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Department ofBotany



No. 153
March 1996


Editor: Jane Villa-Lobos


NEW U.S. ENDANGERED SPECIES LIST


The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service has issued a notice of review for plant and animal species that are candidates for listing as endangered or threatened under the Endangered Species Act. The revised list of "candidate species" - part of the Administration's commitment to improve implementation of the Endangered Species Act - is the result of a thorough review of the scientific information available on the species. In its notice of review, published in the February 28 Federal Register, the Service asks for any new information on the status of the candidate species.

The new candidate species list clearly identifies those species with strong scientific evidence indicating they are likely to be in need of listing as endangered or threatened. This will enable the Service, other agencies, and private partners to focus attention and resources on the species that most need help and will, therefore, ultimately reduce the costs and increase the effectiveness of species conservation.

The notice identifies 182 species as "candidates" for listing. "Candidate species" are species for which the Fish and Wildlife Service has enough scientific information to warrant proposing them for listing as endangered or threatened under the Endangered Species Act. Identification of candidate species helps resource managers alleviate threats and thereby possibly remove the need to list species as endangered or threatened. Conservation actions for candidate species are often the most effective and least expensive means for restoring species.

The revised candidate list replaces an old system that listed nearly 4,000 "candidate" species under three separate categories. The old system led many people to the mistaken conclusion that the addition of thousands of species to the endangered list was imminent. Under the revised list, only those species for which there is enough information to support a listing proposal will be called "candidates." These were formerly known as "Category 1 Candidate Species."

With this new announcement, the Service will no longer maintain a list of species formerly known as "Category 2 Candidates". These are species for which the Service does not have enough scientific information to support a listing proposal. The Fish and Wildlife Service is working with federal and state agencies, private conservation groups, and the scientific community to develop data sharing arrangements and continues to assess the status of these species.

In the 22-year history of the Endangered Species Act, the Fish and Wildlife Service has listed 960 U.S. species as endangered or threatened but has determined that 2,400 others do not warrant protection at this time. Over 70% of all species reviewed were found not to warrant listing.

Also in the February 28 Federal Register is a notice explaining the changes in the status of 96 candidate species under the terms of a settlement agreement in a lawsuit filed by the Fund for Animals. This notice explains that scientific review has indicated these 88 plants and 8 animals do not warrant proposal for listing as endangered or threatened. Most of the species were removed for taxonomic reasons, because of a lack of scientific information to support a proposal, or because they are more abundant or less threatened than previously believed. Several of the species were removed from "candidate" status as a result of successful conservation actions that have reduced threats and stabilized their populations. Two species, both Hawaiian plants, were removed because they are believed to be extinct.

Copies of the Federal Register notice can be obtained from: U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Division of Endangered Species, 1849 C Street, N.W., Mail Stop 452 ARLSQ, Washington, DC 20240.


ENVIRONMENTAL COMPUTING DIRECTORY


The editors of the GreenDisk Paperless Environmental Journal have released the most comprehensive guide to the use of computers for environmental research and activism ever compiled. The guide contains over 1,000 listings of world wide web sites, listservs, online databases, bulletin board services, software, educational programs, CD-roms and datasets. Also included are articles on green computing, listings of service providers, books, conferences, workshops and much more.

Those working in academia, journalism or industry, as well as activists and environmental educators, will find a wealth of information in the guide. The subject criteria are broad - from a listing of congressional e-mail addresses to descriptions of ACCESS EPA, the NASA Space Images CD-Rom and new web sites on the regulation of transgenic arthropods and the oil spill off the Rhode Island coast. The guide is international in scope and ranges from highly technical and specialized listings to more general sources for environmental learning and research.

The guide is available on disk only in IBM or Macintosh formats and includes a user interface for reading and full Boolean (and/or) keyword searching. This allows the user to quickly find the resources related to the topic being researched and saves more than 900 pages of paper that would be required to print the guide. Included with the guide is a full review issue of the GreenDisk focusing on the depletion of the ozone layer.

The cost of the guide is $25. To order, request an order form from: The GreenDisk, P.O. Box 32224, Washington, DC 20007; E- mail: greendisk@igc.apc.org.


FELLOWSHIP OPPORTUNITIES


This summer the Atlantic Center for the Environment will conduct a five-week fellowship program from July 8 - August 11 on land conservation and stewardship for conservation professionals from countries in the Caribbean and Latin America. Six positions will be available. This intensive program will be practical and problem-solving in its approach, introducing participants to conservation issues in the northeastern United States and eastern Canada, and enabling them to begin a dialogue with their North American counterparts. Its broad goals are to provide training and professional development for conservation leaders from the Caribbean and Latin America, promote an exchange of ideas and innovations in the area of landscape conservation and stewardship, and strengthen the capacity of NGOs in both regions to conserve natural areas through stewardship. Through roundtable discussions, site visits and internships, participants will have the opportunity to share ideas with their counterparts, acquire new information and develop their practical skills.

The fellowship program will begin at the Atlantic Center's headquarters in Ipswich, Massachusetts and will involve travel in the northeastern United States. The fellowship program is open to individuals working as leaders, staff or volunteers with a Latin American or Caribbean NGO active in the areas of biodiversity conservation, landscape conservation, sustainable agriculture, sustainable forestry or rural community development.

Interested applicants should request a complete description of program details and application procedure from: Brent Mitchell, Director of Stewardship, QLF/Atlantic Center for the Environment, 55 South Main St., Ipswich, MA 01938; E-mail: atlantictr@igc.apc.org; Tel.: (508) 356-0038; Fax: (508) 356-7322. Application deadline: 15 April 1996.


EDUCATIONAL MATERIALS


From sharks to sea birds, from sailing to tsunamis, Microsoft Oceans invites users on an interactive journey into the colorful world of aquatic creatures. This newly released CD-rom, researched and reviewed by World Wildlife Fund (WWF) staff, contains more than 600 interactive articles and over 1,000 detailed photos of fascinating sea life.

Through a variety of narrated tours and hands-on activities, users of all ages will learn about the creatures that live in the ocean and the impact that humans can have on this environment. In addition, Microsoft will donate a portion of the sales of Oceans to support WWF's conservation work.

Microsoft Oceans is available at most computer software stores. To order direct from Microsoft in the U.S., call 1-800- 457-9530.


NEW PUBLICATIONS


The second volume of Centres of Plant Diversity: A Guide and Strategy for Their Conservation is now available. It covers Central and Northern Asia, the Indian Subcontinent, China and East Asia (Malesia), Australasia and New Zealand, and the Pacific Ocean Islands. Volume 2 contains five regional overviews and 102 data sheets on areas of high floristic diversity in need of conservation. Of all three volumes in the set, these regions contain the highest number of endemic plants with approximately 93,352 species. The sites have been selected partly on the basis of floristic statistics, but especially with reference to the detailed knowledge of numerous botanists familiar with this part of the world. The data sheet for each of the 102 sites is set within a regional context, outlining wider patterns of plant distributions, threats and conservation efforts; additional sites are mentioned in the overviews.

This volume can be purchased for US $67.50 (plus shipping and handling) by writing: IUCN Publications Services Unit, 219c Huntington Road, Cambridge CB3 0DL, England; Tel.: (44) 1223 277894; Fax: (44) 1223 277175 or Island Press, Box 7, Covelo, CA U.S.A.; Tel.: (800) 828-1302 (inside continetal U.S.) or (707) 983- 6432 (outside U.S.); Fax: (707) 983-6414.

Volume 3, dealing with the Americas, is scheduled to be published in June.

A new quarterly journal, Terra Nova , explores how environmental issues are at the focus of general cultural debates of our time. Essays, reportage on environmental disasters and solutions, fiction, poetry, art, and all forms of reflection on the human relationship to nature are included. Contributions from philosophy, literature, history, anthropology, geography, environmental studies, psychology, politics, activism, and the arts are encouraged.

Terra Nova aims to become a journal of major cultural importance, to show that environmental issues are really part of the mainstream of cultural critique and commentary, dissolving the borders between the academic and the readable.

Subscriptions are $32 for individuals and $95 for institutions. Outside U.S.A. add $16 for postage and handling. To subscribe, contact: MIT Press Journals, 55 Hayward St., Cambridge, MA 02142; Tel.: (617) 253-2889; Fax: (617) 258-6779; E-mail: journals-orders@mit.edu.


INFORMATION HIGHWAY HI-LITES


A cooperative agreement between the National Biological Service (NBS) and the Association of Systematics Collections (ASC) will develop two directories of resource information: one on taxonomists and their areas of expertise, and another on natural history collections. Both will be available on the Internet accessible at http://www.nbs.gov/nbii. An important objective is for NBS and ASC to identify additional measures to help automate information about significant museum collections, and to foster an electronic network of natural history collections information. For more information contact: Anne Frondorf at (202) 482-3980, or Jamise Liddell at (202) 482-3048.


FUTURE MEETINGS


May 4. The Santa Barbara Botanic Garden will hold a symposium entitled "Plant Evolution and Conservation on Islands - A Global Perspective" in Santa Barbara, California. Topics include: phylogenetic patterns, floristic diversity, biology of rare plants, and conservation strategies. For details, contact: Dieter Wilken, Santa Barbara Botanic Garden, 1212 Mission Canyon Rd., Santa Barbara, CA 93105; Tel.: (805) 682-4726, ext. 124; E-mail: wilken@lifesci.lscf.ucsb.edu.

May 16-17. Sponsored by the Hillsborough Community College Institute of Florida Studies, the 23rd Annual Conference on Ecosystems Restoration and Creation will be held in Tampa, Florida. The conference will provide a forum for the nationwide exchange of results of scientific research in the restoration, creation, and management of wetlands and upland systems. For more information, contact: Frederick J. Webb, Dean of Environmental Programs, Hillsborough Community College, Plant City Campus, 1206 N. Park Rd., Plant City, FL 33566; Tel.: (813) 757-2104.

May 18-23. The Sixth International Symposium on Society and Natural Resource Management, to be held at Pennsylvania State University, will focus on better integration of social and natural resource sciences in addressing resource and environmental issues. For more information, contact: A.E. Luloff, Program Co-chair, Dept. of Agricultural Economics and Rural Sociology, 111 Armsby Bldg., Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802.

May 19-23. The Wilderness and Natural Areas in Eastern North America conference will be held in Gatlinburg, Tennessee. This conference will be centered around research, planning, and management of wilderness and natural areas, such as parks and wildlife refuges. Conference topics include planning for wilderness and natural areas; visitor impact, education, and management; wetlands and wetland restoration; landscape ecology; ethics, history, and policy; and wildlife management issues. For more information, contact: Dr. Michael H. Legg, College of Forestry, Stephen F. Austin State University, Nacogdoches, TX 75962; Tel.: (409) 468-3301; Fax: (409) 468-2489; E-mail: mlegg@titan.sfasu.edu.


CURRENT LITERATURE


Anon. 1996. Return to China for rare rhododendron. New Scientist 149(2011): 10. (Royal Botanic Garden, Edinburgh)

Ayensu, E., Adu, A. and Barnes, E. 1996. Ghana: Biodiversity and Tropical Forestry Assessment. Edward S. Ayensu Associates Limited, Accra, Ghana. 220 pp. (Report submitted to USAID mission in Ghana)

Aylward, B., Echeverria, J. and Barbier, E. 1995. Economic Incentives for Watershed Protection: A Report on an Ongoing Study of Arenal, Costa Rica. International Institute for Environment and Development, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. 26 pp. (Creed Working Paper Series No. 3)

Balmford, A. and Long, A. 1995. Across-country analyses of biodiversity congruence and current conservation effort in the tropics. Conservation Biology 9(6): 1539-1547.

Belsky, J. and Siebert, S. 1995. Managing rattan harvesting for local livelihoods and forest conservation in Kerinci-Seblat National Park, Sumatra. Selbyana 16(2): 212-222.

Berg, A., Ehnstrom, B., Gustafsson, L., Hallingback, T., Jonsell, M. and Weslien, J. 1995. Threat levels and threats to red-listed species in Swedish forests. Conservation Biology 9(6): 1629-1633.

Boucher, G. and Lambshead, P. 1995. Ecological biodiversity of marine nematodes in samples from temperate, tropical, and deep-sea regions. Conservation Biology 9(6): 1594-1604.

Bragina, T. and Bragin, E. 1995. Zapovedniki of Kazakstan - do they have a future? Russian Conservation News 5: 5. (Protected areas)

Breininger, D., Larson, V., Duncan, B., Smith, R., Oddy, D. and Goodchild, M. 1995. Landscape patterns of Florida scrub jay habitat use and demographic success. Conservation Biology 9(6): 1442-1453.

Broad, W. 1995. U.S. will deploy its spy satellites on nature mission. New York Times November 27: A1, B5. (Monitoring of natural phenomena)

Brown, J. and McDonald, W. 1995. Livestock grazing and conservation on southwestern rangelands. Conservation Biology 9(6): 1644-1647. (USA)

Brown, L. and et al. 1996. State of the World 1996. WorldWatch Institute, Washington, DC.

Buell, A., Pickart, A. and Stuart, J. 1995. Introduction history and invasion patterns of Ammophila arenaria on the north coast of California. Conservation Biology 9(6): 1587-1593.

Bunyavejchewin, S. and Baker, P. 1995. Forest fire and the Huai Kha Khaeng Wildlife Sanctuary. Center for Tropical Forest Science Fall: 10-11. (Thailand)

Burke, V. and Gibbons, J. 1995. Terrestrial buffer zones and wetland conservation: a case study of freshwater turtles in a Carolina Bay. Conservation Biology 9(6): 1365-1369.

Butler, V. 1996. The call of South Africa. Wildlife Conservation 99(1): 34-43. (Faunal preservation)

Ceballos, G. and Garcia, A. 1995. Conserving neotropical biodiversity: the role of dry forests in western Mexico. Conservation Biology 9(6): 1349-1357.

Clunies-Ross, T. 1995. Mangolds, manure and mixtures: the importance of crop diversity on British Farms. The Ecologist 25(5): 181-187.

Cohn, J. 1996. The Sonoran Desert. BioScience 46(2): 84-87.

Davies, S. 1995. Macaranga in a changing tropical rain forest: ecological and systematic studies at Lambir. Center for Tropical Forest Science Fall: 8-9. (Lambir Hills National Park, Sarawak)

Davis, S., Heywood, V. and Hamilton, A. (Eds). 1995. Centres of Plant Diversity: A Guide and Strategy for Their Conservation. Volume 2: Asia, Australasia and the Pacific. IUCN Publications Unit, Cambridge, England. 578 pp.

de Seve, K. 1996. Bolivia doubles protection. Wildlife Conservation 99(1): 8. (Two new national parks: Kaa-Iya del Gran Chaco & Madidi)

Dearden, P. 1995. Park literacy and conservation. Conservation Biology 9(6): 1654-1656.

Doak, D. 1995. Source-sink models and the problem of habitat degradation: general models and applications to the Yellowstone grizzly. Conservation Biology 9(6): 1370-1379.

Dobson, F., Yu, J. and Smith, A. 1995. The importance of evaluating rarity. Conservation Biology 9(6): 1648-1651.

Donovan, T., Lamberson, R., Kimber, A., Thompson, F. and Faaborg, J. 1995. Modeling the effects of habitat fragmentation on source and sink demography of neotropical migrant birds. Conservation Biology 9(6): 1396-1407. (Midwestern USA)

Donovan, T., Thompson, F., Faaborg, J. and Probst, J. 1995. Reproductive success of migratory birds in habitat sources and sinks. Conservation Biology 9(6): 1380-1395. (North America)

Firsov, G. 1995. Rare Russian plants in Saint Petersburg. The New Plantsman 2(4): 209-212. (Botanical Gardens)

France, R. and Peters, R. 1995. Predictive model of the effects on lake metabolism of decreased airborne litterfall through riparian deforestation. Conservation Biology 9(6): 1578-1586. (Ontario, Canada)

Friesen, L., Eagles, P. and Mackay, R. 1995. Effects of residential development on forest-dwelling neotropical migrant songbirds. Conservation Biology 9(6): 1408-1414. (Study area in Ontario, Canada)

Fujita, T., Sezik, E., Tabata, M., Yesilada, E., Honda, G., Takeda, Y., Tanaka, T. and Takaishi, Y. 1995. Traditional medicine in Turkey VII. Folk medicine in Middle and West Black Sea regions. Econ. Bot. 49(4): 406-422.

Fuller, R., Gregory, R., Gibbons, D., Marchant, J., Wilson, J., Baillie, S. and Carter, N. 1995. Population declines and range contractions among lowland farmland birds in Britain. Conservation Biology 9(6): 1425-1441.

Gilbert, G. and Hubbell, S. 1996. Plant diseases and the conservation of tropical forests. BioScience 46(2): 98- 106.

Goodrich, J. and Buskirk, S. 1995. Control of abundant native vertebrates for conservation of endangered species. Conservation Biology 9(6): 1357-1364.

Harris, D. 1995. The Last Stand. The War Between Wall Street and Main Street over California's Ancient Redwoods. Times Books/Random House, New York. 373 pp.

Hart, T. and Hart, J. 1995. The Ituri Forest large plot project. Center for Tropical Forest Science Fall: 14-15. (Reserve de Faun a Okapis, Zaire)

Hill, C. 1995. Linear strips of rain forest vegetation as potential dispersal corridors for rain forest insects. Conservation Biology 9(6): 1559-1566. (Northeastern Australia)

Holl, K., Daily, G. and Ehrlich, P. 1995. Knowledge and perceptions in Costa Rica regarding environment, population, and biodiversity issues. Conservation Biology 9(6): 1548-1558.

Inoue, T. and Hamid, A. 1995. The canopy biology program in Sarawak. Center for Tropical Forest Science Fall: 7. (Lambir Hills National Park, Sarawak)

Karesh, W. 1996. Rare Russian tortoise. Wildlife Conservation 99(1): 8. (Spur-thighed tortoise)

Karl, T. 1995. Long-term climate monitoring by the global climate observing system. Climate Change 31(2-4): 131-652. (Special issue)

Kenworthy, T. 1996. Parrot expert pleads guilty to illegal trafficking. Washington Post February 2: A3.

Kerr, J. and Currie, D. 1995. Effects of human activity on global extinction risk. Conservation Biology 9(6): 1528- 1538. (Mammals and birds)

Klein, M., Humphrey, S. and Percival, H. 1995. Effects of ecotourism on distribution of waterbirds in a wildlife refuge. Conservation Biology 9(6): 1454-1465. (Ding Darling National Wildlife Refuge, Sanibel Island, Florida)

Kofron, C. and Chapman, A. 1995. Deforestation and bird species composition in Liberia, West Africa. Trop. Zoology 2(8): 239-256.

Konstant, T., Sullivan, S. and Cunningham, A. 1995. The effects of utilization by people and livestock on Hyphaene petersiana (Arecaceae) basketry resources in the palm savanna of north-central Namibia. Econ. Bot. 49(4): 345-356.

Konstant, T., Sullivan, S. and Cunningham, A. 1995. The impact of the utilization of palm products on the population structure of the vegetable ivory palm (Hyphaene petersiana, Arecaceae) in North-Central Namibia. Econ. Bot. 49(4): 357-370.

Kothari, A., Suri, S. and Singh, N. 1995. People and protected areas: rethinking conservation in India. The Ecologist 25(5): 188-194.

LaFrankie, J. 1995. Initial findings from Lambir: trees, soils and community dynamics. Center for Tropical Forest Science Fall: 5. (Lambir Hills National Park, Sarawak)

Light, T., Erman, D., Myrick, C. and Clarke, J. 1995. Decline of the shasta crayfish (Pacifastacus fortis Faxon) of northeastern California. Conservation Biology 9(6): 1567-1577.

MacMillan, G. 1995. At the End of the Rainbow? Gold, Land and People in the Brazilian Amazon. Columbia University Press, New York. 199 pp.

Manandhar, N. 1995. An inventory of some herbal drugs of Myagdi District, Nepal. Econ. Bot. 49(4): 371-379.

Mercier, H. and Kerbauy, G. 1995. The importance of tissue culture technique for conservation of endangered Brazilian bromeliads from Atlantic rain forest canopy. Selbyana 16(2): 147-149.

Morales, J. 1995. Participatory forestry research in the buffer zone of Barro Colorado National Monument, Panama. Center for Tropical Forest Science Fall: 2.

Mukhina, E. 1995. Soap root - the natural value or the natural resource? Russian Conservation News 5: 24-25. (Unlimited consumption of this tuber has put it on the Red List)

O'Neil, T., Steidl, R., Edge, W. and Csuti, B. 1995. Using wildlife communities to improve vegetation classification for conserving biodiversity. Conservation Biology 9(6): 1482- 1491.

Pearce, F. 1996. Will Kew collect after lottery win? New Scientist 149(2011): 9. (Grant provided to build world's largest seed bank for wild plants)

Pipoly, J. 1995. Clusia fabiolae, a new species, with a synopsis of Clusia section Anandrogyne (Clusiaceae) in Guayana. Sida 16(4): 737-756. (Lists 2 rare species)

Pipoly, J. and Groff, A. 1995. The genus Clusia section Criuva (Clusiaceae) in Guayana. Sida 16(4): 649- 678. (Lists 2 threatened species)

Pressey, R. and Logan, V. 1995. Reserve coverage and requirements in relation to partitioning and generalization of land classes: analyses for Western New South Wales. Conservation Biology 9(6): 1506-1517.

Pyatina, T. 1995. Eco-tourism opportunities and reality: Valdai National Park. Russian Conservation News 5: 7-8.

Rashford, J. 1995. The past and present uses of bamboo in Jamaica. Econ. Bot. 49(4): 395-405.

Seng, L. 1995. Long term ecological research in Sarawak, Malaysia. Center for Tropical Forest Science Fall: 4.

Silvius, R. 1996. Park protection fragmented. Wildlife Conservation 99(1): 16. (Parque Estadual Intervales, Brazil)

Strittholt, J. and Boerner, R. 1995. Applying biodiversity gap analysis in a regional nature reserve design for the edge of Appalachia, Ohio (U.S.A.). Conservation Biology 9(6): 1492-1505.

Sukumar, R. 1995. Forest fires and elephants in southern India. Center for Tropical Forest Science Fall: 12-13.

Tan, S. 1995. The complexities of botanical identification in diverse ecosystems. Center for Tropical Forest Science Fall: 9. (Lambir Hills National Park, Sarawak)

Tiebout, H. and Brugger, K. 1995. Ecological assessment of pesticides for terrestrial vertebrates: evaluation and application of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's quotient model. Conservation Biology 9(6): 1605-1618.

Valencia, R. 1995. How will highly diverse Amazonian forests change over time? Center for Tropical Forest Science Fall: 3. (Yasuni National Park, Ecuador)

Verbruggen, H., Kuik, O. and Bennis, M. 1995. Environmental Regulations as Trade Barriers for Developing Countries: Eco-labelling and the Dutch Cut Flower Industry. International Institute for Environment and Development, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. 18 pp. (Creed Working Paper Series No. 2)

Wagner, F., Foresta, R., Gill, R., McCullough, D., Pelton, M., Porter, W. and Salwasser, H. 1995. Wildlife Policies in the U.S. National Parks. Island Press, Covelo, California. 251 pp.

Wagner, F., Foresta, R., Gill, R., McCullough, D., Pelton, M., Porter, W. and Salwasser, H. 1995. Wildlife Policies in the U.S. National Parks. Island Press, Covelo, California. 251 pp.

Waldren, S., Florence, J. and Chepstow-Lusty, A. 1995. Rare and endemic vascular plants of Pitcairn Islands, south-central Pacific Ocean: a conservation appraisal. Biol. Conservation 74(2): 83-98.

Warkentin, I., Greenberg, R. and Ortiz, J. 1995. Songbird use of gallery woodlands in recently cleared and older settled landscapes of the Selva Lacandona, Chiapas, Mexico. Conservation Biology 9(5): 1095-1106.

Williams, M. 1995. A new department of nature reserve management for Russia. Russian Conservation News 5: 3.

Williams, M. 1996. SOS for the Irrawaddy dolphin. Wildlife Conservation 99(1): 15. (India to Australia)

Wilson, E. 1996. E. O. Wilson to the defense. Nat. Wildlife 34(1): 10-17. (Biodiversity)

Winston, M. and Angermeier, P. 1995. Assessing conservation value using centers of population density. Conservation Biology 9(6): 1518-1527. (Fish of Virginia and Tennessee)

Woolliams, K. 1995. Conserving silverswords. The Garden 120(11): 668-671. (Hawaii, endangered species)

Wren, C. 1995. Road near rain forest of Panama creates rift. New York Times (International) December 24: 8. (US Army building a road into the buffer zone of the Palo Seco Forest Reserve)

Yarnal, B. 1995. Bulgaria at a crossroads: environmental impacts of socioeconomic change. Environment 37(10): 6-15, 29-33.

Young, C. and Bishop, J. 1995. Adjustment Policies and the Environment: A Critical Review of the Literature. International Institute for Environment and Development, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. 31 pp. (Creed Working Paper Series No. 1)

Zager, P., Mills, L., Wakkinen, W. and Tallmon, D. 1995. Woodland caribou: a conservation dilemma. End. Species UPDATE 12(10 & 11): 1-4. (USA/Canada)

Zhaoran, X. 1995. A study of the vegetation and floristic affinity of the limestone forests in southern and southwestern China. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 82: 570-580.

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