Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History

Advanced Search

Department ofBotany



No. 140
January 1995


Editor: Jane Villa-Lobos


LIMBE BOTANIC GARDEN


The Limbe Botanic Garden is a component of the greater Mount Cameroon Project. This is a multilateral initiative funded by the British Overseas Development Administration (ODA), the German Technical Agency (GTZ), the Global Environment Facility (GEF) of the World Bank and the Government of Cameroon (GoC). Its main objective is the conservation of the unique biodiversity of Mount Cameroon, with the support of the local people. A part of achieving this aim is encouraging research initiatives to provide baseline information for the formulation of management plans for the sustainable development of the region and helping to identify conservation priorities and the optimum methods of conserving them.

Mount Cameroon is centered in the Guineo-Congolian regional area of endemism, one the main Pleistocene refugia postulated for Africa, and contains ca. 4,000 higher plant species with ca. 50 of these endemic to Mount Cameroon itself. This is the last area in Africa where natural vegetation remains unbroken from sea level to the sub-alpine peak at the summit. Nearly 10 volcanic eruptions since 1800 have created a vegetation succession mosaic of various ages and over a range of altitudes. The wildlife of the region is also extremely rich with numerous endemic primates and birds and the highly endangered forest elephant, drill and chimpanzee.

The Limbe Botanic Garden holds important living collections of economic species, orchids and palms with particular emphasis on West African taxa. The reference herbarium contains ca. 8,000 specimens from SW Province. An excellent natural history library is also available. Established study sites (permanent sample plots) and camping areas in a diversity of forest types provide unique access to a wide representation of ecotypes around Mount Cameroon. The botanic garden also provides unrivalled logistical support in the form of plant collectors, ethnobotanical informers, tree climbers, transport and access to remote villages and forest areas around Mount Cameroon. In the vicinity of Limbe there is also a soil anlaysis laboratory, a geological research center, an agricultural research center, a fisheries research center, a local archive collection, an English-speaking university and offices of numerous non-governmental organizations.

For more information and a copy of the Limbe Botanic Garden research agreement, please contact: Nouhou Ndam, Conservator, Limbe Botanic Garden, P.O. Box 437, Limbe, Cameroon or Terry Sunderland, TCO Botanic Garden Management Adviser, FCO (Yaounde), King Charles Street, London SW1A 2AH, UK.


CENTRE FOR TROPICAL BIODIVERSITY


The Centre for Tropical Biodiversity is funded by the Danish Natural Science Research Council for the period 1993-1998. Being a "centre without walls", the funds are given for a multidisciplinary research program that brings together leading Danish research groups in the field. Denmark has a long tradition and international recognition in the study of biology, taxonomy, and evolution of tropical organisms. The purpose of the centre is to strengthen this position and to support innovative work by coordinating and supporting Danish research in the field of tropical biodiversity.

The centre focuses on the biota of montane and adjacent lowland forests in the Andes, East Africa, and Southeast Asia. Its objectives are: document and compare patterns of diversity; analyze diversity through phylogenetic analysis of species; and test models of diversification for populations, species and higher taxa. In the process, data is gathered on systematics and geographical range of taxa and biosystematic measures for ranking conservation needs in the context of current rapid destruction of tropical forests.

Through its interdisciplinary approach to funding, the centre brings together Danish taxonomists and ecologists studying tropical biodiversity in montane biota. The centre identifies common focal points for research, trains young scientists in methods at the forefront of biodiversity research and increases the internationalization of Danish research in these fields by a guest program, symposia, and workshops on fundamental issues.

For more information, contact Birgitte Dahl, University of Aarhus, Herbarium- Build. 137, DK-8000 Aarhus C, Denmark; Tel.: (+45) 8942 2751; Fax: (+45) 8613 9326.


NEW PUBLICATIONS


The first of three volumes of Centres of Plant Diversity: A Guide and Strategy for Their Conservation (CPD) has just been published by the WWF (World Wide Fund for Nature) and IUCN- the World Conservation Union. CPD contains accounts of nearly 250 major sites for conservation of plant diversity worldwide. Volume 1 covers Europe, the Atlantic Ocean Islands, Africa, the islands of the Western Indian Ocean, South West Asia and the Middle East; Volume 2 is concerned with Asia, Australasia and the Pacific Islands; and Volume 3 deals with the Americas.

The directory provides a unique global and regional review of the nature and distribution of the main concentrations of plant diversity in the world, and serves as a guide to the most practical and cost-effective ways of conserving as much of the biodiversity as possible, together with its sustainable use. This project has been a tremendous effort involving over 400 botanists, conservationists and resource managers worldwide, together with over 100 collaborating institutions and organizations.

Each major region is introduced by a regional overview, including paragraphs on other centres of plant diversity which are important conservation areas, but which did not meet the criteria for selection as CPD sites. Each of the 234 individual site sheets includes sections on geography, vegetation, flora, useful plants, social and environmental values, threats, connservation, and references. An economic assessment section is included where data is available. The introduction to the book contains a background to the project, the concept of identifying centres of diveristy and endemism, the criteria and methodology used for selecting the sites, a world list of species richness and endemism listed by region, a world map showing the location of the 234 sites selected for data sheet treatment, as well as a summary table of the sites in the three volumes.

Centres of Plant Diversity is an incredible resource on global "hotspots" of plant diversity in need of conservation. The information has been written by country experts and much of the data is published for the first time in this book. CPD Volume 1 is available for 30 pounds Sterling (plus 15% for shipping) through IUCN Publications Services Unit, 219C Huntingdon Road, Cambridge, CB3 0DL, U.K.

A Canadian Biodiversity Strategy has been developed by the Canadian government under the lead of Environment Canada with input by provincial and federal governments, industry, NGOs, academe, etc. Copies of the Strategy can be obtained by writing Biodiversity Convention Office, Environment Canada, 351 St. Joseph Blvd., 5th floor, Hull, QC K1A 0H3, Canada. Tel.: (819) 953-4374; Fax: (819) 953-1765.


FELLOWSHIPS


The Lincoln Park Zoological Gardens offers three science fellowships for undergraduates or individuals who receive their undergraduate degree within 6 months of beginning their fellowship. Candidates are expected to conduct scientific research projects at the zoo for a 12 week period. Projects may be coordinated with a candidate's academic program and schedule. Academic credit may be possible through the candidate's home institution. Fellowships may commence as early as 1 May 1994 but all fellowship work must be completed prior to 1 April 1995. Each fellowship carries a stipend of $2500 for 12 weeks. A small amount of funds is available for project supplies and library work. All living and other expenses are the responsibility of the fellow.

Through its annual grant from the Dr. Scholl Foundation, the zoo also offers graduate level fellowships for research projects conducted at the zoo. Projects may either be distinct from, or an integral part of, the thesis or dissertation research. Each fellowship associated with a thesis or dissertation project has a duration of one year and carries a stipend of $5000. A small amount of funds is available for supplies and library work.

Types of projects: projects may be specific to the candidate's interests as they reflect those needs of the zoological gardens determined by the zoo staff. Potential projects exist in the fields of animal behavior, nutrition, reproduction, physiology, conservation, population biology and computer modelling of zoo populations, and veterinary medicine.

For a brochure and application information, write to: SCIENCE FELLOWSHIPS, Director of Conservation and Science, Lincoln Park Zoological Gardens, 2200 North Cannon Drive, Chicago, IL 60614-3895. Deadline for receipt of application materials is March 14, 1995.


TRAINING COURSE


The National Council of Development Communication is organizing the 1st National Training Program on "Strategies for Sustainable Development", in collaboration with Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, India, April 4-16. The course is designed to enhance and develop professional understanding of the issues and methods applied to achieve sustainable development. For more information, contact: Prof. V.K. Dubey, Head, Department of Extension Education, Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi-221 005, India; Tel.: (91) 542-311974; Fax: (91) 542-310318/312059.


JOB ANNOUNCEMENTS


The Nature Conservancy seeks a Landscape Ecologist with an advanced degree (Ph.D. preferred) and 3 years working experience to be based in its Minneapolis office. The Landscape Ecologist works with Conservancy staff nationally and internationally to utilize the principles of landscape ecology in the design and management of individual nature preserves and systems of preserves. The ecologist will consult with key staff and partners on issues of site design and ecological modeling and provide training in landscape-scale ecological processes, patterns and dynamics. This is a two year position with potential for extension. To apply, send letter and CV to: Steven C. Buttrick, The Nature Conservancy, Eastern Regional Office, 201 Devonshire St., 5th Floor, Boston, MA 02110-1402.

The College of Food and Natural Resources (University of Massachusetts) invites applications and nominations for the position of Director of Environmental Sciences at the level of professor or associate professor. Starting date will be the fall semester, 1995. The Environmental Sciences Program is interdisciplinary and currently involves more than 20 faculty from eight departments and two colleges in teaching and advising activities. There are currently around 400 undergraduate majors in the program which includes concentrations in environmental biology, health, toxicology and chemistry, policy,and integrated pest management.

Duties of the position will be primarily administrative in nature with responsibilities for coordinating the teaching and advising program in conjunction with the Environmental Sciences Steering Committee. The director will also be expected to assume a limited role in teaching and advising. A major area of responsibility will be the development of a proposed Center for the Environment and coordinating the development of a proposed interdisciplinary graduate program in environmental sciences. The proposed center will serve as a focal point for the undergraduate program, the proposed graduate program, and for research and outreach programs in environmental sciences.

Qualifications for the position include a Ph.D., and the achievement of excellence in teaching and research in a discipline that will qualify the candidate for tenure in an academic department within the College of Food and Natural Resources. Preference will be given to candidates having prior administrative experience.

Applications are now being accepted. Review of applications will begin on February 1, 1995 and all materials should be received by that date for priority consideration. The search will continue until a finalist is selected. Candidates should send curriculum vitae, representative reprints, a synopsis of their current and future academic interests and philosophies and the names, addresses and telephone numbers of at least three references to: Dr. Cleve E. Willis, Search Committee Chair, Environmental Sciences Program, 235 Draper Hall, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003-2040. Tel.: (413) 545-5708; Fax: (413) 545-5853; e-mail: willis@resecon.umass.edu.

The University of Michigan invites applicants for a joint tenure-track position in the Department of Biology and the School of Natural Resources & Environment (SNRE). Individuals are sought whose area of scholarship is the ecological basis of the sustainable use of natural resources in the tropics. The appointment will be 50% Biology, 50% SNRE. Rank is open. Candidates must have a Ph.D. in biology, ecology or natural resources, and subsequent experience, with a demonstrated research interest and expertise in the ecological sustainability of the tropics. The successful candidate will be expected to develop an externally-funded research program, teach one course in each unit per year, and contribute to the University of Michigan's international area studies program by periodically teaching or coordinating seminars related to the role of environmental issues in the affairs of tropical countries.

Candidates should submit a cover letter, statements of teaching interests, research objectives, and the relationship of their scholarly activities to international area studies, curriculum vitae, and the names of three referees to: Search Committee, Ecological Sustainability, The International Institute, The University of Michigan, Ann Arbor MI 48109-1220. Tel.: (313) 763-9200. Closing date: February 15, 1995 or until position is filled.


FUTURE MEETINGS


March 15-17. The 18th annual conference of the Society for Ethnobiology will meet in Tucson, Arizona. The theme of the meeting is "Culture and Biological Diversity: Past, Present and Future". For more details, contact: Susan Fish, Arizona State Museum, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721; Tel.: (602) 621- 2556; Fax: (602) 621-2976; e-mail: archaeo@arizrvax.

March 20-25. An international conference on biosphere reserves will be held in Sevilla, Spain to examine and evaluate the implementation of the Action Plan for Biosphere Reserves adopted in 1984 and to advise on the measures to be taken for future action. Participants will include biosphere reserve managers, national biosphere reserve co-ordinators, scientists working in biosphere reserves as well as decision makers. For information, contact: Dr. Pierre Lasserre, Sevilla Conference- UNESCO, 1, rue Miollis, 75732 Paris Cedex 15, France. Tel.: (33) (1) 45 68 40 67; Fax: (33) (1) 40 65 98 97.


CURRENT LITERATURE


Angier, N. 1994. Redefining diversity: biologists urge look beyond rain forests. The New York Times November 29: C1, C6.

Anon. 1994. Asia's appetite for birds' nests threatens swiftlets. FOCUS 16(6): 3.

Anon. 1994. Beekeeping in Malawi promotes park protection. FOCUS 16(6): 3.

Anon. 1995. A conservation success story: Arabian oryx. Int. Wildlife 25(1): 28. (Reintroduction to Oman)

Anon. 1994. Everglades now suffers water excess. The New York Times (National) November 27: 46. (Florida wetlands)

Anon. 1995. The man with the spear. Nature Conservancy 45(1): 28-33. (Community-based conservation)

Anon. 1994. Maryland chapter protects two & a half miles of bay shoreline for tiger beetle habitat. The Nature Conservancy News 18(4): 1. (Cove Point and Port Republic, Calvert County, Maryland)

Anon. 1994. Peru's Noroeste reserve protects critical ecosystems. FOCUS 16(6): 3. (Noroeste Biosphere Reserve)

Anon. 1994. Protecting Latin America's biological diversity. FOCUS 16(6): 2. (World Wildlife Fund's Greater Caribbean Program)

Anon. 1994. Rhinos rebound in Chitwan. FOCUS 16(6): 1. (Nepal)

Anon. 1994. Space shuttle helps WWF map Brazil's Atlantic coast forests. FOCUS 16(6): 3. (Una Biological Reserve, Bahia)

Anon. 1994. WWF Special Report: Wildlife for sale. FOCUS 16(6): 4-5. (Ten animal and plant species threatened by illegal or excessive international trade)

Barresi, P. 1994. New forestry legislation in Eastern Europe: the Polish and Albanian models. Unasylva 45(179): 34-37.

Beck B. 1994. Ethnobotany of the California Indians. Vol. 1. A Bibliography and Index. Koeltz Scientific Books, Champaign, Illinois. 165 pp.

Beechie, T., Beamer, E. and Wasserman, L. 1994. Estimating coho salmon rearing habitat and smolt production losses in a large river basin, and implications for habitat restoration. North Am. J. Fisheries Management 14(4): 797-811.

Bishop, Jr. J. 1995. Arizona: mixing birds and business. Nature Conservancy 45(1): 24-25. (Ecotourism)

Blake, S. 1994. Ethnobotany of the California Indians. Vol. 2. Aboriginal Uses of California's Indigenous Plants. Koeltz Scientific Books, Champaign, Illinois. 210 pp.

Bolze, D. 1992. The Wildlife Bird Trade: When a Bird in the Hands Means None in the Bush. Wildlife Conservation Society, Bronx, New York. 24 pp.

Botanic Gardens Conservation International. 1994. Environmental Education in Botanic Gardens. Guidelines for Developing Individual Strategies. Botanic Gardens Conservation International, Richmond, Surrey, England. 32 pp.

Bourke, S. 1995. Jamaica: fishing for a better tomorrow. Nature Conservancy 45(1): 18-19. (Oyster harvesting)

Bowen, B. and Avise, J. 1994. Tracking turtles through time. Natural History 103(12): 36-43.

Brown, D. 1994. Out of Africa. Wilderness 58(207): 24-27, 30-31. (Grazing lands of the West)

Brown, K. 1994. Approaches to valuing plant medicines: the economics of culture or the culture of economics? Biodiversity and Conservation 3(8): 734-750.

Brown, L. et al. 1995. State of the World 1995. Worldwatch Institute, Washington, DC. 250 pp.

Byfield, A. 1994. Good for the bulbs, good for the people. The Garden 119(11): 512-515. (Turkey bulb trade)

Cleveland, D., Soleri, D. and Smith, S. 1994. Do folk crop varieties have a role in sustainable agriculture? BioScience 44(11): 740-751.

Cohn, J. 1994. A national natural laboratory. BioScience 44(11): 727-730. (Savannah River Site, South Carolina)

Cuco, A. 1994. The impact of structural adjustment on forest industry in Mozambique. Unasylva 45(179): 45-50.

Dale, V. and Rauscher, H. M. 1994. Assessing impacts of climate change on forests: the state of biological modeling. Climate Change 28(1-2): 65-90.

Dawn, J. 1994. Rafflesia in Temenggor. Malayan Naturalist 47(3 & 4): 26-27. (Threatened plant)

Devine, R. 1994. Management and the uncertainity principle. Wilderness 58(207): 10-23. (Pacific Northwest, USA)

Duivenvoorden, J. 1994. Vascular plant species counts in the rain forests of the middle Caqueta area, Colombian Amazonia. Biodiversity and Conservation 3(8): 685-715.

Edwards, G. 1994. New USFWS Fisheries Action Plan will help fish. Fisheries 19(12): 10-11.

Escobar, G. 1994. Latins coming to Miami summit convey hard- earned confidence. The Washington Post (World News) December 4: A33. (Summit of the Americas)

Esque, T. and Oldemeyer, J. 1994. A rangewide conservation and research program for the desert tortoise in the Desert Southwest. End. Species UPDATE 11(8 & 9): 1-4, 6.

Gallagher, J. 1994. Economics dominates global debate on biodiversity convention. DIVERSITY 10(3): 11-14. (Results of meeting, "Biological Diversity: Exploring the Complexities" held in Arizona, March 1993)

Gill, G. 1994. Reafforesting Scotland. Naturopa 75: 24-25.

Guppy, C., Shepard, J. and Kondola, N. 1994. Butterflies and skippers of conservation concern in British Columbia. Canadian Naturalist 108(1): 31-40.

Holmes, B. 1994. Third World plays tough in conservation game. New Scientist 144(1953): 10-11. (CITES meeting)

Jaka, C. 1994. Market value of biological resources evaluated at Pan American conference. DIVERSITY 10(3): 4- 5. (Bioprospecting)

Kapoor-Vijay, P. 1992. Biological Diversity and Genetic Resources. The Programme of the Commonwealth Science Council. Commonwealth Science Council, London, England. 145 pp.

Kapoor-Vijay, P. and Usher, M. (Eds.). 1993. Identification of Key Species for Conservation and Socio- economic Development. Proceedings of a Workshop. Commonwealth Science Council, London, England. 198 pp.

Kapoor-Vijay, P. and White, J. (Eds.). 1992. Conservation Biology. A Training Manual for Biological Diversity and Genetic Resources. Commonwealth Science Council, London, England. 248 pp.

Klahr, P. and Duke, S. 1994. The Bruneau hot spring snail saga. End. Species UPDATE 11(8 & 9): 5-6. (Idaho)

Lachman-White, D., Adams, C. and Trotz, U. 1992. A Guide to the Medicinal Plants of Coastal Guyana. Commonwealth Science Council, London, England. 350 pp. (Reprint of 1987 edition)

Lamola, L. and Bertram, R. 1994. Experts gather in Mexico to seek new strategies in preserving agrobiodiversity. DIVERSITY 10(3): 15-17. (Workshop on in situ conservation of food crops native to Mexico held December, 1993)

Lesser, W. and Krattiger, A. 1994. The complexities of negotiating terms for germplasm collection. DIVERSITY 10(3): 6-10. (Bioprospecting)

Lunney, D., Hand, S., Reed, P. and Butcher, D. (Eds.). 1994. Future of the Fauna of Western New South Wales. Royal Zoo. Soc. of New South Wales, South Wales. 246 pp.

Martin, J. 1994. Ecosystem integrity v fisheries management. Fisheries 19(12): 28.

Matthews, R. 1994. The rise and rise of global warming. New Scientist 144(1953): 6.

Meadows, R. 1995. Vernal affairs. Zoogoer 24(1): 16- 23. (Vernal pools in temperate eastern USA under threat)

Merezhko, A. 1994. Vavilov Institute's collection of wheats and Aegilops provides global food security. DIVERSITY 10(3): 18-20. (Preserving wheat germplasm)

Misiak, J. 1994. A national park at the city gates. Naturopa 75: 20-21. (Kampinos National Park, Poland)

Moran, A. 1994. The market for conservation. SEARCH 25(7): 194-196.

Moran, D. 1994. Contingent valuation and biodiversity: measuring the user surplus of Kenyan protected areas. Biodiversity and Conservation 3(8): 663-684.

Myers, N. 1994. Eco-refugees: a crisis in the making. People & the Planet 3(4): 6-9.

Oldeman, R., Parviainen, J. and Stephan, K. 1994. Sustainability - caring for forests. Naturopa 75: 15-19. (Europe)

Olney, P. J. S., Mace, G. and Feistner, A. (Eds.). 1994. Creative Conservation. Interactive Management of Wild and Captive Animals. Chapman and Hall, New York. 517 pp.

Pacheco, L., Simonetti, J. and Moraes, M. 1994. Conservation of Bolivian flora: representation of phytogeographic zones in the national system of protected areas. Biodiversity and Conserva. tion 3(8): 751-756. (Protected areas in Bolivia cover 10.2% of its territory)

Pamba, K. 1994. The struggle to control PNG's timber industry. Brukim Bus Nius 3(3): 4-5. (Papua New Guinea)

Parkin, D. and Knox, A. 1994. Occurrence patterns of rare passerines in Britain and Ireland. British Birds 87(12): 585-592.

Pearce, F. 1994. Are Sarawak's forests sustainable? New Scientist 144(1953): 28-32.

Pearce, F. 1994. Scotland's sea lochs deserve special protection. New Scientist 144(1953): 8. (Marine conservation)

Phillips, K. 1994. Tracking the Vanishing Frogs. An Ecological Mystery. St. Martin's Press, New York. 244 pp.

Rao, R. and Garg, A. 1994. Can Eremostachys superba be saved from extinction? Current Science 67(2): 80-81. (Threatened plant of India)

Raymond, R. 1994. System-wide program on genetic resources launched by CGIAR, convening center is IPGRI. DIVERSITY 10(3): 25-26. (Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research)

Rege, J. 1994. International livestock center preserves Africa's declining wealth of animal biodiversity. DIVERSITY 10(3): 21-24.

Romero-Schmidt, H., Ortega-Rubio, A., Arguelles-Mendez, C., Coria-Benet, R. and Solis-Marin, F. 1994. The effect of two years of livestock grazing enclosure upon abundance in a lizard commun. ity in Baja California Sur, Mexico. Bull. Chicago Herp. Soc. 29(11): 245-248.

Ryan, J. 1994. Developing sustainable farming systems. SEARCH 25(7): 221-224. (Australia)

Sawhill, J. 1995. Wildlife and ways of life: seeking greener pastures. Nature Conservancy 45(1): 5-9. (TNC's efforts in sustainable development)

Schaller, G. 1995. Tracking the Gobi's last wild bears and camels. Int. Wildlife 25(1): 18-23. (Mongolia)

Schreiner, J. 1994. Root of success. Canadian Geographic 114(6): 42-46, 48. (Ginseng, lucrative crop of British Columbia)

Shenon, P. 1994. Hunt in forests of Borneo aims to track down natural drugs. The New York Times (Environment) December 6: C4.

Speer, L. 1994. United Nations must strengthen protection of straddling and highly migratory fish. Fisheries 19(12): 20-21.

Stevens, J. 1995. Bamboo is back. Int. Wildlife 25(1): 38-45. (Usefulness threatens species)

Stolzenburg, W. 1995. Micronesia: cultivating a state of mind. Nature Conservancy 45(1): 22-23. (Pohnpei)

Sutherland, W. 1994. Conservation biology: how to help the corncrake. Nature 372(6503): 223.

Various authors. 1995. The question of sustainable development. Nature Conservancy 45(1): 10-15.

Victor, D. and Salt, J. 1994. From Rio to Berlin: managing climate change. Environment 36(10): 6-15.

Walker, J. 1994. Intrepid trio. Am. Horticulturist 73(12): 38-41. (Three native orchids; Platanthera holochila, considered rare)

Whittington, A. 1994. Distribution and conservation of Afrotropical Graptomyza Wiedemann, with a new species description (Diptera: Syrphidae: Volucellini). Biodiversity and Conservation 3(8): 716-733.

Wiesner, M. 1994. Natives at risk. Am. Horticulturist 73(12): 9. (Echinocereus fendleri var. kuenzleri, Arizona)

Wille, C. 1995. Panama: learning the value of shade. Nature Conservancy 45(1): 26-27. (Sustainable development: forestry/farming)

Witmeyer, D. 1994. The Convention on Biological Diversity changes rules on the game for international plant genetic resources regime. DIVERSITY 10(3): 28-31.

Worthington, L. 1994. New York institutions embark on "understanding the diversity of life" project. DIVERSITY 10(3): 38-39. (Molecular systematics studies at New York Botanical Garden and the American Museum of Natural History)

Wright, S. J., Gompper, M. E. and DeLeon, B. 1994. Are large predators keystone species in Neotropical forests? The evidence from Barro Colorado Island. Oikos 71: 279-294. (Panama)

Yoon, C. 1994. Biologists master the treetops, the real scene of forest action. The New York Times (Environment) November 22: C1, C4. (Forest canopy meeting at Selby Botanical Gardens)

Youth, H. 1995. Hawaii's forest birds sing the blues. Zoogoer 24(1): 6-15. (Native species on the decline)

[ TOP ]