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Department ofBotany



No. 167
May 1997


Editor: Jane Villa-Lobos


CENTRES OF PLANT DIVERSITY VOLUME 3 THE AMERICAS


The third volume of Centres of Plant Diversity (CPD): A Guide and Strategy for Their Conservation has just been published by WWF and IUCN. This volume, dealing with the Americas, was prepared (with the exception of the Caribbean) under the coordination of the Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany. Of the total 234 sites in the three-volume work, Volume 3 contains 6 sites in North America, 20 in Middle America, 46 in South America, and three in the Caribbean. The sites have been selected partly on the basis of floristic studies, but especially with reference to the detailed knowledge of over 100 botanists familiar with this region. The Data Sheet for each site is set within a regional context, outlining wider patterns of plant distributions, threats and conservation efforts. Additional sites are mentioned in each of the regional overviews.

The introduction to each volume includes very useful tables giving information on species richness and endemism, floristic diversity and endemism by region, degree of threat to CPD sites, and an analysis of the conservation status of CPD sites. The rationale for the ten-year project is the concern about the rapid global loss and degradation of natural ecosystems and the urgent need to highlight areas of pristine botanical importance, with the hope that these will receive adequate levels of resources to ensure their protection.

This work will be essential reading for all those concerned with planning land use strategies for conservation and appropriate development. It is WWF and IUCN's hope that this global assessment will be followed by further assessments at the local level, so that the vital tasks of conservation of plant diversity can be well integrated in detail into national and regional conservation and development strategies.

The other volumes include: Volume 1 (Europe, the Atlantic Islands, Africa and the islands of the Western Indian Ocean) and Volume 2 (rest of Asia, Australasia and the Pacific Islands). If ordering from the U.S. and Canada, Centres of Plant Diversity can be purchased from Island Press, Box 7, 24850 East Lane, Covelo, CA 95428; Tel.: (800) 828-1302; Fax: (707) 983-6414; E- mail: ipwest@igc.apc.org. Or from other countries through IUCN Publications Services Unit, 219c Huntingdon Road, Cambridge CB3 0DL, UK; Tel.: (44) 1223 277894; Fax: (44) 1223 277175; E-mail: iucn-psu@wcmc.org.uk.


TROPICAL RAIN FOREST SEMESTER ABROAD


The University of Costa Rica in San Jose offers Biological and Environmental Science courses uniquely designed to suit the needs of English speaking undergraduate students. Fall, Spring and Summer semesters are available. The three-month semester course includes tropical ecology (4 hours), natural history of Costa Rica (4 hours), biological diversity/conservation (4 hours) and Spanish (4 hours). Together with extensive field trips, this program will provide students with a broad understanding of the diverse tropical forests of Costa Rica. Costa Rica provides the perfect outdoor classroom that creates the ideal atmosphere for training young biologists in the science of tropical biology. In spite of the fact that Costa Rica is only 0.03% of the world's land surface, it contains nearly 5% of the world's terrestrial biodiversity. In addition, Costa Rica contains one of the best studied tropical ecosystems in the world. Students will have the unique opportunity to visit and conduct field research in a variety of locations throughout the country.

Students will have a private room with a Costa Rican family within close proximity to the university. The family will provide breakfast, dinner and laundry service. Lunch can be arranged for a fee through the university cafeteria or other dining options. The cost for each semester will include: tuition and fees; textbooks and academic supplies; room and board with a Costa Rican family; extensive field trips; and professional staff on call.

For more information, contact: World Class Adventures in Education, 1300 Post Oak Blvd., Suite 1750, Houston, TX 77056; Tel.: (713) 961-3836; Fax: (713) 621-9545.


CONSERVATION GRANTS


The BP Programme supports undergraduate projects with a long term impact on biodiversity conservation, investigating threatened animals, plants and habitats. All projects applying to the Programme must address a conservation issue of global importance, have a high degree of host country involvement (locals participating in field work and preferably in planning and in report writing), and the majority of team members must be undergraduates. Each year four prizes are given to the best projects in four categories: 1) globally threatened species, 2) oceanic islands and marine habitats, 3) tropical forest and wetlands, and 4) grasslands, savannas and deserts. This year an additional award will be given to work in coral reefs.

For information, contact: Katherine Gotto, Expeditions Officer, BirdLife International, Wellbrook Court, Girton Road, Cambridge CB3 0NA, UK; Tel.: (44) 1223 277318; Fax: (44) 1223 277200; E-mail: katherine.gotto@birdlife.org.uk.


BIOPOLICY JOURNAL ONLINE


With the coming into force of the Convention on Biological Diversity and the growing policy needs and public interest in many areas of the biological and environmental sciences, there is a need for a globally available, low cost mechanism to distribute authoritative papers on biopolicy.

This online Biopolicy journal is a vehicle for contributions on all aspects of policy regarding national programs and their international impact, as well as on institutional procedures, national and international law, discussions on access, technology transfer, benefit sharing, economic, social and community impact, on relationships with the industrial sector, funding requirements, educational needs and scientific research priorities. Biopolicy accepts text, images and videos. Papers are distributed through the World Wide Web. The aim and scope of the journal and the instructions for authors are available online at http://www.bdt.org.br/biolone/py. E-mail: biopol@biostrat.demon.co.uk, or by writing Biopolicy, Stainfield House, Stainfield, Bourne, Lincs, UK, PE10 0RS.


INFORMATION HIGHWAY HI-LITES


The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service now has a new International Affairs Home Page where you can find updated information on CITES, including CITES resolutions, information on permits, fact sheets, etc. It can be found at http://www.fws.gov.

The Native Plant Conservation Initiative (NPCI) appears on the World Wide Web at http://www.aqd.nps.gov/natnet/npci. The NPCI is a consortium of nine federal government member agencies and nearly 60 non-federal cooperators representing various disciplines within the conservation field: biologists, botanists, habitat preservationists, horticulturists, resource management consultants, soil scientists, special interest clubs, non-profit organizations, concerned citizens, nature lovers, and gardeners. NPCI members and cooperators work collectively to solve the problems of native plant extinction and native habitat restoration, ensuring the preservation of our ecosystem. This web site is a great source of information for educators and conservationists.


NEW PUBLICATIONS


Botanic Gardens Conservation International announces the publication, Botanic Gardens in a Changing World, the proceedings of the Third International Botanic Gardens Conservation Congress which was held in Rio de Janeiro in October 1992. The proceedings are available on diskette in Microsoft Word 6. As well as the individual conference papers, the diskette contains the general conference report, workshop reports, a preface, a contents list, and list of contributors and their current addresses. To order the diskette copy, contact: The Publications Department, Botanic Gardens Conservation International, Descanso House, 199 Kew Road, Richmond, Surrey, TW9 3BW, UK.

Sacred Earth Network has recently published the fourth edition of its popular Directory of Environmental Electronic Mail Users in Eurasia, containing over 400 e-mail users in the region and in-depth profiles of 160 NGOs. To order a copy, send $20 to: Sacred Earth Network, E-mail Directory Orders, 267 East St., Petersham, MA 01366.


JOB OPPORTUNITIES


WWF International is looking for a regional director for its Africa and Madagascar Program. The regional director will be a committed conservationist, with a proven track record in managing large, multi-donor programs. The candidate will assume responsibility for the Regional Program for Africa and Madagascar and supervise and guide the work of a highly competent team of headquarters and decentralized, field-based staff. Qualifications include: 1) a minimum of 10 years experience in either the conservation, natural resource management or development sectors in Africa or Madagascar; 2) a minimum of 5 years experience and a proven track record in managing and fund raising for a large, multi-donor programs; 3) excellent human resource management skills; 4) excellent presentation and communications skills in both English and French; 5) a willingness to travel frequently within Africa and to other international destinations; and 6) a good understanding and experience of species conservation, protected areas management and community-based natural resource management.

Interested candidates should send a covering letter with their CV to Ms. Effie Blanchard, WWF International, Avenue du Mont Blanc, 1196 Gland, Switzerland by 20 June 1997.

A federal interagency effort to provide information on all North American flora and fauna on the World Wide Web is hiring full and part time individuals to assist in data preparation. The Interagency Taxonomic Information Systems (ITIS) is a database of the current names and classifications of all biota. ITIS provides for the first time a standardized source of information on the scientific names and synonyms, common names, and the origin and general distribution of biological species in the United States and adjacent waters. You can find out more information at http://www.itis.usda.gov/itis/.

Requirements for the positions: B.S. in biological science or related field; experience using a variety of computer applications, particularly databases, spread sheets, programming experience would be helpful. The work will be at the Smithsonian's Natural History Museum, and consist of creation, manipulation and proofing of digital files using ITIS software and MS-Access. Additional responsibilities include library research on taxonomic issues and interaction with research taxonomists. Candidates must have excellent communications skills and be able to work independently a minimum of 20 hours per week. Work is temporary, without benefits and salary will range between $10 - $14 per hour.

Interested individuals should contact Barbara Lambourne at: Tel.: (202) 260-3643; Fax: (202) 786-2934; E-mail: lambourne.barbara@epamail.epa.gov.


FUTURE MEETINGS


June 23-27. The First Congress of the Mesoamerican Society for Biology and Conservation will take place at the National Autonomous University of Honduras, Tegucigalpa. The program will include symposia and workshops on: Mesoamerican amphibian population declines; funding sources and mechanisms for conservation projects; conservation corridors, incorporating subsistence hunting and sustainable yields in wildlife management; and ecology and sustainable management of migratory and resident wetland birds in southern Honduras.

For more information, contact Gerardo Borjas, Coordinator, Apdo. 30-357, Toncontin, Tegucigalpa, M D C, Honduras; Tel.: (504) 33-9576; E-mail: gborjas@ns.unah.hondunet.net. or visit the Web site at http://iris.biosci.ohio- state.edu/borror/mesoamericana.html.

June 23-27. The Australian Network for Plant Conservation's third national conference will be held in Coffs Harbour, New South Wales. The conference will provide an opportunity for practitioners and others in the plant conservation community to exchange ideas and experiences. For more information about conference registration, contact Josephine Hatte or Julie Burton, Norsearch Conference Services, P.O. Box 157, Lismore, NSW 2480 Australia; Tel.: (61) 66 203 932; Fax: (61) 66 221 954; E-mail: jburton@scu.edu.au or jhatte@scu.edu.au.

August 3-7. The 48th Annual Meeting of the American Institute of Biological Sciences will be held in Montreal, Canada and its theme will be "Biodiversity: Global Issues". Many symposia and sessions are planned, such as ecology, economic botany, treaching and genetics. For more information contact AIBS Headquarters, 1444 Eye Street, Suite 200, Washington, DC 20005; Tel: (202) 628-1500; Fax: (202) 628-1509; Web site: http://www.reston.com/aibs.


CURRENT LITERATURE


Adibi, J. 1997. Scientists join efforts to reduce dioxin peril. Surviving Together 15(1): 20-21. (Russia/USA)

Alfarhan, A. and Ghazanafar, S. 1997. Conservation of medicinal plants on the Arabian Penisula: two case studies. Medicinal Plant Conservation 3: 15-16. (Salvadora persica and Glycyrrhiza glabra var. glandulifera)

Andreev, A. 1997. Protecting our little ones: rare and endangered insects in Moldova. Russian Conservation News 10: 35-36.

Andrews, L. 1997. Partnering with the Army in Georgia. End. Species Bull. 22(1): 24-25. (Management of endangered species)

Anon. 1997. The 50-year war on the Everglades. New York Times April 20(Editorials): E14. (Florida)

Anon. 1997. Agreement set to save Colorado's Windstar Valley. National Wildlife 35(3): 64.

Anon. 1997. Cat's claw - a curiosity or cure-all? TRAFFIC Bull. 16(3): 87. (Uncaria tomentosa of Central and South America used as an anti-inflammatory by Ashaninka Indians in Peru)

Anon. 1997. Conservation spotlight: African wild dogs. End. Species UPDATE 14(1 & 2): 11.

Anon. 1997. Endangered ferrets making a comeback in four states. National Wildlife 35(3): 63-67. (Wyoming, Montana, South Dakota, and Arizona)

Anon. 1997. Governors Symington and Beltrones endorse biosphere reserve agreement. U.S. MAB Bull. 21(1): 1, 6. (Sonoran Desert Biosphere Reserve Network)

Anon. 1997. A last-ditch effort to save a rare bog. Washington Post April 5: F1. (Piney Branch Bog, Maryland)

Atay, S. 1997. A survey of the medicinal plants trade in Turkey. Medicinal Plant Conservation 3: 9.

Baker, D. 1997. USDA's latest weapon has a nose for noxious weeds. Washington Post April 26: A3. (Snout weevil, imported from Australia, released in the Everglades to combat melaleuca trees which threaten more than 7 million acres of wetlands)

Balogh, G. 1997. Secret life of the spectacled eider. National Wildlife 35(3): 36-39. (Threatened duck in Alaska)

Bebb, S. 1997. Conserving species at Fort Bragg. End. Species Bull. 22(1): 13. (North Carolina)

Bergesen, H. and Parman, G. (Eds). 1997. Green Globe Yearbook 1997. Oxford University Press, New York, New York. 350 pp. (Yearbook of International Cooperation on Environment and Development)

Bloock, A. 1997. TRAFFIC Europe Project on the exploitation of indigenous European medicinal plants. Medicinal Plant Conservation 3: 8-9.

Boice, L. 1997. Defending our nation and its biodiversity. End. Species Bull. 22(1): 4-5. (220 federally listed species inhabit Dept. of Defense lands)

Bokov, V. 1997. Crimea's environment: exploited under Soviets, neglected during transition. Surviving Together 15(1): 44-46.

Booth, W. 1997. Developers wish rare fly would buzz off. Washington Post April 4: A1, A10. (Delhi Sands flower- loving fly habitat in California)

Bradley, J. and Caspers, J. 1997. Meeting the crucible challenge. End. Species Bull. 22(1): 10-11. (Marine Corps constructs training facilities in California to minimize effects on rare wildlife)

Brosseau, L. 1997. Marines' new plan for Camp Pendleton. End. Species Bull. 22(1): 12. (Plan to minimize disruption to imperiled California species)

Buitron, X. 1997. 1996-1997: key years for the conservation of big-leaved mahogany. TRAFFIC Bull. 16(3): 89. (Brazil)

Buzurukov, A. and Gunya, A. 1997. Tajikistan's Yagnob Valley at critical juncture. Surviving Together 15(1): 25-27. (Creation of a Yagnob Natural and Ethnographic Park)

Case, A. 1997. Taking action to help the Volga. Surviving Together 15(1): 19. (Russia)

Clemmons, J. and Buchholz, R. 1997. Behavioral Approaches to Conservation in the Wild. Cambridge University Press, New York, New York. 312 pp.

Crystal, H. 1997. The elimination of the Category 2 Candidate Species List: a prescription for environmental train wrecks. End. Species UPDATE 14(1 & 2): 7-8, 14. (USA)

Cunningham, A. 1997. Identification guide for Prunus africana: bark and products in international trade. Medicinal Plant Conservation 3: 18-20.

Cunningham, A. 1997. The "Top 50" listings and the Medicinal Plants Action Plan. Medicinal Plant Conservation 3: 5-7.

Dennis, F. 1997. UK medicinal plant trade study. Medicinal Plant Conservation 3: 9.

Duke, N., Pinzon, Z. and Prada, M. 1997. Large-scale damage to mangrove forests following two large oil spills in Panama. Biotropica 29(1): 2-14.

Duke, S. 1997. Kootenai River white sturgeon recovery plan. End. Species Bull. 22(1): 28-29. (Idaho and Montana)

Ford, J. 1997. Success! Russian Conservation News 10: 8-10. (Lake Baikal and the Volcanoes of Kamchatka added to the list of the world's most valuable natural areas)

Forget, P. M. 1997. Ten-year seedling dynamics in Vouacapoua americana in French Guiana: a hypothesis. Biotropica 29(1): 124-126.

Greyer, G. and Niering, W. (Eds). 1997. Tidal Marshes of Long Island Sound: Ecology, History and Restoration. Connecticut College, New London, Connecticut. 71 pp.

Guariguata, M. and Dupuy, J. 1997. Forest regeneration in abandoned logging roads in lowland Costa Rica. Biotropica 29(1): 15-28.

Hardesty, J. and Kindell, C. 1997. Conserving ecosystems at Eglin AFB. End. Species Bull. 22(1): 8-9. (Florida Panhandle)

Harrison, P. 1997. Caring for the future. People & the Planet 6(1): i-iv. (New agenda for sustainable improvement in the quality of life)

Hidayat, S. 1997. Medicinal plant conservation activities at Bogor Botanic Garden, Indonesia. Medicinal Plant Conservation 3: 12-13.

Hong-Jen, C. 1997. Strategies for regulating medicinal use of protected animals in Taiwan. TRAFFIC Bull. 16(3): 117- 120.

Jaka, C. 1997. Agricultural biodiversity issues take center stage at CBD. DIVERSITY 12(4): 22-25. (Bioprospecting and genebank holdings)

Jaka, C. 1997. Fifth global biodiversity forum sends message to COP-3 on needs and rights of indigenous peoples. DIVERSITY 12(4): 26-27.

Jaka, C. 1997. Indigenous peoples' concerns dominate COP-3 deliberations. DIVERSITY 12(4): 27-28.

Jennings, M. 1997. Basic training for ferrets. End. Species Bull. 22(1): 14-15. (Captive-reared)

Kasparek, M., Groeger, A. and Schippmann, U. 1996. Directory for Medicinal Plants Conservation. Networks, Organizations, Projects, Information Sources. German Federal Agency for Nature Conservation and IUCN/SSC Medicinal Plant Specialist Group, Bonn, Germany. 156 pp.

Keating, M. (Ed). 1997. Canada and the State of the Planet. Oxford University Press, New York, New York. 100 pp.

Khabibrakhmanov, R. 1997. Kazakhstan's revolution in conservation. Russian Conservation News 10: 7-8.

Kramers, R., van Schaik, C. and Johnson, J. (Eds). 1997. Last Stand. Protected Areas and the Defense of Tropical Biodiversity. Oxford University Press, New York, New York. 240 pp.

Lange, D. 1997. Trade figures for botanical drugs world- wide. Medicinal Plant Conservation 3: 16-17.

Lange, D. 1997. Trade in botanical drugs in Bulgaria. Medicinal Plant Conservation 3: 13-14.

Line, L. 1997. Twilight of America's grasslands. National Wildlife 35(3): 20-29. (Grassland bird species disappearing as fast as the prairies)

Lukarevski, V. 1997. The past, present and future of the North Persian leopard. Russian Conservation News 10: 36- 37.

Lutyens, M. 1997. Green to the corps. Surviving Together 15(1): 16-18. (Environmental volunteers in the Russian Far East)

Macklin, J. (Compiler). 1995/96. Hawaiian Plant Conservation & Management Directory. Center for Plant Conservation-Hawaii, Honolulu, Hawaii. 91 pp.

Maranto, G. 1997. In nature vs. nature, nature may not win. New York Times April 27: E6. (Invasive species)

Marinho-Filho, J. 1996. Distribution of bat diversity in the southern and southeastern Brazilian Atlantic Forest. Chiroptera Neotropical 2(2): 51-54.

Marshall, N. 1997. First formal MPSG meeting held on 5 September 1996, Nairobi, Kenya. Medicinal Plant Conservation 3: 3-5.

Mehra, R., Alcott, M. and Baling, N. 1996. Women and mangroves: an experiment in conservation and income. Intercoast Network 28: 9-10. (Cogtong Bay Mangrove Management Project, Philippines)

Merritt, T. and Bingham, B. 1997. Engineering a partnership. End. Species Bull. 22(1): 18-19. (Arnold Engineering Development Center, Tennessee)

Mikhalenko, E. 1997. Update on the biodiversity conservation project. Russian Conservation News 10: 19.

Milliken, T. 1997. The status of ivory stocks in Africa 1990-1996. TRAFFIC Bull. 16(3): 93-106.

Mills, J., Kang, T., S. Lee, K., Parry-Jones, R. and Phipps, M. 1997. New information on East Asia's market for bear gall bladders. TRAFFIC Bull. 16(3): 107-112.

Mukhina, E. 1997. One of the rarest. Russian Conservation News 10: 34. (Siberian crane)

Mukhina, E. and Kreuzberg, A. 1997. Priorities in rare species conservation in Central Asia. Russian Conservation News 10: 32-33.

Murashko, O. 1997. Indigenous peoples of the Russian North, Siberia, and the Far East. Russian Conservation News 10: 40-41.

O'Connell, M. and Johnson, S. 1997. Improving habitat conservation planning: the California natural community conservation model. End. Species UPDATE 14(1 & 2): 1-3, 14.

Pazhenkov, A. 1997. A crucial node in the nature conservation network. Russian Conservation News 10: 30-31. (Baytugan Biostation, local NGO, focuses on biodiversity conservation and sustainable development)

Pedevillano, C. 1997. Stalking the snow leopard's haunts. Surviving Together 15(1): 14-16. (Aksu Zakaznik, Eurasia)

Pokrovskaya, I. 1997. Why protected natural territories and indigenous peoples need each other. Russian Conservation News 10: 38-39.

Rankin, B. 1997. On the track of the monarch butterfly. National Wildlife 35(3): 46-51. (Mexico)

Rees, M. 1997. Restoring steppe populations in Mongolia: a success story, so far. Russian Conservation News 10: 16- 18. (Captive breeding in Russia)

Reid, J. 1997. Navy tracks manatees with satellites. End. Species Bull. 22(1): 22-23.

Rigg, K. 1996. Code of conduct to protect Europe's coasts. Intercoast Network 28: 13.

Ripley, J. and Leslie, M. 1997. Defense Department's Biodiversity Initiative. End. Species Bull. 22(1): 6-7. (Strategy for managing biodiversity on US military lands)

Robbins, C. 1997. Hydrastis canadensis - a candidate for CITES Appendix II. Medicinal Plant Conservation 3: 20- 21. (Goldenseal)

Robbins, C. 1997. US medicinal plant trade studies. TRAFFIC Bull. 16(3): 121-125.

Rozdina, O. 1997. Cranes get a helping hand. Russian Conservation News 10: 14-16. (Captive breeding in Russia)

Safina, C. and Lee, M. 1997. A storm is brewing over our oceans. Zoogoer 26(2): 18-22. (Destruction of ocean life)

Schippmann, U. (Compiler). 1997. Medicinal Plant Conservation Bibliography. Volume 1 . IUCN/SSC Medicinal Plant Specialist Group, Bonn, Germany. 61 pp.

Sharma, A. 1997. In-situ conservation of medicinal plants in the Thar Desert of India. Medicinal Plant Conservation 3: 10.

Sherfy, M. 1997. Working together for a sumac recovery. End. Species Bull. 22(1): 20-21. (Michaux's sumac in Georgia and North Carolina)

Shogren, J. 1997. Economics and the Endangered Species Act. End. Species UPDATE 14(1 & 2): 4-6.

Shukurov, E., Doemke, S., von der Ohe, S., Knapp, H. and Hoffman, S. 1997. The Tengir Too Biosphere Reserve Project. Russian Conservation News 10: 5-6.

Simon, B. 1997. Working with the Navy in San Diego. End. Species Bull. 22(1): 26-27. (Management of endangered species)

Tandon, V. 1997. Second CAMP workshop in southern India. Medicinal Plant Conservation 3: 10-12. (Assessment of 44 selected species)

Tolson, P. and Garcia, M. 1997. AZA species survival plan profile: The Mona/Virgin Islands boa. End. Species UPDATE 14(1 & 2): 9-10.

Tyler, H. 1997. NAA international workshop explores South American biodiversity. Natural Areas News 1(3): 1-3. (Nature reserves and protected areas in Ecuador)

Van Putten, M. 1997. Restoring an important part of America's heritage. National Wildlife 35(3): 19. (Buffalo in the American West)

Walter, S. 1997. The situation of Prunus africana in Madagascar. Medicinal Plant Conservation 3: 14-15.

Wexler, M. 1997. Rare garden in the realm of the gods. National Wildlife 35(3): 40-45. (Pu'u Kukui watershed, home to 12 of Hawaii's native plant communities)

Wiget, A. and Balalaeva, O. 1997. Saving Siberia's Khanty from oil development. Surviving Together 15(1): 22-25. (Proposed biosphere reserve would protect a threatened culture)

Wilder, T. 1997. Of wings and warriors. End. Species Bull. 22(1): 16-17. (Rare Karner blue butterfly at Fort McCoy, Wisconsin)

Young, S. (Ed). 1997. New York Rare Plant Status List. New York State Department of Environmental Conservation, Latham, New York. 83 pp.

Zinoviev, A. 1997. The filtering fields of Tver: a unique example of human-induced avian diversity. Russian Conservation News 10: 20-21.

Zuberi, M. 1997. Herbalist network in Bangladesh. Medicinal Plant Conservation 3: 9-10.

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