, N. 1993. The Gardener's Guide to Plant Conservation. World Wildlife Fund and the Garden Club of America, Washington, D.C. 187 pp.

Mehrhoff, L. 1993. Rare plants in Hawaii: a status report. Plant Conservation 7(2): 1-2. (95 Extinct; 271 Endangered; 1,020 endemic)

Mercier, H. and Kerbauy, G. 1993. Micropropagation of Dyckia macedoi - an endangered endemic Brazilian bromeliad. Botanic Gardens Micropropagation News 1(6): 70- 72.

Miller, M. 1993. Life and death on the coral reef. Zoogoer 22(1): 5-11. (Threatened ecosystem)

Moss, H. 1992. Priority setting for a wild species collecting programme in Namibia. Dinteria 23: 94-98. (Proceedings of the 1st Workshop on Plant Genetic Resources, Nov. 1991)

Mostwill, A. 1993. Forest Service tries to whistle sweet bye and bye to the red-cockaded woodpecker in Dixie. Wild Earth 3(1): 21-22.

Nabhan, G. 1992. Endangered plants, animals, and places in Native American traditions. Seedhead News 39: 7-10. (United States)

Nadkarni, N. 1992. The conservation of epiphytes and their habitats: summary of a discussion at the International Symposium on the Biology and Conservation of Epiphytes. Selbyana 13: 140-142.

Noss, R. 1993. A preliminary biodiversity plan for the Oregon Coast range. Wild Earth 3(1): 73.

Pearce, F. 1993. Botswana: enclosing for beef. Ecologist 23(1): 25-29.

Pearson, M. 1993. The private parts of paradise. Wilderness 56(200): 20-27. (West Elk Wilderness area, Colorado)

Phillips, O. 1993. The potential for harvesting fruits in tropical rainforests: new data from Amazonian Peru. Biodiversity and Conservation 2: 18-38.

Phillips, O. and Gentry, A. 1993. The useful plants of Tambopata, Peru: I. Statistical hypothesis tests with a new quantitative technique. Econ. Bot. 47(1): 15-32. (600 species)

Phillips, O. and Gentry, A. 1993. The useful plants of Tambopata, Peru: II. Additional hypothesis testing in quantitative ethnobotany. Econ. Bot. 47(1): 33-43.

Ranker, T. 1992. Genetic diversity of endemic Hawaiian epiphytic ferns: implications for conservation. Selbyana 13: 131-137.

Rauh, W. 1992. Are Tillandsias endangered plants? Selbyana 13: 138-139.

Ruredzo, T. and Mkanamga, G. 1992. The role of National Plant Genetic Resources Centres (NPGRCs) in the SADCC Regional gene Bank (SRGB) Programme. Dinteria 23: 31-37. (Proceedings of the 1st Workshop on Plant Genetic Resources, Nov. 1991)

Sarmiento, F. 1992. Research in Tropandean protected areas of Ecuadorian landscapes. The George Wright FORUM 9(3 & 4): 148-160.

Schlickeisen, R. 1993. Greening NAFTA. Defenders 68(1): 5. (North American Free Trade Agreement)

Scott, J., Davis, F., Csuti, B., Noss, R., Butterfield, B., Groves, C., Anderson, H., Caicco, S., D'Erchia, F., Edwards, T., Ulliman, J., and Wright, R. 1993. Gap analysis: a geographical approach to protection of biological diversity. Wildlife Monographs 123: 1-41.

Shackleton, C. 1993. Fuelwood harvesting and sustainable utilisation in a communal grazing land and protected area of the Eastern Transvaal Lowveld. Biol. Conserv. 63(3): 247-254.

Sholley, C. 1993. Paradise in peril. Zoogoer 22(1): 18-23. (Madagascar)

Simons, M. 1993. A Dutch reversal: letting the sea back in. New York Times March 7: A1, 12. (Restoration)

Sivertsen, D. 1993. Conservation of remnant vegetation in the box and ironbark lands of New South Wales. The Victorian Naturalist 110(1): 24-29.

Snape, W. and Bourne, J. 1993. The battle over free trade. Defenders 68(1): 10-19. (North American Free Trade Agreement)

Spitzer, K. and Leps, J. 1992. Bionomic strategies in Lepidoptera, risk of extinction and nature conservation projects. Lepidopterologica Supplement No. 4: 81-85.

Steinhart, P. 1993. A new aerial wolf war. Defenders 68(1): 30-36. (Conservationsists & Alaska bureaucrats battle over increase in caribou and moose hunting)

Strohbach, B. 1992. Loss of genetic diversity due to veld degradation - a case study in the northern Kalahari, Grootfontein district. Dinteria 23: 102-115. (Proceedings of the 1st Workshop on Plant Genetic Resources, Nov. 1991)

Taylor, A. and Zisheng, Q. 1993. Bamboo regeneration after flowering in the Wolong Giant Panda Reserve, China. Biol. Conserv. 63(3): 231-234.

Vaughan, R. 1993. Beach mouse bingo. Wild Earth 3(1): 41-45. (Perdido Key beach mouse, endangered)

Velchev, V., Kuzuharov, S., and Anchev, M. (Eds.) 1992. Atlas of the Endemic Plants in Bulgaria. Bulgaria Academy of Sciences, Sofia, Bulgaria. 205 pp. (Flora of 3500 species with 50% endemism)

Vellve, R. 1993. The decline of diversity in European agriculture. Ecologist 23(2): 64-69.

Wexler, M. 1993. Sweet tradition. Nat. Wildlife 31(3): 38-41. (Coastal development in southeast USA threatens African American's artisans)

World Conservation Monitoring Centre. (Compiler) 1992. Protected Areas of the World: A Review of National Systems. Volume 4: Nearctic and Neotropical. IUCN- The World Conservation Union, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, England. 460 pp.

Wren, C. 1993. Walking with rhinoceroses. New York Times (Sec. 5) February 21: 14, 19. (Ecotourism, Natal province, South Africa)

Yoon, C. 1993. Mystery surrounds global decline of a flying robin-size predator. New York Times (The Environment) March 2: C4. (Loss of grasslands threatening loggerhead shrike)

Young, N. 1993. NMFS proposes listing Gulf of Maine harbor porpoise as threatened. Marine Conservation News 5(1): 5.

Young, N. 1993. Trying to save the endangered vaquita. Marine Conservation News 5(1): 5. (Gulf of California harbor porpoise)

Zahner, R. 1992. Forester's critique: Sierra Madre Forestry Project will not sustain biological diversity. Seedhead News 39: 3-4. (Mexico)

Zwinger, S. 1993. Genocide by any other name if still genocide. Wild Earth 3(1): 30-31. (Destruction of British Columbia's ancient forest)

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