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Department ofBotany



No. 170
August 1997


Editor: Jane Villa-Lobos


BOTANICAL ENDOWMENT AT SMITHSONIAN


The Department of Botany, National Museum of Natural History (NMNH), Smithsonian Institution is pleased to announce the establishment of the Jose Cuatrecasas Botanical Fund. This new international endowment honors the lifelong botanical work of Dr. Jose Cuatrecasas, a pioneering botanist. His research, especially in the flowering plant family Asteraceae, was devoted to the classification, biogeography, exploration, and ecology of plants of the paramo and subparamo regions of Andean South America.

The Cuatrecasas Botanical Fund will support significant research projects that emulate the spirit of the research of Jose Cuatrecasas. It will support projects within the NMNH Department of Botany and also professional researchers and students from outside the Institution, especially from Andean South America, who wish to study at the United States National Herbarium and to conduct related field studies. Finally, the Fund will support an annual Cuatrecasas Lecture by a distinguished botanist.

The endowment will be administered by the Department of Botany and proposals for support will be reviewed by a panel of Smithsonian scientists and one extra-Smithsonian scientist. The results of projects supported by the Fund will be communicated to the botanical and wider biological communities through publications and presentation at scientific meetings. Collections made during the course of these investigations will enhance the diversity of collections in the United States National Herbarium and relevant herbaria in the countries where the materials were collected.

The NMNH Department of Botany is a world-class research group of 18 scientists and more than 35 technical staff. In additional, an international array of research associates, collaborators and students work in close conjunction with the permanent staff. The staff has worldwide research interests with particular emphasis on the New World tropics.

Friends and colleagues of Jose Cuatrecasas and of the Department of Botany are invited to contribute to this important endowment that will help perpetuate the innovative and pioneering botanical work that meant so much to Jose Cuatrecasas. Donations may be sent to the Jose Cuatrecasas Botanical Endowment, Smithsonian Institution, Department 0561, Washington, DC 20073- 0561. Contributions from outside the United States should be in U.S. dollars. For further information concerning the Fund or the life and accomplishments of Jose Cuatrecasas, please contact Dr. Warren L. Wagner, Chairman, Department of Botany, National Museum of Natural History, Tel.: (202) 357-2534; Fax: (202) 786-2563; E- mail: wagner.warren@nmnh.si.edu.


GRANTS AVAILABLE


The Nagao Natural Environment Foundation is a private, independent grant-giving institution dedicated to helping local research scientists in the Asia and Pacific region by providing grants up to approx. US$8,300. Priorities include the conservation of wildlife, habitat, and biological diversity in the region. For application guidelines and further information, contact Akiko Ono, Programme Officer, Nagao Natural Environment Foundation, Yushima 2-29-3 Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, Japan; Tel.: (81) 33812-3123; Fax: (81) 33812-3129; E-mail: aohno@jwrc.or.jp.


VOLUNTEERS NEEDED


Volunteers are needed to help manage the Peruvian rainforest by assisting with protected areas management of two biologically rich areas in Amazonia: the Bahuaja-Sonene National Park (BSNP) and the Tambopata-Candamo Reserved Zone (TCRZ), both in the state of Madre de Dios, southeastern Peru. These two areas are managed by the Instituto Nacional de Recursos Naturales (INRENA). Jacqueline Ramirez Chavez, director of management operations, is searching at the national and international level for appropriate voluntary personnel to assist her and a crew of 13 park guards in implementing a far reaching management plan for these two important protected areas.

The initiative is officially known as the "Programa de Guardaparques Voluntarios para los Areas Protegidas de Tambopata". The type of help needed varies from construction of an interpretation center for the TCRZ, designing visual displays, developing trail systems and trail guides, assisting park guards on reconnaissance trips, and monitoring wildlife. Positions are available for periods not less than three months, with 22 working days and 8 days off per month. Volunteers should have an excellent command of Spanish; pay for transport to and from Peru, medical insurance, and food (approx. US$200/month). All local transport and housing will be provided though applicants should be aware that a good tent may be required. Applicants should also be resourceful, be prepared to work in the rain, and be in good health and used to hot tropical conditions.

Those interested in applying should contact Jacqueline Ramirez Chavez at minagmdd@amauta.rcp.met.pe Attn: J. Ramirez Chavez. All enquiries should be in Spanish and should quote the "Programa de Guardaparques Voluntarios para los Areas Protegidas de Tambopata".


EDUCATIONAL MATERIALS


The Exotic Plant Working Group, a subcommittee of the Native Plant Conservation Initiative, is developing a series of fact sheets designed to educate the general public, natural resource managers and researchers in government and private industry about the threat of invasive exotic plants to the native flora and fauna of the United States. The goal is to produce fact sheets for all identified problem invasive species of natural areas - about 350 species or species groups - and make them available in electronic and hard copy form. The fact sheets will be posted under the Exotic Plant Working Group heading on the Native Plant Conservation Initiative's homepage on the Internet (http://www.aqd.npd.gov/natnet/npci).


NEW PUBLICATIONS


The World Resources Institute (WRI) and World Wildlife Fund have just published an 80-page monograph on the status of the world's remaining large, natural forest ecosystems. The book, The Last Frontier Forests: Ecosystems and Economies on the Edge, reports that almost half of the Earth's original forest cover is gone, much of it destroyed within the past 30 years, and just one-fifth of the world's original forest cover remains in large tracts of relatively undisturbed forest, called "frontier forest" by WRI. About 70% of the remaining frontier forest is in three countries: Canada, Russia and Brazil while 76 countries have lost all of their frontier forest, and eleven more are on the verge of losing theirs. In vivid full-page, full-color maps, it ranks country by country the perilous state of the world's forests today and provides systematic, easily comparable forestry profiles for Oceania, Asia, Europe and Russia, South America, North and Central America, and Africa. It also analyzes threats to the world's remaining forest areas and explains how to reverse these dangerous trends. Frontier Forests can be obtained for $14.95 from WRI Publications, P. O. Box 4852, Hampden Station, Baltimore, MD 21211; Tel.: (800) 822-0542 or (410) 516-6963; Website: http://www.wri.org..

Tropical Forest Remnants: Ecology, Management, and Conservation of Fragmented Communities has recently been published by the University of Chicago Press. Edited by William Laurance and Richard Bierregaard, Jr., the 616-page book contains 31 chapters from leading researchers in South and Central America, Australia, Asia, Oceania and Madagascar, plus two concluding chapters that synthesize existing knowledge on the ecology and management of fragmented ecosystems. Nowhere are fragmentation and its devastating effects more evident than in the tropical forests. By the year 2000, more than half of these forests will have been cut, causing increased soil erosion, watershed destabilization, climate degradation, and extinction of as many as 600,000 species. Tropical Forest Remnants provides the best information available to help understand, manage, and conserve the remaining fragments. It can be purchased for $105 (cloth), $38 (paper) from University of Chicago Press, 11030 South Langley Ave., Chicago, IL 60628; Tel.: (773) 568- 1150; Fax: (773) 660-2235; Website: http://www.press.uchicago.edu.

The proceedings of the Third International Botanic Gardens Conservation Congress that was held at Rio de Janeiro in 1992 is now available on diskette instead of the conventional book form due to high publication costs. It is free to members of the Botanical Gardens Conservation International (BGCI) network and $14 to non-members (including shipping). The proceedings comprise the front matter (preface, contents list, a general conference report, workshop conclusions, list of contributors' names and current addresses) and the individual papers and abstracts. The files are written in Microsoft Word 6, but are also available in simple ASCII format. In the near future the proceedings will be available on BGCI's Website at http://www.rbgkew.org.uk/BGCI. For more information, contact, BGCI, Descanso House, Kew Road, Richmond, TW9 3BW, England; Tel.: (44) 181 332-5953; Fax: (44) 181 332-5956; E-mail: bgci@rbgkew.org.uk.


INFORMATION HIGHWAY HI-LITES


Bishop Museum's Hawaii Biological Survey announces its new web site, "Hawaii's Endangered and Threatened Species" which features continually updated lists of all endangered, threatened, and extinct species in Hawaii, as well as current lists of candidate species and species formerly listed as "C2" or "Species of Concern" that are found in these islands. In addition to the lists, many species are hyper linked to textual information, images, distribution maps and sound clips. It can be accessed at http://www.bishop.hawaii.org/bishop/HBS/endangered.

The Natural Areas Journal, published by the Natural Areas Association, is now available on-line to view the table of contents and abstracts for recent issues. The Journal publishes articles focusing on nature reserves, natural areas, state or national parks, rare and endangered species, land preservation, and theoretical approaches to natural area work. It can be accessed at http://www.vmedia.com/naj.

The 1997-98 Membership Directory of the Consortium of Aquariums, Universities and Zoos is now available on the C.A.U.Z. website at http://www.selu.com/~bio/cauz. The C.A.U.Z. is an international network that began on the campus of California State University in August, 1985. Today, the database includes information submitted by scientists and educators from more than 250 institutions in 25 countries.


FUTURE MEETINGS


October 12-17. The Second International Congress of Ethnobotany: A Basis for Sustainable Management of Vegetal Diversity will be held in Merida, Yucatan, Mexico. For more information, contact: Jose Flores Guido, Apdo. Postal 4-116, Itzimna, Merida, Yucatan, Mexico; Fax: 99 460332; E-mail: fguido@tunku.vady.mx.

November 14-15. Has the Panda had Its Day? A Symposium - Future Priorities for the Conservation of Mammalian Biodiversity will be held in London, England. For more information, contact: Flora and Fauna International, Great Eastern House, Tenison Road, Cambridge CB1 2DT, UK; Tel.: 44 1223 461481.


CURRENT LITERATURE


Angold, P. 1997. The impact of a road upon adjacent heathland vegetation: effects on plant species composition. J. of Applied Ecology 34(2): 409-417. (Hampshire, England)

Anisimova, O. and Kamennova, I. 1997. Wetlands in Russia finally get attention. Russian Conservation News 11: 28- 29.

Anon. 1997. Chapter protects tiger salamander at Massey Ponds. TNC News 21(2): 3. (Maryland)

Anon. 1997. Chapter preserves additional bays. TNC News 21(2): 1, 4. (Delmarva Bays on Maryland's Eastern Shore)

Anon. 1997. Delmarva Bays, saving an endangered habitat. TNC News 21(2): 1, 3. (Home to at least 15 state-rare and 5 globally rare species)

Anon. 1997. Iowa's native plant roadside program. Natural Areas News 1(4): 3-4, 6-8.

Anon. 1997. Minnesota's RIM program: partnerships to protect habitat. Natural Areas News 1(4): 13. (Reinvest in Minnesota Critical Habitat Matching Program)

Anon. 1997. More protected areas in Ukraine! Russian Conservation News 11: 4.

Anon. 1997. Naturalist discovers rare plants at Cove Point. TNC News 21(2): 5. (40 rare, threatened or endangered species found on Chesapeake Bay area, Maryland)

Anon. 1997. New Jersey DEP protects endangered species by adding 8,633 acres in pine barrens. Natural Areas News 1(4): 12. (Wharton State Forest expanded)

Anon. 1997. Now thirty-two national parks in Russia. Russian Conservation News 11: 4.

Berlova, O. 1997. A lot of venom, and few snakes. Russian Conservation News 11: 39-40. (Blunt-nosed viper's venom used for treatment of hemophilia)

Blair, R. and Launer, A. 1997. Butterfly diversity and human land use: species assemblages along an urban gradient. Biol. Conservation 80(1): 113-125.

Blanchez, J.-L. and Dube, Y. 1997. Funding forestry in Africa. Unasylva 48(188): 8-14.

Brown, K. 1997. Plain tales from the grasslands: extraction, value and utilization of biomass in Royal Bardia National Park, Nepal. Biodiversity and Conservation 6(1): 59-74.

Bryant, D., Nielsen, D. and Tangley, L. 1997. The Last Frontier Forests: Ecosystems and Economies on the Edge. World Resources Institute, Washington, D.C. 80 pp.

Bukreev, S. and Lukarevski, V. 1997. The perplexities of hunting for profit: case study, Turkmenistan. Russian Conservation News 11: 37-39.

Bustamante, J. 1997. Predictive models for lesser kestrel Falco naumanni distribution, abundance and extinction in southern Spain. Biol. Conservation 80(2): 153-160.

Butler, V. 1997. Bushmen at a crossroads. Int. Wildlife 27(4): 20-27. (Traditional hunters and gatherers' lives have changed)

Cannon, P. 1997. Strategies for rapid assessment of fungal diversity. Biodiversity and Conservation 6(5): 669-680.

Chipeta, M. 1997. Funding forestry development in Asia and the Pacific, Africa and Latin America and the Caribbean. Unasylva 48(188): 4-7.

Christiansen, M. and Pitter, E. 1997. Species loss in a forest bird community near Lagoa Santa in southeastern Brazil. Biol. Conservation 80(1): 18-22.

Clevenger, A., Purroy, F. and Campos, M. 1997. Habitat assessment of a relict brown bear Ursus arctos population in northern Spain. Biol. Conservation 80(1): 17-22.

Conniff, R. 1997. Can Britain save its hedgerows? Int. Wildlife 27(4): 12-19.

Cook, G. 1997. Ecotourism at Baikal: a review of recent reports. Russian Conservation News 11: 18-20.

Da Silva, J. 1997. Endemic bird species and conservation in the Cerrado Region, South America. Biodiversity and Conservation 6(3): 435-450. (837 bird species; 29 endemics)

Dauvergne, P. 1997. Shadows in the Forest. Japan and the Political Economy of Deforestation in Southeast Asia. MIT Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts. 336 pp.

Desimone, L. and Popoff, F. 1997. Eco-Efficiency. The Business Link to Sustainable Development. MIT Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts. 264 pp.

Duke, L. 1997. Can elephants and humans coexist in Africa? Washington Post June 19: A1, A24.

Easa, P., Surendranathan Asari, P. and Chand Basha, S. 1997. Status and distribution of the endangered lion-tailed macaque Macaca silenus in Kerala, India. Biol. Conservation 80(1): 33-38.

Estrada, A., Coates-Estrada, R. and Meritt Jr, D. 1997. Anthropogenic landscape changes and avian diversity at Los Tuxlas, Mexico. Biodiversity and Conservation 6(1): 19-44.

Faaborg, J., Dugger, K., Arendt, W., Woodworth, B. and Baltz, M. 1997. Population declines of the Puerto Rican vireo in Guanica forest. Wilson Bull. 109(2): 195-202.

Falkner, M., Laven, R. and Aplet, G. 1997. Experiments on germination and early growth of three rare and endemic species of Hawaiian Tetramolopium (Asteraceae). Biol. Conservation 80(1): 39-48.

Flint, V. 1997. Who needs the Red Data Book of Russia, anyway? Russian Conservation News 11: 14-16.

Freese, C. (Ed). 1997. Harvesting Wild Species. Implications for Biodiversity. John Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, Maryland. 704 pp.

Freitag, S. and Van Jaarsveld, A. 1997. Relative occupancy, endemism, taxonomic distinctiveness and vulnerability: prioritizing regional conservation actions. Biodiversity and Conservation 6(2): 211-232.

Fuller, D., Dowe, J. and Doyle, M. 1997. A new species of Heterospathe from Fiji. Principes 41(2): 65-69. (Proposed as threatened)

Gaviria, D. 1997. Economic and financial instruments for sustainable forestry in Colombia. Unasylva 48(188): 32-35.

Goldblatt, P. 1997. Floristic diversity in the Cape Flora of South Africa. Biodiversity and Conservation 6(3): 359-378. (8650 vascular plants)

Gorbunenko, P., Trombitski, I. and Sharapanovskaya, T. 1997. Threats to Dneister River biodiversity. Russian Conservation News 11: 17. (Eastern Europe)

Gray, J. 1997. Marine biodiversity: patterns, threats and conservation needs. Biodiversity and Conservation 6(1): 153-175.

Gutierrez, L. and Vovides, A. 1997. An in situ study of Magnolia dealbata Zucc. in Veracruz State: an endangered endemic tree of Mexico. Biodiversity and Conservation 6(1): 89-98.

Hall, L., Morrison, M. and Bloom, P. 1997. Population status of the endangered Hawaiian hawk. J. Raptor Research 31(1): 11-15.

Herkert, J. 1997. Bobolink Dolichonyx oryzivorus population decline in agricultural landscapes in the Midwestern USA. Biol. Conservation 80(1): 107-112.

Hersch-Martinez, P. 1997. Medicinal plants and regional traders in Mexico: physiographic differences and conservational challenge. Econ. Bot. 51(2): 107-120.

Holmes, B. 1997. Blazing chainsaws. New Scientist 154(2083): 30-33. (Forest practices in Canada)

Holthus, P., McAllister, D. and Almada-Villela, P. 1997. International Year of the Reef. Species 28: 30-32.

Houghton, L. and Rymon, L. 1997. Nesting distribution and population status of U.S. ospreys 1994. J. Raptor Research 31(1): 44-53.

Howard, R. 1997. Julia Morton (1912-1996), whose protege has been economic botany. Econ. Bot. 51(2): 99-106.

Hussain, S. and Choudhury, B. 1997. Distribution and status of the smooth-coated otter Lutra perspicillata in National Chambal Sanctuary, India. Biol. Conservation 80(2): 199- 206.

Johnson, L. 1997. The role of the community in ecotourism - the impacts of tourism and possible alternatives from one community's perspective: Paeng Daeng Village, Chiang Dao. Asia-Pacific Community Forestry Newsletter 10(1): 15, 18, 24. (Thailand)

Jurgens, N. 1997. Floristic biodiversity and history of African arid regions. Biodiversity and Conservation 6(3): 495-514.

Kalmykov, I. 1997. Hard currency hunts challenge survival of the Karaganda Argali. Russian Conservation News 11: 36-37. (Endangered species in Kazakhstan)

Kenworthy, T. 1997. In Utah, Interior Dept. is betting on a dry hole. Washington Post July 2: A3. (Possible exploratory drilling in newly created Grand Staircase-Escalante National Monument)

King, D., Griffin, C. and DeGraaf, R. 1997. Effect of clearcut borders on distribution and abundance of forest birds in northern New Hampshire. Wilson Bull. 109(2): 239-245.

Kinnaird, M. 1997. Shadowing black macaques. Int. Wildlife 27(4): 28-33. (Indonesia)

Klugel, D. 1997. Saving sea turtles in India. Marine Conservation News 9(2): 19. (Northern Indian Ocean Sea Turtle Workshop)

Kramer, R., van Schaik, C. and Johnson, J. (Eds). 1997. Leaf Stand: Protected Areas and the Defense of Tropical Biodiversity. Oxford University Press, Cary, New York. 240 pp.

Laurance, W. and Bierregaard Jr., R. (Eds). 1997. Tropical Forest Remnants: Ecology, Management, and Conservation of Fragmented Communities. University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois. 616 pp.

Lemonick, M. 1997. The ivory wars. Time Magazine 149(24): 64-65. (Trade ban in Africa)

Lindsey, G., Pratt, T., Reynolds, M. and Jacobi, J. 1997. Response of six species of Hawaiian forest birds to a 1991-1992 El Nino drought. Wilson Bull. 109(2): 339-342.

Listopad, O. and Simonov, E. 1997. Who finances nature conservation in Ukraine? Russian Conservation News 11: 47- 48.

Marston, W. 1997. The misguided ivory ban and the reality of living with elephants. Washington Post June 8: C2. (CITES Conference)

Maschinski, J., Kolb, T., Smith, E. and Phillips, B. 1997. Potential impacts of timber harvesting on a rare understory plant, Clematis hirsutissima var. arizonica. Biol. Conservation 80(1): 49-62.

Meffe, G. and Carroll, C. (Eds). 1997. Principles of Conservation Biology, Second Edition. Sinauer Associates, Inc., Sunderland, Massachusetts. 673 pp. (12 case studies)

Menner, A. 1997. "Heart of Russia" slogan: no sustainable development without native biodiversity. Russian Conservation News 11: 24-25. (Ecological network of the Central Russian Plain)

Milton, S., Dean, W. and Klotz, S. 1997. Thicket formation in abandoned fruit orchards: processes and implications for the conservation of semi-dry grasslands in Central Germany. Biodiversity and Conservation 6(2): 275-290.

Mukhina, E. 1997. History of a species - the white stork in Uzbekistan. Russian Conservation News 11: 41-42. (Endangered species)

Munthali, S. 1997. Dwindling food-fish species and fishers' preference: problems of conserving Lake Malawi's biodiversity. Biodiversity and Conservation 6(2): 253-262.

Muriuki, J., De Klerk, H., Williams, P., Bennun, L., Crowe, T. and Vanden Berge, E. 1997. Using patterns of distribution and diversity of Kenyan birds to select and prioritize areas for conservation. Biodiversity and Conservation 6(2): 191-210.

Mutchnick, P. and McCarthy, B. 1997. An ethnobotanical analysis of the tree species common to the subtropical moist forests of the Peten, Guatemala. Econ. Bot. 51(2): 158- 183.

Pauw, C. and Linder, H. 1997. Tropical African cedars (Widdringtonia, Cupressaceae): systematics, ecology and conservation status. Bot. J. Linnean Soc. 123(4): 297-319. (W. whytei, critically endangered)

Percy, D. and Cronk, Q. 1997. Conservation in relation to mating system in Nesohedyotis arborea (Rubiaceae), a rare endemic tree from St. Helena. Biol. Conservation 80(2): 135-146.

Phillips, O. 1997. The changing ecology of tropical forests. Biodiversity and Conservation 6(2): 291-311.

Pressey, R., Possingham, H. and Day, J. 1997. Effectiveness of alternative heuristic algorithms for identifying indicative minimum requirements for conservation reserves. Biol. Conservation 80(2): 207-219.

Pushkarev, S. 1997. New tool for inventory of vertebrates in Russian biosphere reserves. Russian Conservation News 11: 21.

Pye-Smith, C. 1997. Seeing the wood for the trees. New Scientist 154(2083): 14-15. (Gathering tree information)

Ratsirarson, J. and Silander Jr. J. 1997. Factors affecting the distribution of a threatened Madagascar palm species. Principes 41(2): 100-111.

Reddoch, J. and Reddoch, A. 1997. The orchids in the Ottawa District: floristics, phytogeography, population studies and historical review. Canadian Field-Naturalist 111(1): 1- 185. (Rare species)

Reed, H. 1997. World trade in sharks: a TRAFFIC overview. TRAFFIC USA 16(1): 1-5.

Resor, J. 1997. Debt-for-nature swaps: a decade of experience and new directions for the future. Unasylva 48(188): 15-22.

Robbins, E. 1997. Whale watch. E Magazine 8(3): 28- 35.

Safford, R. 1997. A survey of the occurrence of native vegetation remnants on Mauritius in 1993. Biol. Conservation 80(2): 181-188.

Sarmiento, F. 1996. El lugar de nacimiento de la ecologia: paisajes tropandinos. Yungas 6(1): 7-8.

Shapcott, A. 1997. Population genetics of the long-lived Huon pine Lagarostrobos franklinii: an endemic Tasmanian temperate rainforest tree. Biol. Conservation 80(2): 169- 180.

Shvidenko, A. and Nilsson, S. 1997. Are the Russian forests disappearing? Unasylva 48(188): 57-64.

Slone, T., Orsak, L. and Malver, O. 1997. A comparison of price, rarity and cost of butterfly specimens: implications for the insect trade and for habitat conservation. Ecol. Economics 21: 77-85.

Sobel, J. 1997. CMC and partners save international park from shady land deal. Marine Conservation News 9(2): 18. (Jaragua National Park, largest protected natural site in Dominican Republic)

Sobolev, N. 1997. Building an ecological network together. Russian Conservation News 11: 26-27. (Participants in plan for the Central Russian Plain)

Spalding, A. 1997. The use of the butterfly transect method for the study of the nocturnal moth Luperina nickerlii leechi Goater (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and its possible application to other species. Biol. Conservation 80(2): 147-152. (Rare moth of British Isles)

Spitzer, K., Jaros, J., Havelka, J. and Leps, J. 1997. Effect of small-scale disturbance on butterfly communities of an Indochinese montane rainforest. Biol. Conservation 80(1): 9-16.

Steiner, A. and Bayon, R. 1997. World Conservation Congress breaks the silence of Rio. Species 28: 26-29.

Taylor, C. 1997. The challenge of African elephant conservation. Conservation ISSUES 4(2): 1, 3-11.

Tressler, S. 1997. Biodiversity Conservation Information System (BCIS). Species 28: 10-11. (IUCN-SSC data information system)

Vasey, N. 1997. How many red ruffed lemurs are left? Int. J. of Primatology 18(2): 207-216. (Masoala Peninsula, Madagascar)

Wood, D. and Lenne, J. 1997. The conservation of agrobiodiversity on-farm: questioning the merging paradigm. Biodiversity and Conservation 6(1): 109-130.

Zakhvatkin, K. 1997. Ile-Alatau National Park: taking a step toward sustainable development in Kazakhstan. Russian Conservation News 11: 9.

Zhou, Z. and Pan, W. 1997. Analysis of the viability of a giant panda population. J. of Applied Ecology 34(2): 363- 374.

Zulka, K., Milasowszky, N. and Lethmayer, C. 1997. Spider biodiversity potential of an ungrazed and a grazed inland salt meadow in the National Park "Neusiedler See-Seewinkel" (Austria): implications for management. Biodiversity and Conservation 6(1): 75-88.

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