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Department ofBotany



No. 158
August 1996


Editor: Jane Villa-Lobos


CARIBBEAN CONSERVATION CORPORATION


By Sue Ellen Smith

When Dr. Archie Carr wrote The Windward Road in 1956, he had no way of knowing the impact his reflections on Caribbean sea turtles would have. He called the book "just a compulsive recounting of the things I saw and pondered." But something about his stories of these magnificent sea creatures and their struggle for survival deeply touched Joshua B. Powers, a New York publisher's representative. Powers was so moved by The Windward Road to try to save sea turtles that he sent copies of the book to 20 friends with an invitation to join him in the effort. Thus began the Caribbean Conservation Corporation (CCC). Now 40 years later the nonprofit CCC is still working to ensure the survival of sea turtles and has expanded its efforts to other areas, including rainforest and neotropical bird conservation. Its mission is vital and has many facets.

The CCC offers several volunteer programs in research. 1) Sea turtles of Tortuguero : CCC continues the work of Dr. Carr every year at its biological field station in Tortuguero, Costa Rica. Tortuguero's black sand beach is the nesting site of more endangered green turtles than anywhere else in the Western Hemisphere. Through a unique volunteer research participation program, researchers and volunteers monitor the beach, tagging turtles and recording important data. With this data, CCC's scientists and conservationists around the world are better able to manage and protect sea turtles and their habitat. 2) Neotropical Birds of Tortuguero: The balmy rainforests of Tortuguero are home to many neotropical and migrant birds, including flycatchers, warblers, tiger herons, toucans, macaws, sun bitterns and white collared manakins. Their habitat, however, is threatened by increased deforestation. CCC's year-round neotropical bird program enlists volunteers to help net, identify and study these birds in an effort to learn more about their biology and survival needs. The data gleaned from this important project helps to assess the effects of habitat loss and other factors on bird populations and enables scientists to form conservation plans.

In addition to volunteer programs, CCC conducts scientific research funded by the U.S. Agency for International Development. Current efforts along the Miskito Coast in Nicaragua include studies of sea turtle harvest rates and distribution and biology of manatees. Other CCC supported research includes satellite tracking of green turtles that nest in Florida and studies off the coast of Bermuda, a major juvenile green turtle development area.

Another function of CCC is environmental education and training. CCC works with coastal residents, conservationists and governments to increase awareness of the threats that sea turtles face, including coastal development, pollution, poaching and capture in fish nets. In Florida, the Sea Turtle Survival League, CCC's US-based public awareness arm, is developing an educational program that will allow school children across the nation to learn about sea turtles as they follow their migration through satellite tracking. In Costa Rica, CCC operates a visitors center that informs people about the importance of the region's habitat to the survival of sea turtles, manatees and other tropical wildlife.

CCC provides training in the sound management and stewardship of sea turtles and coastal ecosystems. Graduates of the training programs now lead conservation efforts in 25 countries around the world. A rainforest ecology program has recently been added to the training programs offered by CCC in Tortuguero. The program includes field lectures with accredited scientists and teaches rainforest conservation.

CCC works to enact protective laws and establish parks and refuges for the preservation of sea turtle habitats and coastal environments. Although sea turtles have been part of our oceans for millions of years, scientists have only been studying these creatures for four decades. If Dr. Archie Carr hadn't raised the alarm in the late 1950s, no one may have noticed these animals quietly slipping into extinction. CCC is committed to continuing Dr. Carr's life's work by making sure this significant part of our world's past remains a part of its future.

For more information on Caribbean Conservation Corporation, its volunteer programs or membership, please contact CCC at 1-800-678-7853; E-mail: ccc@cccturtle.org or its web site at http://www.cccturtle.org.


FOREST MAP


As part of WWF's Forest for Life Campaign, the World Conservation Monitoring Centre (WCMC) is producing the most detailed map ever produced of existing forest resources and forest protected areas. The map will be available both in printed form and interactively on computer. Internet users will be able to enlarge the map to countries and regions, and pull up details of reserves and protected areas. An initial printed version will be released as a wall chart. For more information, contact Mr. Francis Sullivan, c/o WWF-UK, Panda House, Weyside Park, Catteshall Lane, Godalming, Surrey GU7 1XR England.


RICHARD EVANS SCHULTES AWARD


The Asociacion KekoLdi Wak Ka Koneke located in Talamanca Canton, Limon Province in Costa Rica is the recipient of the 1996 Richard Evans Schultes Award, which is annually awarded by The Healing Forest Conservancy to a scientist, practitioner, or organization that has made an outstanding contribution to ethnobotany or to indigenous peoples issues related to ethnobotany. The Bribri and Cabecar peoples of the KekoLdi Indian Reserve are recognized for the steadfast defense of their forests and traditional lifestyle using a three part strategy. First, they are conducting the land tenure and land use studies needed for legal enforcement of their land rights. Second, they are aeducating the public about the Bribri and Cabecar use of medicinal plants and their underlying philosophy about the natural world, for example, through their book, Taking Care of Sibo's Gifts. Third, book profits are used to purchase deforested lands from non-Indian landholders within the boundaries of their Reserve, then reforested and managed by the KekoLdi people. They have already generated enough profits to buy and reforest critical watershed areas and the $5,000 that accompanies the Schultes Award will help purchase more land within the Reserve.


INFORMATION HIGHWAY HI-LITES


The Brazilian Right Whale Project, the Sotalia Dolphin Project and its coordinating institution, IWC/Brasil, announce the arrival of a new Home Page on marine wildlife-related conservation activities in Brazil, whale-watching and marine mammal conservation in southern Brazil. It can be accessed on http://www.via-rs.com.br/iwcbr.


NEW PUBLICATIONS


Ethnobotany in Human Welfare: Man-Plant-Animal Relationships and Diversity Conservation, edited by S.K. Jain, is a recently published volume, including the Proceedings of the IV International Congress of Ethnobiology held at Lucknow, India in November 1994. It contains over 100 papers covering a very wide range in ethnobiology from faith, rituals and customs, folk classifications and taxonomy, natural foods, to management and conservation of cultural and genetic diversity. An index to authors and key words is provided.

The 500 page volume is available from: Institute of Ethnobiology, c/o National Botanical Research Institute, Lucknow- 226 001, India; Tel.: (522) 271031; Fax: (522) 282849.

The University of Chicago Press has published two new books on neotropical flora and fauna. The first, A Field Guide to the Families and Genera of Woody Plants of Northwest South America (Colombia, Ecuador, Peru), by Alwyn H. Gentry, is a second printing of the 1993 edition but in a reduced size making it more practical for use in the field. This field guide is the first ever to deal with the extraordinarily diverse flora of Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, and adjacent areas. Cost: $75 (cloth); $45 (paper).

The second book, Neotropical Birds: Ecology and Conservation, by Douglas Stotz, John Fitzpatrick, Theodore Parker III, and Debra Moskovits, compiles for the first time data on all 4,037 bird species that live from Mexico to Tierra del Fuego. In nearly 300 pages of tables (also available in database format on disk) the authors provide detailed information including each species' geographic range, habitat use, foraging levels, relative abundance, and sensitivity to human disturbance. Essays highlight a variety of ecosystems and suggest priorities for conservation protection. Cost: $100 (cloth); $37.50 (paper).

To order, contact: University of Chicago Press, 5801 South Ellis Ave., Chicago, IL 60637; Tel.: (312) 702-7740.


JOB OPPORTUNITIES


Tropical Research & Development Inc., currently involved in the Bolivia Sustainable Forest Management Project (BOLFOR), is seeking a forest ecologist and a student scientif advisor. In close collaboration with other team members, the forest ecologist will conduct and supervise research activities related to the ecological basis for forest management and its consequences. Results will be disseminated in scientific journals. Candidate should have a Ph.D. in a related field and a demonstrated ability to publish in scientific journals. A verbal fluency in Spanish is required. The student scientific advisor, in collaboration with BOLFOR staff, will work with local thesis students to improve the quality of their research and writing and will assist in preparing their theses for publication. The position requires excellent technical writing skills and a high level of competence in scientific methods applied to experimental design in the field and statistical techniques in data analysis. Verbal and written fluency in Spanish is required.

For more information, contact Eddie Ellis, Tropical Research & Development, Inc., 7001 S.W. 24th Ave., Gainesville, FL 32607; Tel.: (352) 331-1886; Fax: (352) 331-3284; E-mail: ee@trd.com.


CURRENT LITERATURE


Adams, J. and Binder, G. 1996. Is sustainable use sustainable? CONSERVATION ISSUES 3(3): 1, 3-10.

Adler, T. 1996. Botanical cleanup crews. Science News 150(3): 42-43. (Plants tackle polluted water and air)

Ahmed, J. 1996. Forest programme in Pakistan. Arborvitae 3: 6. (Mangrove rehabilitation and forest policy)

Andrienko, T. 1996. Ukraine: diversity and flexibility in nature protection. Russian Conservation News 7: 6-7. (Protected areas cover 2.8%)

Anon. 1996. Biodiversity hotspots in Siberian forests identified. Arborvitae 3: 3. (Results of 1995 conference)

Anon. 1996. Last of the curlews. Nat. Wildlife 34(4): 57-59. (Eskimo curlews)

Anon. 1996. Latvian sustainable forest management project. Arborvitae 3: 7. (Forests occupy 42% of the land area)

Anon. 1996. New species discovered in Brazil. World Birdwatch 18(2): 2. (New genus, Stymphalornis acitirostris, of Parana coast threatened)

Anon. 1996. Purple patch for maroon-fronted parrots. World Birdwatch 18(2): 4. (El Taray Sanctuary reserve in Mexico preserves the largest known population of this species)

Anon. 1996. Thirty-six years of protection at national natural landmark. The Nature Conservancy News 20(2): 1. (Cranesville Swamp Nature Preserve, Maryland)

Anon. 1996. Threats to remaining Nigerian forest fragments. Arborvitae 3: 3. (Cross River National Park, containing 40% of Nigeria's remaining forest, threatened by logging)

Arora, R. 1995. Ethnobotanical studies on plant genetic resources - national efforts and concern. Ethnobotany 7(1 & 2): 125-136. (India)

Avise, J. and Hamrick, J. 1996. Conservation Genetics. Case Histories from Nature. Chapman & Hall, New York, New York. 512 pp.

Baker, B. 1996. A reverent approach to the natural world. BioScience 46(7): 475-478. (Religious organizations unite to improve enviromental protection)

Baker, B. 1996. Washington Watch: after a long wait, an environmental Farm Bill passes muster. BioScience 46(7): 486-487.

Beebee, T. 1996. Ecology and Conservation of Amphibians. Chapman & Hall, New York, New York. 208 pp. (Conservation Biology Series 7)

Birstein, V. 1996. Sturgeons may soon disappear from the Caspian Sea. Russian Conservation News 7: 15-16. (Sturgeon roe used for caviar)

Bogdanski, S. 1996. St. Petersburg Botanical Garden: vital link in conservation in northwest Russia. Russian Conservation News 7: 27-28.

Bohning-Gaese, K. and Bauer, H. 1996. Changes in species abundance, distribution, and diversity in a central European bird community. Conservation Biology 10(1): 175-187.

Boreiko, V. 1996. Promoting nature protection among indigenous peoples in Zapovedniki. Russian Conservation News 7: 22.

Boyle, R. 1996. Life - or death - for the Salton Sea? Smithsonian 27(3): 86-97. (Chemicals and salt threatening the fauna in California sea near Mexico border)

Burnes, K. 1996. Lake St. Lucia, South Africa. World Birdwatch 18(2): 6-7. (Largest estuarine system in Africa, home to many globally threatened birds)

Cavalcanti, C. 1996. Brazil's urban laboratory takes the strain. People and Planet 5(2): 16-17. (Curitiba)

Chavez-Ramirez, F., Hunt, H., Slack, R. and Stehn, T. 1996. Ecological correlates of whooping crane use of fire-treated upland habitats. Conservation Biology 10(1): 217-223. (Texas)

Chestin, I. 1996. Wildlife trade in the Central Asian states of the former Soviet Union. Russian Conservation News 7: 24-26.

Chun-lin, L. and Jieru, W. 1995. Ethnobotany of Jinuo nationality in Xishuangbanna, Southwest China: I. Edible plants. Ethnobotany 7(1 & 2): 39-50.

Cohen, P. 1996. Giant leap for California frog. New Scientist 150(2032): 5. (California red-legged frog listed as threatened)

Colborn, T., Dumanoski, D. and Myers, J. 1996. Our Stolen Future: Are We Threatening Our Fertility, Intelligence, and Survival? A Scientific Detective Story. Dutton Books, New York, New York. 306 pp.

Deharveng, L. 1996. Soil collembola diversity, endemism, and reforestation: a case study in the Pyrenees (France). Conservation Biology 10(1): 74-84.

Dowling, T., Minckley, W., Marsh, P. and Goldstein, E. 1996. Mitochondrial DNA variability in the endangered razorback sucker (Xyrauchen texanus): analysis of hatchery stocks and implications for captive propagation. Conservation Biology 10(1): 120-127. (Colorado, Utah)

Drayton, B. and Primack, R. 1996. Plant species lost in an isolated conservation area in metropolitan Boston from 1894 to 1993. Conservation Biology 10(1): 30-39.

Edwards, T., Deshler, E., Foster, D. and Moisen, G. 1996. Adequacy of wildlife habitat relation models for estimating spatial distributions of terrestrial vertebrates. Conservation Biology 10(1): 263-271.

Egan, T. 1996. Ailing national parks look to rescue, at a price. New York Times July 7: 1, 13. (Corporate sponsors of parks to offset debts)

Essetti, I. and Ayache, F. 1996. Protecting birds of Tunisia. World Birdwatch 18(2): 16-19.

Frederick, P., Bildstein, K., Fleury, B. and Ogden, J. 1996. Conservation of large, nomadic populations of white ibises (Eudocimus albus) in the United States. Conservation Biology 10(1): 203-216.

Fundacion Programas de Asentamientos Humanos. 1995. El Oso Jukumari en La Region de Lambate. Hacia la Creacion de una Unidad de Conservacion. Instituto Cientifica "Alaxa Pacha", Pando, Bolivia. 38 pp.

Gaston, K. (Ed). 1996. Biodiversity: A Biology of Numbers and Difference. Blackwell Science, Cambridge, Massachusetts. 432 pp.

Gentry, A. 1996. A Field Guide to the Families and Genera of Woody Plants of Northwest South America (Colombia, Ecuador, Peru) with Supplementary Notes on Herbaceous Taxa. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, Illinois. 918 pp. (New edition of the first printing, but size reduced for field use)

Goering, L. 1996. Rain forest residents sue Texaco. Washington Post July 16: A16. (Ecuador's Amazon region)

Hagan, J., Van der Haegen, M. and McKinley, P. 1996. The early development of forest fragmentation effects on birds. Conservation Biology 10(1): 188-202.

Higgs, D. 1996. The clawback. BBC Wildlife 14(6): 74- 80. (Siberian tiger)

Hinrichsen, D. 1996. The world's water woes. Int. Wildlife 26(4): 22-27. (Pollution, population and waste threaten water supplies)

Homewood, B. 1996. "Piracy" law leaves Brazil open to exploitation. New Scientist 150(2032): 7. (Patent law)

Hudson, E. 1996. Living off the land, sort of. Washington Post July 6: A3. (Economic plants in Chihuahuan Desert)

Hummel, M. and Hackman, A. 1996. Defending Canada's endangered species. Arborvitae 3: 15. (Campaign for establishing protected areas)

Ibanez, C. 1996. Mediterranean wetlands. World Birdwatch 18(2): 12-14.

Jain, S. 1995. Ethnobotany diversity of zingibers of India. Ethnobotany 7(1 & 2): 83-87.

Jain, S., Fernandes, V., Lata, S. and Ayub, A. 1995. Indo- Amazonian ethnobotanic connections - similar uses of some common plants. Ethnobotany 7(1 & 2): 29-38.

Jaksic, F., Feinsinger, P. and Jimenez, J. 1996. Ecological redundancy and long-term dynamics of vertebrate predators in semiarid Chile. Conservation Biology 10(1): 252-262.

Jenkins, P. 1996. Free trade and exotic species introductions. Conservation Biology 10(1): 300-302.

Jones, S. 1996. Forest restoration in the Eritrean highlands. Arborvitae 3: 12. (Africa)

Kennedy, E. and White, D. 1996. Interference competition from house wrens as a factor in the decline of Bewick's wrens. Conservation Biology 10(1): 281-284.

Kenworthy, T. 1996. Atop canopy, explorers open a new frontier. Washington Post June 17: A3. (Wind River Canopy Crane, Washington)

Lammertink, M. 1996. The lost empire of the imperial woodpecker. World Birdwatch 18(2): 8-11. (Sierra Madre Occidental, Mexico)

Langholz, J. 1996. Economics, objectives, and success of private nature reserves in Sub-Saharan Africa and Latin America. Conservation Biology 10(1): 271-280.

Legge, J., Roush, R., Desalle, R., Vogler, A. and May, B. 1996. Genetic criteria for establishing evolutionarily significant units in Cryan's buckmoth. Conservation Biology 10(1): 85-98. (New York/Canada)

Levin, D., Francisco-Ortega, J. and Jansen, R. 1996. Hybridization and the extinction of rare plant species. Conservation Biology 10(1): 10-16.

Lewis, D. 1996. Indians set to lose forest lands. BBC Wildlife 14(6): 71. (New decree gives loggers, ranchers powers to exploit the Amazon)

Linden, E. 1996. Global fever. Time Magazine July 8: 56-57. (climate change)

Lindenmayer, D. and Possingham, H. 1996. Ranking conservation and timber management options for Leadbeater's possum in southeastern Australia using population viability analysis. Conservation Biology 10(1): 235-251.

Line, L. 1996. Giants of the eagle kind. Int. Wildlife 26(4): 28-27.

Listopad, O. 1996. The riches of Ukraine. Russian Conservation News 7: 7. (30,000 species of plants; 45,000 species of animals)

Luchkov, A. 1996. The protected areas network continues to grow in Belarus. Russian Conservation News 7: 5.

Majer, J. and Beeston, G. 1996. The Biodiversity Integrity Index: an illustration using ants in western Australia. Conservation Biology 10(1): 65-73.

Manandhar, N. 1995. Ethnobotanical notes on unexploited wild food plants of Nepal. Ethnobotany 7(1 & 2): 95-102.

Manning, R., Lime, D. and Hof, M. 1996. Social carrying capacity of natural areas: theory and application in the U.S. national parks. Nat. Areas J. 16(2): 118-127.

Mansur, E. 1996. PROBANA: a native Andean forest programme. Arborvitae 3: 6. (Bolivia and Ecuador)

Marks, J. 1996. Red data bird: bristle-thighed curlew. World Birdwatch 18(2): 20-21. (Tahiti)

McAllister, B. 1996. Maine's voters might ax clear-cutting by loggers. Washington Post July 14: A3. (Referendum to ban clear-cutting of forests)

McAllister, D. 1995. Status of the the World Ocean and its biodiversity. Sea Wind 9(2): 1-72. (Earth's oceans and connected seas (World Ocean) cover 71% of the planet)

McClanahan, T., Kamukuru, A., Muthiga, N., Yebio, M. and Obura, D. 1996. Effect of sea urchin reductions on algae, coral, and fish populations. Conservation Biology 10(1): 136-154. (Kenya)

McCracken, K. 1996. Saving the skittish Eld's deer. Zoogoer 25(3): 24-26. (Endangered)

Meiyue, Z. 1996. IVF project stirs debate over how to preserve pandas. Science 272(5268): 1580-1581. (In vitro fertilization)

Modde, T., Burnham, K. and Wick, E. 1996. Population status of the razorback sucker in the Middle Green River (U.S.A.). Conservation Biology 10(1): 110-119. (Endangered; Wyoming, Colorado, Utah)

Monks, V. 1996. The beauty of wetlands. Nat. Wildlife 34(4): 20-27. (USA)

Morell, V. 1996. Surrounded! Int. Wildlife 26(4): 38- 45. (Nairobi National Park)

Mortimer, R., Sharp, B. and Craig, J. 1996. Assessing the conservation value of New Zealand's offshore islands. Conservation Biology 10(1): 25-29.

Neuwinger, H-D 1996. African Ethnobotany. Poisons and Drugs. Chapman & Hall, Weinheim, Germany. 850 pp.

Ng, P. (Ed). 1995. A Guide to the Threatened Animals of Singapore. Singapore Science Centre, Singapore. 160 pp. (10% of the mammals, 23% of the birds, and 30% of the freshwater fishes originally found on the island are now extinct)

O'Brien, T. and Kinnaird, M. 1996. Effect of harvest on leaf development of the Asian palm Livistona rotundifolia. Conservation Biology 10(1): 53-58.

Oliver, I. and Beattie, A. 1996. Invertebrate morphospecies as surrogates for species: a case study. Conservation Biology 10(1): 99-109.

Oviedo, G. and Dudley, N. 1996. A viable protected areas network. Arborvitae 3: 8-9. (WWF and IUCN set targets to establish at least 10% of the world's forests in protected areas)

Pastakia, M. 1996. Saving the Pantanal. People and Plants 5(2): 28. (Plan to build a waterway across Brazilian wetland modified)

Powell, R., Zimmerman, J., Seaman, D. and Gilliam, J. 1996. Demographic analyses of a hunted black bear population with access to a refuge. Conservation Biology 10(1): 224-234. (Pisgah National Forest, North Carolina)

Pye-Smith, C. 1996. Buildling green islands in Bombay. People and Planet 5(2): 20-21. (Mahim Nature Park)

Quattro, J., Leberg, P., Douglas, M. and Vrijenhoek, R. 1996. Molecular evidence for a unique evolutionary lineage of endangered Sonoran Desert fishes. Conservation Biology 10(1): 128-135. (Arizona, Mexico)

Rasmusson, U. 1996. Breakthrough for conservation in an Amazonian state. Arborvitae 3: 4. (One million hectares of extractive reserves for rubber tappers have been legalized in Rondonia)

Ratsirarson, J., Silander, J. and Richard, A. 1996. Conservation and management of a threatened Madagascar palm species, Neodypsis decaryi, Jumelle. Conservation Biology 10(1): 40-52.

Robinson, S. 1996. Nest gains, nest losses. Nat. History 105(7): 40-47, 59. (Loss of songbirds in Illinois to predators which thrive in fragmented woodlands)

Sahoo, A. and Mudgal, V. 1995. Less known ethnobotanical uses of plants of Phulbani District, Orissa, India. Ethnobotany 7(1 & 2): 51-62.

Shoshany, M., Kutiel, P. and Lavee, H. 1996. Monitoring temporal vegetation cover changes in Mediterranean and arid ecosystems using remote sensing technique: case study of the Judean mountain and Judean Desert. J. Arid Environments 33(1): 9-22.

Silver, W., Brown, S. and Lugo, A. 1996. Effects of changes in biodiversity on ecosystem function in tropical forests. Conservation Biology 10(1): 17-24.

Stokes, T., Hulsman, K., Ogilvie, P. and O'Neill, P. 1996. Management of human visitation to seabird islands of the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park region. Corelia 20(1): 1-13. (Australia)

Stotz, D., Fitzpatrick, J., Parker, T. and Moskovits, D. 1996. Neotropical Birds. Ecology and Conservation. Chicago University Press, Chicago, Illinois. 478 pp.

Sutherst, R., Floyd, R. and Maywald, G. 1996. The potential geographical distribution of the cane toad, Bufo marinus L. in Australia. Conservation Biology 10(1): 294-299.

Swart, J., Reijnders, P. and Van Delden, W. 1996. Absence of genetic variation in harbor seals (Phoca vitulina) in the Dutch Wadden Sea and the British Wash. Conservation Biology 10(1): 289-293.

Tan, H. (Ed). 1995. A Guide to the Threatened Plants of Singapore. Singapore Science Centre, Singapore. 158 pp. (2,041 species)

Thomas, T. and Carey, A. 1996. Endangered, threatened, and sensitive plants of Fort Lewis, Washington: distribution, mapping, and management recommendations for species conservation. Northwest Science 70(2): 148-163. (20 plants listed)

Tickell, O. 1996. Oil prospectors pose threat to Amazon's ancient tribe. New Scientist 150(2032): 12. (Mobil Oil in Peru)

Tickell, O. 1996. World Bank battles with World Bank over Laos. BBC Wildlife 14(6): 70. (Nakei Plateau, Laos biodiversity hotspot)

Trujillo, F. 1996. Seeing fins. BBC Wildlife 14(6): 22-28. (Amazon River dolphins)

Vasiliev, V. and Gauzer, M. 1996. Waterfowl wintering grounds on the Eastern Caspian in danger. Russian Conservation News 7: 13-14.

Veinberg, P., Fedosenko, A. and Valdes, R. 1996. On the population status of markhor in the western Kugitang area of Turkmenistan. Russian Conservation News 7: 31-32. (Threatened by trophy hunting)

Vihari, V. 1995. Ethnobotany of cosmetics of Indo-Nepal border. Ethnobotany 7(1 & 2): 89-94.

Waas, P. (Ed). 1996. Kenya's Indigenous Forests - Status, Management and Conservation. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland. Wagner, W. L. 1996. Scaveola hobdyi (Goodeniaceae), an enigmatic new species from west Maui, Hawaiian Islands. NOVON 6(2): 225-227.

Washitani, I. 1996. Predicted genetic consequences of strong fertility selection due to pollinator loss in an isolated population of Primula sieboldii. Conservation Biology 10(1): 59-64. (Endangered species)

Williams, M. 1996. Last stand for Manchurian forests. BBC Wildlife 14(6): 68. (China plans to exploit last two areas of primeval forest in the Da Hinggan Mountains of Inner Mongolia)

Williams, P., Gibbons, D., Margules, C., Rebelo, A., Humphries, C. and Pressey, R. 1996. A comparison of richness hotspots, rarity hotspots, and complementary areas for conserving the diversity of British birds. Conservation Biology 10(1): 155-174.

Yahner, R. and Mahan, C. 1996. Depredation of artificial ground nests in a managed, forested landscape. Conservation Biology 10(1): 285-288. (Pennsylvania)

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