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Department ofBotany



No. 211
July 2002


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In This Issue


Systematic Biology is Critical in Conservation Research


Interdisciplinary interactions are highly important in biological conservation research and systematic biology can provide a unique and critical contribution. New research shows that conservation biology is enhanced by the accurate identification and classification of organisms, while systematic studies can be motivated by conservation concerns.

To explore the synergism of systematic biology and other disciplines in conservation research, the March issue of Systematic Biology includes a six-paper special section "Biodiversity: The Interface Between Systematics and Conservation," which was co-edited by Vicki Funk of the Smithsonian Institution in Washington, D.C., Ann Sakai of the University of California in Irvine, California, and Karen Richardson of University of Queensland, Australia.

These projects stem from a symposium held at the June 2000 joint annual meeting of the Society of Systematic Biologists (SSB), the Society for the Study of Evolution (SSE), the American Society of Naturalists (ASN), and the Association for Tropical Biology (ATB) at Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana.

The findings in the special section include:

  • Evolutionary processes and the distribution of genetic diversity are essential in the planning of conservation priority areas. A study of the wet tropics of Australia shows that genetic information on both divergence and long-term historical isolation should be considered in conservation planning to ensure the maintenance of evolutionary processes. This work is by Craig Moritz of the University of California in Berkeley, California.


  • A potential threat exists in the hybridization of indigenous and nonnative species, which represents a serious mechanism of extinction. To prevent the further loss of native species, a predictive approach is presented in a study of North American freshwater species, providing a guide to prevent future hybridizations. This work is by William Perry of Illinois State University in Normal, Illinois, and David Lodge and Jeffrey Feder of Notre Dame University in Notre Dame, Indiana.


  • Phylogeny, life history traits, and geographic patterns are useful in predicting endangerment in island and island-like ecosystems. A study of the Hawaiian flora shows that risk of endangerment is strongly associated in species with a limited geographic distribution, low population densities, hermaphroditic breeding systems, and bird pollination. The percentages of taxa at risk at the family level in the Hawaiian Islands and worldwide are also positively correlated. This work is by Ann Sakai, Warren Wagner of the Smithsonian Institution, and Loyal Mehrhoff of the National Park Service in Fort Collins, Colorado.


  • Systematic data in the form of collection records are useful in mapping species richness and endemism and in selecting priority biodiversity sites. A study of plant and animal species from Guyana demonstrates that collection data combined with abiotic data can be used to select high-priority biodiversity sites based on the concept of irreplaceability, a measure of uniqueness. This work is by Vicki Funk and Karen Richardson.


  • Designing conservation reserves should consider the ecological and evolutionary processes that generate current biodiversity. A study of South Africa's Succulent Karoo shows that spatially explicit data on morphological variation within taxa provide essential information for conservation planning. This work is by Philip Desmet of the University of Cape Town in South Africa, Richard Cowling of the University of Port Elizabeth in South Africa, Allan Ellis of the University of California in Irvine, California, and Richard Pressey of New South Wales National Parks and Wildlife Service in Australia.


  • Available biological data and knowledge can be more effectively used to alleviate problems of gaps in the spatial distribution of biodiversity. Three strategies to use data more effectively are: (1) apply predictive modeling that integrates biological and environmental data; (2) incorporate knowledge of biological variation within and between mapped classes into measures of conservation priority; and (3) use regions that are rich in biological data as test-beds for evaluating the performance of surrogates. This work is by Simon Ferrier of New South Wales National Parks and Wildlife Service.

SSB and ATB jointly sponsored the symposium, while funding was provided by SSB, the National Science Foundation, and the National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution.


Current Literature


Alder, J., Zeller, D., Pitcher, T., and Sumaila, R. 2002. A method for evaluating marine protected area management. Coast. Manage. 30(2):121-131.

Aldridge, C.L., and Brigham, R.M. 2002. Sage-grouse nesting and brood habitat use in southern Canada. J. Wildlife Manag. 66(2):433-444.

Angehr, G.R., Siegel, J., Aucca, C., Christian, D.G., and Pequeño, T. 2002. An assessment and monitoring program for birds in the Lower Urubamba Region, Peru. Environ. Monit. Assess. 76(1):69-87.

Apostolaki, P., Milner-Gulland, E.J., McAllister, M.K., and Kirkwood, G.P. 2002. Modelling the effects of establishing a marine reserve for mobile fish species. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 59(3):405-415.

Arunachalam, A., and Arunachalam, K. 2002. Evaluation of bamboos in eco-restoration of 'jhum' fallows in Arunachal Pradesh: ground vegetation, soil and microbial biomass. Forest Ecol. Manag. 159(3):231-239.

Baird, A.H., Bellwood, D.R., Connell, J.H., Cornell, H.V., Hughes, T.P., Karlson, R.H., and Rosen, B.R. 2002. Coral reef biodiversity and conservation. Science 296(5570):1026-1027.

Baker, G.B., Gales, R., Hamilton, S., and Wilkinson, V. 2002. Albatrosses and petrels in Australia: a review of their conservation and management. Emu 102(1):71-97.

Barber, P.H., Palumbi, S.R., Erdmann, M.V., and Moosa, M.K. 2002. Sharp genetic breaks among populations of Haptosquilla pulchella (Stomatopoda) indicate limits to larval transport: patterns, causes, and consequences. Mol. Ecol. 11(4):659-674.

Barbraud, C., Lepley, M., Mathevet, R., and Mauchamp, A. 2002. Reedbed selection and colony size of breeding purple herons Ardea purpurea in southern France. Ibis 144(2):227-235.

Barlow, J., Haugaasen, T., and Peres, C.A. 2002. Effects of ground fires on understorey bird assemblages in Amazonian forests. Biol. Conserv. 105(2):157-169.

Barton, J. 2002. Fisheries and fisheries management in Falkland Islands Conservation Zones. Aquat. Conserv. 12(1):127-135.

Bashan, Y., and Holguin, G. 2002. Plant growth-promoting bacteria: a potential tool for arid mangrove reforestation. Trees-Struct. Funct. 16(2-3):159-166.

Batawila, K., Kokou, K., Akpagana, K., Koumaglo, K., and Bouchet, P. 2002. Fungicide activity of a threatened species from Togo flora: Conyza aegyptiaca (L.) Ait. var. lineariloba (DC) O. Hoffm. (Asteraceae). Acta Bot. Gallica 149(1):41-48.

Baur, B., Zschokke, S., Coray, A., Schläpfer, M., and Erhardt, A. 2002. Habitat characteristics of the endangered flightless beetle Dorcadion fuliginator (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae): implications for conservation. Biol. Conserv. 105(2):133-142.

Behera, M.D., Kushwaha, S.P.S., and Roy, P.S. 2002. High plant endemism in an Indian hotspot - eastern Himalaya. Biodivers. Conserv. 11(4):669-682.

Bermúdez-Humarán, L.G., García-García, A., Leal-Garza, C.H., Riojas-Valdes, V.M., Jaramillo-Rangel, G., and Montes-de-Oca-Luna, R. 2002. Molecular sexing of monomorphic endangered Ara birds. J. Exp. Zool. 292(7):677-680.

Best, C. 2002. America's private forests challenges for conservation. J. Forestry 100(3):14-17.

Boddicker, M., Rodriguez, J.J., and Amanzo, J. 2002. Indices for assessment and monitoring of large mammals within an adaptive management framework. Environ. Monit. Assess. 76(1):105-123.

Boersma, P.D., Stokes, D.L., and Strange, I.J. 2002. Applying ecology to conservation: tracking breeding penguins at New Island South reserve, Falkland Islands. Aquat. Conserv. 12(1):63-74.

Borad, C.K., Mukherjee, A., Patel, S.B., and Parasharya, B.M. 2002. Breeding performance of Indian Sarus crane Grus antigone antigone in the paddy crop agroecosystem. Biodivers. Conserv. 11(5):795-805.

Bourou, R., Tiandray, H., Razandrimamilafiniarivo, O.C., Bekarany, E., and Durbin, J. 2001. Comparative reproduction in wild and captive female ploughshare tortoises Geochelone yniphora. Dodo 37:70-79.

Bowden, C.G.R., Fenton, C., Al Gray, G., Mackley, L., Hilton, G.M., and Atkinson, P.W. 2001. The Montserrat oriole: in trouble again. Dodo 37:100.

Bowles, M.L., Jacobs, K.A., Zettler, L.W., and Delaney, T.W. 2002. Crossing effects on seed viability and experimental germination of the federal threatened Platanthera leucophaea (Orchidaceae). Rhodora 104(917):14-30.

Brickle, N.W. 2002. Habitat use, predicted distribution and conservation of green peafowl (Pavo muticus) in Dak Lak Province, Vietnam. Biol. Conserv. 105(2):189-197.

Briggs, J.C. 2002. Coral reef biodiversity and conservation. Science 296(5570):1027.

Buckton, S.T., and Ormerod, S.J. 2002. Global patterns of diversity among the specialist birds of riverine landscapes. Freshwater Biol. 47(4):695-709.

Buijse, A.D., Coops, H., Staras, M., Jans, L.H., Van Geest, G.J., Grift, R.E., Ibelings, B.W., Oosterberg, W., and Roozen, F.C.J.M. 2002. Restoration strategies for river floodplains along large lowland rivers in Europe. Freshwater Biol. 47(4):889-907.

Campbell, P., Comiskey, J., Alonso, A., Dallmeier, F., Nuñez, P., Beltran, H., Baldeon, S., Nauray, W., De La Colina, R., Acurio, L., and Udvardy, S. 2002. Modified whittaker plots as an assessment and monitoring tool for vegetation in a lowland tropical rainforest. Environ. Monit. Assess. 76(1):19-41.

Carriere, S.M., Letourmy, P., and McKey, D.B. 2002. Effects of remnant trees in fallows on diversity and structure of forest regrowth in a slash-and-burn agricultural system in southern Cameroon. J. Trop. Ecol. 18:375-396.

Catling, P.M., and Brownell, V.R. 2001. Biodiversity of adult damselflies (Zygoptera) at eastern Ontario gravel pit ponds. Can. Field-Natural. 115(3):402-405.

Ceballos, G., and Ehrlich, P.R. 2002. Mammal population losses and the extinction crisis. Science 296(5569):904-907.

Clarke, M.R., Collins, D.A., and Zucker, E.L. 2002. Responses to deforestation in a group of mantled howlers (Alouatta palliata) in Costa Rica. Int. J. Primatol. 23(2):365-381.

Clüsener-Godt, M. 2002. Asia Pacific co-operation for the sustainable use of renewable natural resources in biosphere reserves and similarly managed areas. Trees-Struct. Funct. 16(2-3):230-234.

Cochrane, M.A., and Laurance, W.F. 2002. Fire as a large-scale edge effect in Amazonian forests. J. Trop. Ecol. 18:311-325.

Colling, G., Matthies, D., and Reckinger, C. 2002. Population structure and establishment of the threatened long-lived perennial Scorzonera humilis in relation to environment. J. Appl. Ecol. 39(2):310-320.

Cooper, C.B., and Walters, J.R. 2002. Independent effects of woodland loss and fragmentation on Brown Treecreeper distribution. Biol. Conserv. 105(1):1-10.

Coppedge, B.R., Engle, D.M., Fuhlendorf, S.D., Masters, R.E., and Gregory, M.S. 2001. Landscape cover type and pattern dynamics in fragmented southern Great Plains grasslands, USA. Landscape Ecol. 16(8):677-690.

Critchley, C.N.R., Chambers, B.J., Fowbert, J.A., Sanderson, R.A., Bhogal, A., and Rose, S.C. 2002. Association between lowland grassland plant communities and soil properties. Biol. Conserv. 105(2):199-215.

Croxall, J.P., and Wood, A.G. 2002. The importance of the Patagonian Shelf for top predator species breeding at South Georgia. Aquat. Conserv. 12(1):101-118.

Dabbs, A., and Bateson, M. 2002. The corporate impact of addressing social issues: a financial case study of a project in Peru. Environ. Monit. Assess. 76(1):135-156.

Dahmani-Megrerouche, M. 2002. The holm oak (Quercus rotundifolia) in Algeria: climate-vegetation relations. Phytocoenologia 32(1):129-141.

Dalén, L., Götherström, A., Tannerfeldt, M., and Angerbjörn, A. 2002. Is the endangered Fennoscandian arctic fox (Alopex lagopus) population genetically isolated? Biol. Conserv. 105(2):171-178.

Dalle, S.P., López, H., Díaz, D., Legendre, P., and Potvin, C. 2002. Spatial distribution and habitats of useful plants: an initial assessment for conservation on an indigenous territory, Panama. Biodivers. Conserv. 11(4):637-667.

Dallmeier, F., Alonso, A., and Jones, M. 2002. Planning an adaptive management process for biodiversity conservation and resource development in the Camisea River basin. Environ. Monit. Assess. 76(1):1-17.

Dawson, J.P. 2002. Biogeography of azooxanthellate corals in the Caribbean and surrounding areas. Coral Reefs 21(1):27-40.

de Lange, P., and Gardner, R.O. 2002. A taxonomic reappraisal of Coprosma obconica Kirk (Rubiaceae: Anthospermeae). New Zeal. J. Bot. 40(1):25-38.

Desmet, P.G., Cowling, R.M., Ellis, A.G., and Pressey, R.L. 2002. Integrating biosystematic data into conservation planning: perspectives from southern Africa's Succulent Karoo. Syst. Biol. 51(2):317-330.

Dhar, U., Rawal, R.S., Airi, S., Bhatt, I.D., and Samant, S.S. 2002. Promoting outreach through conservation education programmes - case study from Indian Himalayan Region. Curr. Sci. 82(7):808-815.

Dinnetz, P., and Nilsson, T. 2002. Population viability analysis of Saxifraga cotyledon, a perennial plant with semelparous rosettes. Plant Ecol. 159(1):61-71.

Donlan, C.J., Tershy, B.R., and Croll, D.A. 2002. Islands and introduced herbivores: conservation action as ecosystem experimentation. J. Appl. Ecol. 39(2):235-246.

Donovan, M.T., and Douglas, G.W. 2001. Status of Snake-root Sanicle, Sanicula arctopoides (Apiaceae) in Canada. Can. Field-Natural. 115(3):466-471.

Douglas, G.W., and Jamison, J.A. 2001. Status of Scouler's Corydalis, Corydalis scouleri (Fumariaceae) in Canada. Can. Field-Natural. 115(3):455-459.

Douglas, G.W., and Ryan, M. 2001. Status of the Deltoid Balsamroot, Balsamorhiza deltoidea (Asteraceae) in Canada. Can. Field-Natural. 115(3):451-454.

Elliott, S., Kuarak, C., Navakitbumrung, P., Zangkum, S., Anusarnsunthorn, V., and Blakesley, D. 2002. Propagating framework trees to restore seasonally dry tropical forest in northern Thailand. New Forests 23(1):63-70.

Endels, P., Jacquemyn, H., Brys, R., Hermy, M., and De Blust, G. 2002. Temporal changes (1986-1999) in populations of primrose (Primula vulgaris Huds.) in an agricultural landscape and implications for conservation. Biol. Conserv. 105(1):11-25.

Eniang, E.A., and Luiselli, L. 2002. Ikpan wetland rainforest: an area of high biodiversity importance in south-eastern Nigeria. Rev. Ecol.-Terre Vie 57(1):19-28.

Erftemeijer, P.L.A. 2002. A new technique for rapid assessment of mangrove degradation: a case study of shrimp farm encroachment in Thailand. Trees-Struct. Funct. 16(2-3):204-208.

Esson, M. 2001. Does conservation education travel well? Transferring skills from Jersey Zoo to institutions in the developing world. Dodo 37:80-87.

Ewald, J. 2002. Multiple controls of understorey plant richness in mountain forests of the Bavarian Alps. Phytocoenologia 32(1):85-100.

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Falkowski, M., and Nowicka-Falkowska, K. 2001. Fishponds - refuges of flora in agricultural landscape of the Poludniowopodlaska lowland (Poland). Ekol. Bratislava 20:242-245.

Fauzi, A., and Buchary, E.A. 2002. A socioeconomic perspective of environmental degradation at Kepulauan Seribu Marine National Park, Indonesia. Coast. Manage. 30(2):167-181.

Feistner, A.T.C., and Lee, R.J. 2001. Assessing the status of Sulawesi crested black macaques Macaca nigra outside protected areas. Dodo 37:96.

Fernandez, C., Acosta, F.J., Abella, G., Lopez, F., and Diaz, M. 2002. Complex edge effect fields as additive processes in patches of ecological systems. Ecol. Model. 149(3):273-283.

Fernandez-Juricic, E. 2002. Can human disturbance promote nestedness? A case study with breeding birds in urban habitat fragments. Oecologia 131(2):269-278.

Ferrier, S. 2002. Mapping spatial pattern in biodiversity for regional conservation planning: where to from here? Syst. Biol. 51(2):331-363.

Filipe, A.F., Cowx, I.G., and Collares-Pereira, M.J. 2002. Spatial modelling of freshwater fish in semi-arid river systems: a tool for conservation. River Res. Appl. 18(2):123-136.

Finnamore, A., Alonso, A., Santisteban, J., Cordova, S., Valencia, G., De La Cruz, A., and Polo, R. 2002. A framework for assessment and monitoring of arthropods in a lowland tropical forest. Environ. Monit. Assess. 76(1):43-53.

Fischer, J., and Lindenmayer, D.B. 2002. The conservation value of paddock trees for birds in a variegated landscape in southern New South Wales. 1. Species composition and site occupancy patterns. Biodivers. Conserv. 11(5):807-832.

Fischer, J., and Lindenmayer, D.B. 2002. The conservation value of paddock trees for birds in a variegated landscape in southern New South Wales. 2. Paddock trees as stepping stones. Biodivers. Conserv. 11(5):833-849.

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Funk, V.A., Sakai, A.K., and Richardson, K. 2002. Biodiversity: the interface between systematics and conservation. Syst. Biol. 51(2):235-237.

Garnatje, T., Vilatersana, R., Roche, C.T., Garcia-Jacas, N., Susanna, A., and Thill, D.C. 2002. Multiple introductions from the Iberian Peninsula are responsible for invasion of Crupina vulgaris in western North America. New Phytol. 154(2):419-428.

Gell, F.R., and Whittington, M.W. 2002. Diversity of fishes in seagrass beds in the Quirimba Archipelago, northern Mozambique. Mar. Freshwater Res. 53(2):115-121.

Gering, J.C., and Crist, T.O. 2002. The alpha-beta-regional relationship: providing new insights into local-regional patterns of species richness and scale dependence of diversity components. Ecol. Lett. 5(3):433-444.

Gil-Sánchez, J.M., and Alba-Tercedor, J. 2002. Ecology of the native and introduced crayfishes Austropotamobius pallipes and Procambarus clarkii in southern Spain and implications for conservation of the native species. Biol. Conserv. 105(1):75-80.

Gorman, L.R., and Haig, S.M. 2002. Distribution and abundance of snowy plovers in eastern North America, the Caribbean, and the Bahamas. J. Field Ornithol. 73(1):38-52.

Goss-Custard, J.D., Stillman, R.A., West, A.D., Caldow, R.W.G., and McGrorty, S. 2002. Carrying capacity in overwintering migratory birds. Biol. Conserv. 105(1):27-41.

Gresse, M., Gandon, B., Tarnaud, L., Simmen, B., Labat, J.N., and Hladik, C.M. 2002. Lemur conservation and introduction on Mbouzi island (Mayotte). Rev. Ecol.-Terre Vie 57(1):75-82.

Guo, Z.W., and Gan, Y.L. 2002. Ecosystem function for water retention and forest ecosystem conservation in a watershed of the Yangtze River. Biodivers. Conserv. 11(4):599-614.

Gurnell, J., Clark, M.J., Lurz, P.W.W., Shirley, M.D.F., and Rushton, S.P. 2002. Conserving red squirrels (Sciurus vulgaris): mapping and forecasting habitat suitability using a Geographic Information Systems approach. Biol. Conserv. 105(1):53-64.

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Gutzwiller, K.J., Riffell, S.K., and Anderson, S.H. 2002. Repeated human intrusion and the potential for nest predation by gray jays. J. Wildlife Manag. 66(2):372-380.

Halpern, B.S., and Warner, R.R. 2002. Marine reserves have rapid and lasting effects. Ecol. Lett. 5(3):361-366.

Hammond, P.S., Berggren, P., Benke, H., Borchers, D.L., Collet, A., Heide-Jørgensen, M.P., Heimlich, S., Hiby, A.R., Leopold, M.F., and Øien, N. 2002. Abundance of harbour porpoise and other cetaceans in the North Sea and adjacent waters. J. Appl. Ecol. 39(2):361-376.

Harmata, A.R. 2002. Encounters of golden eagles banded in the Rocky Mountain West. J. Field Ornithol. 73(1):23-32.

Hasenauer, H. 2002. Forest ecosystem restoration - preface. Forest Ecol. Manag. 159(1-2):1-2.

Heilman, G.E., Strittholt, J.R., Slosser, N.C., and Dellasala, D.A. 2002. Forest fragmentation of the conterminous United States: assessing forest intactness through road density and spatial characteristics. BioScience 52(5):411-422.

Herrando, S., and Brotons, L. 2002. Forest bird diversity in Mediterranean areas affected by wildfires: a multi-scale approach. Ecography 25(2):161-172.

Hesp, S.A., Potter, I.C., and Hall, N.G. 2002. Age and size composition, growth rate, reproductive biology, and habitats of the West Australian dhufish (Glaucosoma hebraicum) and their relevance to the management of this species. Fishery Bull. 100(2):214-227.

Hewitt, N., and Kellman, M. 2002. Tree seed dispersal among forest fragments: II. Dispersal abilities and biogeographical controls. J. Biogeogr. 29(3):351-363.

Hillman, T.J., and Quinn, G.P. 2002. Temporal changes in macroinvertebrate assemblages following experimental flooding in permanent and temporary wetlands in an Australian floodplain forest. River Res. Appl. 18(2):137-154.

Holmes, P.M. 2002. Depth distribution and composition of seed-banks in alien-invaded and uninvaded fynbos vegetation. Austral Ecol. 27(1):110-120.

Hone, J. 2002. Feral pigs in Namadgi National Park, Australia: dynamics, impacts and management. Biol. Conserv. 105(2):231-242.

Honnay, O., Verheyen, K., and Hermy, M. 2002. Permeability of ancient forest edges for weedy plant species invasion. Forest Ecol. Manag. 161(1-3):109-122.

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Icochea, J., Quispitupac, E., Portilla, A., and Ponce, E. 2002. Framework for assessment and monitoring of amphibians and reptiles in the Lower Urubamba Region, Peru. Environ. Monit. Assess. 76(1):55-67.

Isler, M.L., Alonso, J.A., Isler, P.R., Valqui, T., Begazo, A., and Whitney, B.M. 2002. Rediscovery of a cryptic species and description of a new subspecies in the Myrmeciza hemimelaena complex (Thamnophilidae) of the Neotropics. Auk 119(2):362-378.

Johnson, W.C. 2002. Riparian vegetation diversity along regulated rivers: contribution of novel and relict habitats. Freshwater Biol. 47(4):749-759.

Juárez-Muñoz, J., Carrillo-Castañeda, G., Arreguin, R., and Rubluo, A. 2002. Inter- and intra-genetic variation of four wild populations of Prosopis using rapd-pcr fingerprints. Biodivers. Conserv. 11(5):921-930.

Jungwirth, M., Muhar, S., and Schmutz, S. 2002. Re-establishing and assessing ecological integrity in riverine landscapes. Freshwater Biol. 47(4):867-887.

Keith, D.A. 2002. Population dynamics of an endangered heathland shrub, Epacris stuartii (Epacridaceae): recruitment, establishment and survival. Austral Ecol. 27(1):67-76.

Keith, P., and Marion, L. 2002. Methodology for drawing up a Red List of threatened freshwater fish in France. Aquat. Conserv. 12(2):169-179.

Keller, L.F., and Waller, D.M. 2002. Inbreeding effects in wild populations. TREE 17(5):230-241.

Kelly, C.K., and Bowler, M.G. 2002. Coexistence and relative abundance in forest trees. Nature 417(6887):437-440.

Kennedy, T.A., Naeem, S., Howe, K.M., Knops, J.M.H., Tilman, D., and Reich, P. 2002. Biodiversity as a barrier to ecological invasion. Nature 417(6889):636-638.

Kerr, J.T., and Burkey, T.V. 2002. Endemism, diversity, and the threat of tropical moist forest extinctions. Biodivers. Conserv. 11(4):695-704.

Kingsford, R.T., and Norman, F.I. 2002. Australian waterbirds - products of the continent's ecology. Emu 102(1):47-69.

Kinnison, M.T., Bentzen, P., Unwin, M.J., and Quinn, T.P. 2002. Reconstructing recent divergence: evaluating nonequilibrium population structure in New Zealand chinook salmon. Mol. Ecol. 11(4):739-754.

Kirschner, J., and Kaplan, Ž. 2002. Taxonomic monographs in relation to global Red Lists. Taxon 51(1):155-158.

Kitaya, Y., Jintana, V., Piriyayotha, S., Jaijing, D., Yabuki, K., Izutani, S., Nishimiya, A., and Iwasaki, M. 2002. Early growth of seven mangrove species planted at different elevations in a Thai estuary. Trees-Struct. Funct. 16(2-3):150-154.

Klein, A.M., Steffan-Dewenter, I., and Tscharntke, T. 2002. Predator-prey ratios on cocoa along a land-use gradient in Indonesia. Biodivers. Conserv. 11(4):683-693.

Klopper, R.R., Smith, G.F., and Chikuni, A.C. 2002. The Global Taxonomy Initiative in Africa. Taxon 51(1):159-165.

Kuiters, A.T., and Slim, P.A. 2002. Regeneration of mixed deciduous forest in a Dutch forest-heathland, following a reduction of ungulate densities. Biol. Conserv. 105(1):65-74.

Larson, M.A., Ryan, M.R., and Murphy, R.K. 2002. Population viability of piping plovers: effects of predator exclusion. J. Wildlife Manag. 66(2):361-371.

Le Corre, M., Ollivier, A., Ribes, S., and Jouventin, P. 2002. Light-induced mortality of petrels: a 4-year study from Réunion Island (Indian Ocean). Biol. Conserv. 105(1):93-102.

Le Maitre, D.C., van Wilgen, B.W., Gelderblom, C.M., Bailey, C., Chapman, R.A., and Nel, J.A. 2002. Invasive alien trees and water resources in South Africa: case studies of the costs and benefits of management. Forest Ecol. Manag. 160(1-3):143-159.

Lindenmayer, D.B., Cunningham, R.B., Donnelly, C.F., and Lesslie, R. 2002. On the use of landscape surrogates as ecological indicators in fragmented forests. Forest Ecol. Manag. 159(3):203-216.

Liu, H.M., Xu, Z.F., Xu, Y.K., and Wang, J.X. 2002. Practice of conserving plant diversity through traditional beliefs: a case study in Xishuangbanna, southwest China. Biodivers. Conserv. 11(4):705-713.

Lovett-Doust, J., and Kuntz, K. 2001. Land ownership and other landscape-level effects on biodiversity in southern Ontario's Niagara Escarpment Biosphere Reserve, Canada. Landscape Ecol. 16(8):743-755.

Lovich, J., and Meyer, K. 2002. The western pond turtle (Clemmys marmorata) in the Mojave River, California, USA: highly adapted survivor or tenuous relict? J. Zool. 256:537-545.

Mac Nally, R., and Horrocks, G. 2002. Relative influences of patch, landscape and historical factors on birds in an Australian fragmented landscape. J. Biogeogr. 29(3):395-410.

Mallinson, J.J.C. 2001. Saving Brazil's Atlantic rainforest: using the golden-headed lion tamarin Leontopithecus chrysomelas as a flagship for a biodiversity hotspot. Dodo 37:9-20.

Marshall, H.D., and Ritland, K. 2002. Genetic diversity and differentiation of Kermode bear populations. Mol. Ecol. 11(4):685-697.

Martikainen, P. 2002. Ecology and conservation status of Acanthocinus griseus (Fabricius, 1792) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) in Finland. Entomol. Fennica 13(1):41-50.

May, P.H., Dabbs, A.W., Fernández-Dávila, P., Da Vinha, V., and Zaidenweber, N. 2002. A corporate approach to social monitoring and assessment for development in a fragile environment. Environ. Monit. Assess. 76(1):125-134.

Mazzolli, M., Graipel, M.E., and Dunstone, N. 2002. Mountain lion depredation in southern Brazil. Biol. Conserv. 105(1):43-51.

Meekins, J.F., and McCarthy, B.C. 2002. Effect of population density on the demography of an invasive plant (Alliaria petiolata, Brassicaceae) population in a southeastern Ohio forest. Am. Midl. Nat. 147(2):256-278.

Merrett, M.F., Clarkson, B.D., and Bathgate, J.L. 2002. Ecology and conservation of Alseuosmia quercifolia (Alseuosmiaceae) in the Waikato region, New Zealand. New Zeal. J. Bot. 40(1):49-63.

Miciniak, E., and Staniewska-Zatek, W. 2001. Nature conservation areas in the Poznan agglomeration - a good example of human and nature coexistance. Ekol. Bratislava 20:264-269.

Midriak, R. 2001. Goals and trends of landscape ecological research in Slovak biosphere reserves. Ekol. Bratislava 20:54-61.

Mock, K.E., Theimer, T.C., Rhodes, O.E., Greenberg, D.L., and Keim, P. 2002. Genetic variation across the historical range of the wild turkey (Meleagris gallopavo). Mol. Ecol. 11(4):643-657.

Moegenburg, S.M., and Levey, D.J. 2002. Prospects for conserving biodiversity in Amazonian extractive reserves. Ecol. Lett. 5(3):320-324.

Moehrenschlager, A. 2001. Population trends of reintroduced Canadian swift foxes Vulpes velox and future conservation priorities. Dodo 37:97.

Moritz, C. 2002. Strategies to protect biological diversity and the evolutionary processes that sustain it. Syst. Biol. 51(2):238-254.

Moss, B., Carvalho, L., and Plewes, J. 2002. The lake at Llandrindod wells - a restoration comedy? Aquat. Conserv. 12(2):229-245.

Mukherjee, A., Borad, C.K., and Parasharya, B.M. 2002. Breeding performance of the Indian sarus crane in the agricultural landscape of western India. Biol. Conserv. 105(2):263-269.

Munthali, S.M., and Mkanda, F.X. 2002. The plight of Malawi's wildlife: is trans-location of animals the solution? Biodivers. Conserv. 11(5):751-768.

Muotka, T., Paavola, R., Haapala, A., Novikmec, M., and Laasonen, P. 2002. Long-term recovery of stream habitat structure and benthic invertebrate communities from in-stream restoration. Biol. Conserv. 105(2):243-253.

Negash, L. 2002. Successful vegetative propagation techniques for the threatened African pencil cedar (Juniperus procera Hoechst. ex Endl.). Forest Ecol. Manag. 161(1-3):53-64.

Negi, H.R., and Gadgil, M. 2002. Cross-taxon surrogacy of biodiversity in the Indian Garhwal Himalaya. Biol. Conserv. 105(2):143-155.

Negrelle, R.R.B. 2002. The Atlantic forest in the Volta Velha Reserve: a tropical rain forest site outside the tropics. Biodivers. Conserv. 11(5):887-919.

Ní Bhriain, B., Skeffington, M.S., and Gormally, M. 2002. Conservation implications of land use practices on the plant and carabid beetle communities of two turloughs in Co. Galway, Ireland. Biol. Conserv. 105(1):81-92.

Oo, N.W. 2002. Present state and problems of mangrove management in Myanmar. Trees-Struct. Funct. 16(2-3):218-223.

Ormerod, S.J. 2002. Applied issues with predators and predation: editor's introduction. J. Appl. Ecol. 39(2):181-188.

Paine, T.D., and Millar, J.G. 2002. Insect pests of eucalypts in California: implications of managing invasive species. Bull. Entomol. Res. 92(2):147-151.

Parker, M., and Mac Nally, R. 2002. Habitat loss and the habitat fragmentation threshold: an experimental evaluation of impacts on richness and total abundances using grassland invertebrates. Biol. Conserv. 105(2):217-229.

Parker, R.W., Paige, K.N., and De Vries, A.L. 2002. Genetic variation among populations of the Antarctic toothfish: evolutionary insights and implications for conservation. Polar Biol. 25(4):256-261.

Partl, E., Szinovatz, V., Reimoser, F., and Schweiger-Adler, J. 2002. Forest restoration and browsing impact by roe deer. Forest Ecol. Manag. 159(1-2):87-100.

Pelton, G.A., and Conran, J.G. 2002. Comparison of two rolled sandy heath communities within a single fire patch in Ngarkat Conservation Park, South Australia. Austral Ecol. 27(1):85-93.

Penny, J.L., and Douglas, G.W. 2001. Status of the Purple Sanicle, Sanicula bipinnatifida (Apiaceae), in Canada. Can. Field-Natural. 115(3):460-465.

Perez, J.M., Granados, J.E., Soriguer, R.C., Fandos, P., Marquez, F.J., and Crampe, J.P. 2002. Distribution, status and conservation problems of the Spanish ibex, Capra pyrenaica (Mammalia: Artiodactyla). Mammal Rev. 32(1):26-39.

Perry, W.L., Lodge, D.M., and Feder, J.L. 2002. Importance of hybridization between indigenous and nonindigenous freshwater species: an overlooked threat to North American biodiversity. Syst. Biol. 51(2):255-275.

Petchey, O.L., and Gaston, K.J. 2002. Functional diversity (FD), species richness and community composition. Ecol. Lett. 5(3):402-411.

Petrovskii, S.V., Morozov, A.Y., and Venturino, E. 2002. Allee effect makes possible patchy invasion in a predator-prey system. Ecol. Lett. 5(3):345-352.

Pietsch, S.A., and Hasenauer, H. 2002. Using mechanistic modeling within forest ecosystem restoration. Forest Ecol. Manag. 159(1-2):111-131.

Powell, A.N., Firtz, C.L., Peterson, B.L., and Terp, J.M. 2002. Status of breeding and wintering snowy plovers in San Diego County, California, 1994-1999. J. Field Ornithol. 73(2):156-165.

Precht, W.F., Bruckner, A.W., Aronson, R.B., and Bruckner, R.J. 2002. Endangered acroporid corals of the Caribbean. Coral Reefs 21(1):41-42.

Probert, P.K. 2002. Ocean science and conservation - catching the wave. Aquat. Conserv. 12(2):165-168.

Progar, R.A., and Schowalter, T.D. 2002. Canopy arthropod assemblages along a precipitation and latitudinal gradient among Douglas-fir Pseudotsuga menziesii forests in the Pacific Northwest of the United States. Ecography 25(2):129-138.

Pywell, R.F., Bullock, J.M., Hopkins, A., Walker, K.J., Sparks, T.H., Burke, M.J.W., and Peel, S. 2002. Restoration of species-rich grassland on arable land: assessing the limiting processes using a multi-site experiment. J. Appl. Ecol. 39(2):294-309.

Randriamahefasoa, J. 2001. Impact of hunting on Meller's duck Anas melleri at Lac Alaotra, Madagascar. Dodo 37:98.

Ranius, T. 2002. Osmoderma eremita as an indicator of species richness of beetles in tree hollows. Biodivers. Conserv. 11(5):931-941.

Raphael, M.G., Mack, D.E., and Cooper, B.A. 2002. Landscape-scale relationships between abundance of marbled murrelets and distribution of nesting habitat. Condor 104(2):331-342.

Rasool, F., Tunio, S., Hasnain, S.A., and Ahmad, E. 2002. Mangrove conservation along the coast of Sonmiani, Balochistan, Pakistan. Trees-Struct. Funct. 16(2-3):213-217.

Razafindrajao, F., Lewis, R., Nichols, R., and Woolaver, L. 2001. Discovery of a new breeding population of Madagascar teal Anas bernieri in north-west Madagascar. Dodo 37:60-69.

Reinhammar, L.G., Olsson, E.G.A., and Sormeland, E. 2002. Conservation biology of an endangered grassland plant species, Pseudorchis albida, with some references to the closely related alpine P. straminea (Orchidaceae). Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 139(1):47-66.

Reyers, B., Fairbanks, D.H.K., Wessels, K.J., and Van Jaarsveld, A.S. 2002. A multicriteria approach to reserve selection: addressing long-term biodiversity maintenance. Biodivers. Conserv. 11(5):769-793.

Richards, K., Brasington, J., and Hughes, F. 2002. Geomorphic dynamics of floodplains: ecological implications and a potential modelling strategy. Freshwater Biol. 47(4):559-579.

Roberts, C.M., McClean, C.J., Veron, J.E.N., Hawkins, J.P., Allen, G.R., McAllister, D.E., Mittermeier, C.G., Schueler, F.W., Spalding, M., Wells, F., Vynne, C., and Werner, T.B. 2002. Coral reef biodiversity and conservation - response. Science 296(5570):1027-1028.

Robinson, C.T., Tockner, K., and Ward, J.V. 2002. The fauna of dynamic riverine landscapes. Freshwater Biol. 47(4):661-677.

Rodrigues, A.S.L., and Gaston, K.J. 2002. Maximising phylogenetic diversity in the selection of networks of conservation areas. Biol. Conserv. 105(1):103-111.

Rogers, G., and Walker, S. 2002. Taxonomic and ecological profiles of rarity in the New Zealand vascular flora. New Zeal. J. Bot. 40(1):73-93.

Rowe, S. 2002. Population parameters of American lobster inside and outside no-take reserves in Bonavista Bay, Newfoundland. Fish. Res. 56(2):167-175.

Ruzickova, H., Halada, L., David, S., and Gerhatova, K. 2001. Management of meadows in the Biosphere Reserve East Carpathians. II. Results after 7 years. Ekol. Bratislava 20:76-87.

Sakai, A.K., Wagner, W.L., and Mehrhoff, L.A. 2002. Patterns of endangerment in the Hawaiian flora. Syst. Biol. 51(2):276-302.

Salinas, M.J., Suárez, V., and Blanca, G. 2002. Demographic structure of three species of Sarcocapnos (Fumariaceae) as a basis for their conservation. Can. J. Bot. 80(4):360-369.

Santos, T., Tellería, J.L., and Carbonell, R. 2002. Bird conservation in fragmented Mediterranean forests of Spain: effects of geographical location, habitat and landscape degradation. Biol. Conserv. 105(1):113-125.

Schadt, S., Revilla, E., Wiegand, T., Knauer, F., Kaczensky, P., Breitenmoser, U., Bufka, L., Cerveny, J., Koubek, P., Huber, T., Stanisa, C., and Trepl, L. 2002. Assessing the suitability of Central European landscapes for the reintroduction of Eurasian Lynx. J. Appl. Ecol. 39(2):189-203.

Schaffers, A.P. 2002. Soil, biomass, and management of semi-natural vegetation - Part II. Factors controlling species diversity. Plant Ecol. 158(2):247-268.

Shaffer, M.L., Scott, J.M., and Casey, F. 2002. Noah's options: initial cost estimates of a national system of habitat conservation areas in the United States. BioScience 52(5):439-443.

Shanley, P., Luz, L., and Swingland, I.R. 2002. The faint promise of a distant market: a survey of Belém's trade in non-timber forest products. Biodivers. Conserv. 11(4):615-636.

Sharma, H.C., and Ortiz, R. 2002. Host plant resistance to insects: an eco-friendly approach for pest management and environment conservation. J. Environ. Biol. 23(2):111-135.

Sheikh, K., Ahmad, T., and Khan, M.A. 2002. Use, exploitation and prospects for conservation: people and plant biodiversity of Naltar Valley, northwestern Karakorums, Pakistan. Biodivers. Conserv. 11(4):715-742.

Shiau, Y.J., Sagare, A.P., Chen, U.C., Yang, S.R., and Tsay, H.S. 2002. Conservation of Anoectochilus formosanus Hayata by artificial cross-pollination and in vitro culture of seeds. Bot. Bull. Acad. Sin. 43(2):123-130.

Shunula, J.P. 2002. Public awareness, key to mangrove management and conservation: the case of Zanzibar. Trees-Struct. Funct. 16(2-3):209-212.

Sieren, E., and Fischer, F.P. 2002. Evaluation of measures for enlargement, renaturation and development of a dry grassland biotope by analysing differences in the carabid fauna (Coleoptera). Acta Oecol. 23(1):1-12.

Sierra, R., Campos, F., and Chamberlin, J. 2002. Assessing biodiversity conservation priorities: ecosystem risk and representativeness in continental Ecuador. Landscape Urban Plan. 59(2):95-110.

Skinner, M.W., and Sorrie, B.A. 2002. Conservation and ecology of Lilium pyrophilum, a new species of Liliaceae from the Sandhills region of the Carolinas and Virginia, USA. Novon 12(1):94-105.

Smith, M., and Cawly, J. 2002. Effect of achene morphology and mass on germination and seedling growth of Boltonia decurrens (Asteraceae), a threatened floodplain species. Rhodora 104(917):1-13.

Solari, S., Rodriguez, J.J., Vivar, E., and Velazco, P.M. 2002. A framework for assessment and monitoring of small mammals in a lowland tropical forest. Environ. Monit. Assess. 76(1):89-104.

Stoate, C. 2002. Multifunctional use of a natural resource on farmland: wild pheasant (Phasianus colchicus) management and the conservation of farmland passerines. Biodivers. Conserv. 11(4):561-573.

Storz, J.F., Ramakrishnan, U., and Alberts, S.C. 2002. Genetic effective size of a wild primate population: influence of current and historical demography. Evolution 56(4):817-829.

Strykstra, R.J., Bekker, R.M., and Van Andel, J. 2002. Dispersal and life span spectra in plant communities: a key to safe site dynamics, species coexistence and conservation. Ecography 25(2):145-160.

Sverdrup-Thygeson, A. 2002. Key habitats in the Norwegian production forest: a case study. Scand. J. Forest Res. 17(2):166-178.

Sweetser, M.G., Bryan, S.D., and Robinson, A.T. 2002. Movement, distribution, and predation: Lepidomeda vittata and nonnative salmonids in eastern Arizona. West. N. Am. Naturalist 62(2):197-205.

Swinnerton, K. 2001. Ecology and conservation of the pink pigeon Columba mayeri on Mauritius. Dodo 37:99.

Tallmon, D.A., Draheim, H.M., Mills, L.S., and Allendorf, F.W. 2002. Insights into recently fragmented vole populations from combined genetic and demographic data. Mol. Ecol. 11(4):699-709.

Tam, N.F.Y., and Wong, Y.S. 2002. Conservation and sustainable exploitation of mangroves in Hong Kong. Trees-Struct. Funct. 16(2-3):224-229.

Thirgood, S.J., Redpath, S.M., Campbell, S., and Smith, A. 2002. Do habitat characteristics influence predation on red grouse? J. Appl. Ecol. 39(2):217-225.

Tole, L. 2002. Habitat loss and anthropogenic disturbance in Jamaica's Hellshire Hills area. Biodivers. Conserv. 11(4):575-598.

Újvári, B., Madsen, T., Kotenko, T., Olsson, M., Shine, R., and Wittzell, H. 2002. Low genetic diversity threatens imminent extinction for the Hungarian meadow viper (Vipera ursinii rakosiensis). Biol. Conserv. 105(1):127-130.

Usseglio-Polatera, P., and Beisel, J.N. 2002. Longitudinal changes in macroinvertebrate assemblages in the Meuse River: anthropogenic effects versus natural change. River Res. Appl. 18(2):197-211.

Venkataraman, A.B., Kumar, N.V., Varma, S., and Sukumar, R. 2002. Conservation of a flagship species: prioritizing Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) conservation units in southern India. Curr. Sci. 82(8):1022-1033.

Vesely, D.G., and McComb, W.C. 2002. Salamander abundance and amphibian species richness in riparian buffer strips in the Oregon Coast Range. Forest Sci. 48(2):291-297.

Vidthayanon, C., and Premcharoen, S. 2002. The status of estuarine fish diversity in Thailand. Mar. Freshwater Res. 53(2):471-478.

Wahlberg, N., Klemetti, T., and Hanski, I. 2002. Dynamic populations in a dynamic landscape: the metapopulation structure of the marsh fritillary butterfly. Ecography 25(2):224-232.

Walker, S., and Lee, W.G. 2002. Alluvial grasslands of Canterbury and Marlborough, eastern South Island, New Zealand: vegetation patterns and long-term change. J. Royal Soc. N. Z. 32(1):113-147.

Warren, R.D., and Witter, M.S. 2002. Monitoring trends in bat populations through roost surveys: methods and data from Rhinolophus hipposideros. Biol. Conserv. 105(2):255-261.

Wisdom, M.J., Wales, B.C., Holthausen, R.S., Hann, W.J., and Hemstrom, M.A. 2002. A habitat network for terrestrial wildlife in the interior Columbia Basin. Northwest Sci. 76(1):1-14.

Wisdom, M.J., Warren, N.M., and Wales, B.C. 2002. Vertebrates of conservation concern in the interior northwest: priorities for research. Northwest Sci. 76(1):90-97.

Wormington, K.R., Lamb, D., McCallum, H.I., and Moloney, D.J. 2002. Habitat requirements for the conservation of arboreal marsupials in dry sclerophyll forests of Southeast Queensland, Australia. Forest Sci. 48(2):217-227.

Yates, E.J., Ashwath, N., and Midmore, D.J. 2002. Responses to nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and sodium chloride by three mangrove species in pot culture. Trees-Struct. Funct. 16(2-3):120-125.

Yela, J.L. 2002. The internal genitalia as a taxonomic tool: description of the relict endemic moth, Coranarta restricta sp n., from the Iberian Peninsula (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae: Hadeninae). Entomol. Fennica 13(1):1-12.

Zakai, D., and Chadwick-Furman, N.E. 2002. Impacts of intensive recreational diving on reef corals at Eilat, northern Red Sea. Biol. Conserv. 105(2):179-187.


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