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Department ofBotany



No. 241
January 2005


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In This Issue


Taking Strides for the Fox on Stilts


Researchers at the National Zoo's Conservation & Research Center in Front Royal, Virginia, are collaborating with scientists in Brazil's Associação Pró-Carnívoros to study the impact of human development on maned wolf ecology, behavior, reproduction, and health in the Serra da Canastra National Park, Minas Gerais State. Besides being the largest canid of South America, the maned wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus) is one of the most unusual canids in the world. It is the only member of its genus, and has an evolutionary history that dates back six million years in South America.

Adult maned wolves weigh 50-60 pounds and usually travel alone, staying in pairs only during breeding seasons. Their thick red coat is long at the neck and shoulders, forming a mane that may become erect when they feel threatened. Having evolved to live in the tall grasses of the South American savannas, the wolves have absurdly long black legs, an elongated snout, a fox-like head, and huge, erect ears, earning them the moniker "fox on stilts."

Maned wolves live in the Cerrado, the second-largest biome in South America, encompassing about 23 percent of Brazil's land mass. Currently, more than 80 percent of the Cerrado has been converted or modified in some way by humans. The greatest impact comes from the growing agricultural frontier, increased colonization, and the creation of many new highways.

Since March 2004, the study's researchers have captured and radio-collared 8 wolves, and have obtained blood and urine samples for analysis of hematology, blood biochemistry, parasitology, and potential exposure to any infectious diseases transmitted by domestic dogs living in 50 farms surrounding the national park. The relatively high density of domestic dogs around the park's boundary represents a disease transmission threat that could potentially wipe out the entire maned wolf population. Currently, the researchers are setting 19 traps in the park and farms to capture more wolves for the study.

The study's collective findings will eventually be offered in a formal report to the National Brazilian Environmental Agency to assist in the development of conservation action plans for the maned wolf and other species sharing the same habitat. The results could provide the basis for more convincing arguments for expanding protected areas, establishing corridors, and limiting changes in land use. The findings will also be useful for adopting captive husbandry and management protocols that are closer to the species' natural conditions, with the ultimate goal of establishing viable, healthy captive populations.


Biodiversity Hotspot Highlight: Western Ghats, India


By Jayanti Ray Mukherjee <jayanti_rm@yahoo.com>

Kalakad and Mundanthurai, in the southern Western Ghats mountain range of India, were two separate entities until 1988, when owing to their importance for conservation of threatened plants and animals, the province was proclaimed the Kalakad - Mundanthurai Tiger Reserve (KMTR). These verdant hills lie along the south-western coast of the Indian Peninsula, which is well known as a global biodiversity hotspot. The KMTR harbors five broad forest types ranging from tropical dry to evergreen forests. Its entire stretch of pristine evergreen forests houses a rich repository of rare and endangered species of flora and fauna, which can be attributed to the biogeography and isolation of this region along with its varied climates.

The area has high plant diversity harboring 1,500 plant species of which 150 are narrow endemics. This domain also provides more than 250 species of medicinal plants and wild relatives of cultivated plants like mango, banana, jackfruit, cardamom, ginger, pepper, tea and coffee. Sixty-six species of orchids have found a home in this region, 8 species with a very narrow distribution. Recently, Paphiopedilum druryi Pfitz., was rediscovered in the wild after having been thought to be extinct for a hundred years.

KMTR has 77 mammal species, 273 bird species, 37 amphibian species, 81 reptile species and 33 fish species. It is the southernmost home for the Indian tiger (Panthera tigris), and also retains several endemic and threatened mammals such as the Nilgiri tahr (Hemitragus hylocrius), lion-tailed macaque (Macaca silenus), the Nilgiri marten (Martes gwatkinsi sub sp.), and others.

Like any other protected area in India, KMTR has threats to its biodiversity. It is bounded by 145 villages along the 5-km stretch of buffer zone, and widespread disturbance processes, such as livestock grazing, fuelwood collection, and sudden outbreaks of fire, occur in parallel with rare instances of poaching, gem stone collection and extraction of minor forest products.

The area was used as a model for World Bank's successful Ecodevelopment Project during which the Wildlife Institute of India, Dehradun, accepted the challenge of conducting a multi-disciplinary research project in KMTR. The major goal of the project was to document various components of biodiversity and to quantify the dependence of the local people on its natural resources for formulating long-term conservation and ecodevelopment goals. Although the project successfully identified a range of important ecological and socio-economic issues facing the KTMR, there remains a long way to go to implement a management strategy based on these findings.


Current Literature


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Allendorf, F.W., Leary, R.F., Hitt, N.P., Knudsen, K.L., Lundquist, L.L., and Spruell, P. 2004. Intercrosses and the US Endangered Species Act: should hybridized populations be included as westslope cutthroat trout? Conserv. Biol. 18(5):1203-1213.

Alley, H., and Affolter, J.M. 2004. Experimental comparison of reintroduction methods for the endangered Echinacea laevigata (Boynton and Beadle) Blake. Nat. Areas J. 24(4):345-350.

Allison, E.H., and Badjeck, M.C. 2004. Livelihoods, local knowledge and the integration of economic development and conservation concerns in the lower Tana River basin. Hydrobiologia 527(1):19-23.

Als, T.D., Vila, R., Kandul, N.P., Nash, D.R., Yen, S.H., Hsu, Y.F., Mignault, A.A., Boomsma, J.J., and Pierce, N.E. 2004. The evolution of alternative parasitic life histories in large blue butterflies. Nature 432(7015):386-390.

Andelman, S.J., Groves, C., and Regan, H.M. 2004. A review of protocols for selecting species at risk in the context of US Forest Service viability assessments. Acta Oecol. 26(2):75-83.

Anderson, P.K., Cunningham, A.A., Patel, N.G., Morales, F.J., Epstein, P.R., and Daszak, P. 2004. Emerging infectious diseases of plants: pathogen pollution, climate change and agrotechnology drivers. TREE 19(10):535-544.

Angelibert, S., Marty, P., Cereghino, R., and Giani, N. 2004. Seasonal variations in the physical and chemical characteristics of ponds: implications for biodiversity conservation. Aquat. Conserv. 14(5):439-456.

Aquilani, S.M., and Brewer, J.S. 2004. Area and edge effects on forest songbirds in a non-agricultural upland landscape in northern Mississippi, USA. Nat. Areas J. 24(4):326-335.

Arkoosh, M.R., Johnson, L., Rossignol, P.A., and Collier, T.K. 2004. Predicting the impact of perturbations on salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) communities: implications for monitoring. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 61(7):1166-1175.

Aung, M., Swe, K.K., Oo, T., Moe, K.K., Leimgruber, P., Allendorf, T., Duncan, C., and Wemmer, C. 2004. The environmental history of Chatthin Wildlife Sanctuary, a protected area in Myanmar (Burma). J. Environ. Manage. 72(4):205-216.

Avilés, J.M., and Parejo, D. 2004. Farming practices and roller Coracias garrulus conservation in south-west Spain. Bird Conserv. Int. 14(3):173-181.

Barker, N.H.L., and Roberts, C.M. 2004. Scuba diver behaviour and the management of diving impacts on coral reefs. Biol. Conserv. 120(4):481-489.

Barlow, J., and Peres, C.A. 2004. Avifaunal responses to single and recurrent wildfires in Amazonian forests. Ecol. Appl. 14(5):1358-1373.

Beck, M.W., Marsh, T.D., Reisewitz, S.E., and Bortman, M.L. 2004. New tools for marine conservation: the leasing and ownership of submerged lands. Conserv. Biol. 18(5):1214-1223.

Bienen, L. 2004. Thamin conservation hinges on park's history. Front. Ecol. Environ. 2(7):344.

Bird, B.L., Branch, L.C., and Miller, D.L. 2004. Effects of coastal lighting on foraging behavior of beach mice. Conserv. Biol. 18(5):1435-1439.

Blake, S., and Hedges, S. 2004. Sinking the flagship: the case of forest elephants in Asia and Africa. Conserv. Biol. 18(5):1191-1202.

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Bro, E., Mayot, P., Corda, E., and Reitz, F. 2004. Impact of habitat management on grey partridge populations: assessing wildlife cover using a multisite BACI experiment. J. Appl. Ecol. 41(5):846-857.

Brown, J.H., and Sax, D.E. 2004. An essay on some topics concerning invasive species. Austral Ecol. 29(5):530-536.

Calvete, C., and Estrada, R. 2004. Short-term survival and dispersal of translocated European wild rabbits. Improving the release protocol. Biol. Conserv. 120(4):507-516.

Cardoso, P., Silva, I., de Oliveira, N.G., and Serrano, A.R.M. 2004. Indicator taxa of spider (Araneae) diversity and their efficiency in conservation. Biol. Conserv. 120(4):517-524.

Ceballos, C.P., and Fitzgerald, A.A. 2004. The trade in native and exotic turtles in Texas. Wildlife Soc. Bull. 32(3):881-892.

Cederbaum, S.B., Carroll, J.P., and Cooper, R.J. 2004. Effects of alternative cotton agriculture on avian and arthropod populations. Conserv. Biol. 18(5):1272-1282.

Chee, Y.E. 2004. An ecological perspective on the valuation of ecosystem services. Biol. Conserv. 120(4):549-565.

Chen, Z.Y., Li, B., Zhong, Y., and Chen, J.K. 2004. Local competitive effects of introduced Spartina alterniflora on Scirpus mariqueter at Dongtan of Chongming Island, the Yangtze River estuary and their potential ecological consequences. Hydrobiologia 528(1-3):99-106.

Choquenot, D., Nicol, S.J., and Koehn, J.D. 2004. Bioeconomic modelling in the development of invasive fish policy. New Zeal. J. Mar. Fresh. 38(3):419-428.

Coma, R., Pola, E., Ribes, M., and Zabala, M. 2004. Long-term assessment of temperate octocoral mortality patterns, protected vs. unprotected areas. Ecol. Appl. 14(5):1466-1478.

Coomes, O.T., and Ban, N. 2004. Cultivated plant species diversity in home gardens of an Amazonian peasant village in northeastern Peru. Econ. Bot. 58(3):420-434.

Corney, P.M., Le Duc, M.G., Smart, S.M., Kirby, K.J., Bunce, R.G.H., and Marrs, R.H. 2004. The effect of landscape-scale environmental drivers on the vegetation composition of British woodlands. Biol. Conserv. 120(4):491-505.

Cox, J. 2004. Commentary: Population declines and generation lengths can bias estimates of vulnerability. Wildlife Soc. Bull. 32(3):979-982.

Cuevas, J.G., Marticorena, A., and Cavieres, L.A. 2004. New additions to the introduced flora of the Juan Fernandez Islands: origin, distribution, life history traits, and potential of invasion. Rev. Chil. Hist. Nat. 77(3):523-538.

Cumming, G.S. 2004. The impact of low-head dams on fish species richness in Wisconsin, USA. Ecol. Appl. 14(5):1495-1506.

Cuthbert, R. 2004. Breeding biology of the Atlantic petrel, Pterodroma incerta, and a population estimate of this and other burrowing petrels on Gough Island, South Atlantic Ocean. Emu 104(3):221-228.

Davis, A.P., and Mvungi, E.F. 2004. Two new and endangered species of Coffea (Rubiaceae) from the Eastern Arc Mountains (Tanzania) and notes on associated conservation issues. Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 146(2):237-245.

Davis, S.K. 2004. Area sensitivity in grassland passerines: effects of patch size, patch shape, and vegetation structure on bird abundance and occurrence in southern Saskatchewan. Auk 121(4):1130-1145.

Decandido, R., Muir, A.A., and Gargiullo, M.B. 2004. A first approximation of the historial and extant vascular flora of New York City: implications for native plant species conservation. J. Torrey Bot. Soc. 131(3):243-251.

Dech, J.P., and Nosko, P. 2004. Rapid growth and early flowering in an invasive plant, purple loosestrife (Lythrum salicaria L.) during an El Nino spring. Int. J. Biometeorol. 49(1):26-31.

del Viejo, A.M., Vega, X., González, M.A., and Sánchez, J.M. 2004. Disturbance sources, human predation and reproductive success of seabirds in tropical coastal ecosystems of Sinaloa State, Mexico. Bird Conserv. Int. 14(3):191-202.

Donmez, A.A., and Mutlu, B. 2004. A new species of Nigella (Ranunculaceae) from Turkey. Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 146(2):251-255.

Drake, J.M., and Bossenbroek, J.M. 2004. The potential distribution of zebra mussels in the United States. BioScience 54(10):931-941.

Driscoll, M.J.L., and Donovan, T.M. 2004. Landscape context moderates edge effects: nesting success of wood thrushes in central New York. Conserv. Biol. 18(5):1330-1338.

Dukes, J.S., and Mooney, H.A. 2004. Disruption of ecosystem processes in western North America by invasive species. Rev. Chil. Hist. Nat. 77(3):411-437.

Duval, M.A., Rader, D.N., and Lindeman, K.C. 2004. Linking habitat protection and marine protected area programs to conserve coral reefs and associated back reef habitats. Bull. Mar. Sci. 75(2):321-334.

Ebenman, B., Law, R., and Borrvall, C. 2004. Community viability analysis: the response of ecological communities to species loss. Ecology 85(9):2591-2600.

Elderkin, C.L., Perkins, E.J., Leberg, P.L., Klerks, P.L., and Lance, R.F. 2004. Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analysis of the genetic structure of the zebra mussel, Dreissena polymorpha, in the Mississippi River. Freshwater Biol. 49(11):1487-1494.

Estoup, A., Beaumont, M., Sennedot, F., Moritz, C., and Cornuet, J.M. 2004. Genetic analysis of complex demographic scenarios: spatially expanding populations of the cane toad, Bufo marinus. Evolution 58(9):2021-2036.

Ewel, J.J., and Putz, F.E. 2004. A place for alien species in ecosystem restoration. Front. Ecol. Environ. 2(7):354-360.

Fabricius, K.E., and De'ath, G. 2004. Identifying ecological change and its causes: a case study on coral reefs. Ecol. Appl. 14(5):1448-1465.

Fashing, P.J. 2004. Mortality trends in the African cherry (Prunus africana) and the implications for colobus monkeys (Colobus guereza) in Kakamega Forest, Kenya. Biol. Conserv. 120(4):449-459.

Fensham, R.J., Fairfax, R.J., and Sharpe, P.R. 2004. Spring wetlands in seasonally arid Queensland: floristics, environmental relations, classification and conservation values. Aust. J. Bot. 52(5):583-595.

Fernández, J., Toro, M.A., and Caballero, A. 2004. Managing individuals' contributions to maximize the allelic diversity maintained in small, conserved populations. Conserv. Biol. 18(5):1358-1367.

Fischer, J., Lindenmayer, D.B., and Fazey, I. 2004. Appreciating ecological complexity: habitat contours as a conceptual landscape model. Conserv. Biol. 18(5):1245-1253.

Ford, W.M., Stephenson, S.L., Menzel, J.M., Black, D.R., and Edwards, J.W. 2004. Habitat characteristics of the endangered Virginia northern flying squirrel (Glaucomys sabrinus fuscus) in the central Appalachian mountains. Am. Midl. Nat. 152(2):430-438.

Forseth, I.N., and Innis, A.F. 2004. Kudzu (Pueraria montana): history, physiology, and ecology combine to make a major ecosystem threat. Critical Rev. Plant Sci. 23(5):401-413.

Ganas, J., Robbins, M.M., Nkurunungi, J.B., Kaplin, B.A., and McNeilage, A. 2004. Dietary variability of mountain gorillas in Bwindi Impenetrable National Park, Uganda. Int. J. Primatol. 25(5):1043-1072.

Gerber, L.R., Tinker, M.T., Doak, D.F., Estes, J.A., and Jessup, D.A. 2004. Mortality sensitivity in life-stage simulation analysis: a case study of southern sea otters. Ecol. Appl. 14(5):1554-1565.

Gleason, R.A., Euliss, N.H., Hubbard, D.E., and Duffy, W.G. 2004. Invertebrate egg banks of restored, natural, and drained wetlands in the prairie pothole region of the United States. Wetlands 24(3):562-572.

Gleason, S.M., and Ares, A. 2004. Photosynthesis, carbohydrate storage and survival of a native and an introduced tree species in relation to light and defoliation. Tree Physiol. 24(10):1087-1097.

Godfree, R.C., Young, A.G., Lonsdale, W.M., Woods, M.J., and Burdon, J.J. 2004. Ecological risk assessment of transgenic pasture plants: a community gradient modelling approach. Ecol. Lett. 7(11):1077-1089.

Golladay, S.W., Gagnon, P., Kearns, M., Battle, J.M., and Hicks, D.W. 2004. Response of freshwater mussel assemblages (Bivalvia: Unionidae) to a record drought in the Gulf Coastal Plain of southwestern Georgia. J. N. Am. Benthol. Soc. 23(3):494-506.

González-Astorga, J.G., Cruz-Angón, A., Flores-Palacios, A., and Vovides, A.P. 2004. Diversity and genetic structure of the Mexican endemic epiphyte Tillandsia achyrostachys E. Morr. ex Baker var. achyrostachys (Bromeliaceae). Ann. Botany 94(4):545-551.

Goolsby, J.A. 2004. Potential distribution of the invasive Old World climbing fern, Lygodium microphyllum in North and South America. Nat. Areas J. 24(4):351-353.

Gower, D.J., Bhatta, G., Giri, V., Oommen, O.V., Ravichandran, M.S., and Wilkinson, M. 2004. Biodiversity in the Western Ghats: the discovery of new species of caecilian amphibians. Curr. Sci. 87(6):739-740.

Graham, L.E. 2004. Foreword to the special issue on invasive plants. Critical Rev. Plant Sci. 23(5):365.

Grant, T.A., Madden, E., and Berkey, G.B. 2004. Tree and shrub invasion in northern mixed-grass prairie: implications for breeding grassland birds. Wildlife Soc. Bull. 32(3):807-818.

Gray, M.J., Smith, L.M., and Brenes, R. 2004. Effects of agricultural cultivation on demographics of Southern High Plains amphibians. Conserv. Biol. 18(5):1368-1377.

Guidetti, P., Fraschetti, S., Terlizzi, A., and Boero, F. 2004. Effects of desertification caused by Lithophaga lithophaga (Mollusca) fishery on littoral fish assemblages along rocky coasts of southeastern Italy. Conserv. Biol. 18(5):1417-1423.

Haig, S.M., Mullins, T.D., Forsman, E.D., Trail, P.W., and Wennerberg, L. 2004. Genetic identification of spotted owls, barred owls, and their hybrids: legal implications of hybrid identity. Conserv. Biol. 18(5):1347-1357.

Halbert, N.D., Raudsepp, T., Chowdhary, B.P., and Derr, J.N. 2004. Conservation genetic analysis of the Texas state bison herd. J. Mammal. 85(5):924-931.

Harden, G.J., Fox, M.D., and Fox, B.J. 2004. Monitoring and assessment of restoration of a rainforest remnant at Wingham Brush, NSW. Austral Ecol. 29(5):489-507.

Hardie, S.A., Barmuta, L.A., and White, R.W.G. 2004. Threatened fishes of the world: Galaxias auratus Johnston, 1883 (Galaxiidae). Environ. Biol. Fish. 71(2):126.

Harveson, P.M., Tewes, M.E., and Anderson, G.L. 2004. Habitat use by ocelots in south Texas: implications for restoration. Wildlife Soc. Bull. 32(3):948-954.

Hawbaker, T.J., and Radeloff, V.C. 2004. Roads and landscape pattern in northern Wisconsin based on a comparison of four road data sources. Conserv. Biol. 18(5):1233-1244.

Heikkinen, R.K., Luoto, M., Virkkala, R., and Rainio, K. 2004. Effects of habitat cover, landscape structure and spatial variables on the abundance of birds in an agricultural-forest mosaic. J. Appl. Ecol. 41(5):824-835.

Heilmann-Clausen, J., and Christensen, M. 2004. Does size matter? On the importance of various dead wood fractions for fungal diversity in Danish beech forests. Forest Ecol. Manag. 201(1):105-119.

Hewitt, C.L., Willing, J., Bauckham, A., Cassidy, A.M., Cox, C.M.S., Jones, L., and Wotton, D.M. 2004. New Zealand marine biosecurity: delivering outcomes in a fluid environment. New Zeal. J. Mar. Fresh. 38(3):429-438.

Hickey, A.J.R., Lavery, S.D., Eyton, S.R., and Clements, K.D. 2004. Verifying invasive marine fish species using molecular techniques: a model example using triplefin fishes (family Tripterygiidae). New Zeal. J. Mar. Fresh. 38(3):439-446.

Holl, K.D., and Crone, E.E. 2004. Applicability of landscape and island biogeography theory to restoration of riparian understorey plants. J. Appl. Ecol. 41(5):922-933.

Homan, R.N., Windmiller, B.S., and Reed, J.M. 2004. Critical thresholds associated with habitat loss for two vernal pool-breeding amphibians. Ecol. Appl. 14(5):1547-1553.

Hook, P.B., Olson, B.E., and Wraith, J.M. 2004. Effects of the invasive forb Centaurea maculosa on grassland carbon and nitrogen pools in Montana, USA. Ecosystems 7(6):686-694.

Howe, H.F., and Lane, D. 2004. Vole-driven succession in experimental wet-prairie restorations. Ecol. Appl. 14(5):1295-1305.

Jackson, J.E., Raadik, T.A., Lintermans, M., and Hammer, M. 2004. Alien salmonids in Australia: impediments to effective impact management, and future directions. New Zeal. J. Mar. Fresh. 38(3):447-455.

Jiang, L., and Morin, P.J. 2004. Productivity gradients cause positive diversity-invasibility relationships in microbial communities. Ecol. Lett. 7(11):1047-1057.

Jongepierova, I., Jongepier, J.W., and Klimes, L. 2004. Restoring grassland on arable land: an example of a fast spontaneous succession without weed-dominated stages. Preslia 76(4):361-369.

Juutinen, A., and Monkkonen, M. 2004. Testing alternative indicators for biodiversity conservation in old-growth boreal forests: ecology and economics. Ecol. Econ. 50(1-2):35-48.

Kati, V., Devillers, P., Dufrêne, M., Legakis, A., Vokou, D., and Lebrun, P. 2004. Hotspots, complementarity or representativeness? Designing optimal small-scale reserves for biodiversity conservation. Biol. Conserv. 120(4):471-480.

Keith, D.A., McCarthy, M.A., Regan, H., Regan, T., Bowles, C., Drill, C., Craig, C., Pellow, B., Burgman, M.A., Master, L.L., Ruckelshaus, M., Mackenzie, B., Andelman, S.J., and Wade, P.R. 2004. Protocols for listing threatened species can forecast extinction. Ecol. Lett. 7(11):1101-1108.

Kercher, S.M., Carpenter, Q.J., and Zedler, J.B. 2004. Interrelationships of hydrologic disturbance, reed canary grass (Phalaris arundinacea L.), and native plants in Wisconsin wet meadows. Nat. Areas J. 24(4):316-325.

Koehn, J.D., and MacKenzie, R.F. 2004. Priority management actions for alien freshwater fish species in Australia. New Zeal. J. Mar. Fresh. 38(3):457-472.

Koehn, J.D., and McDowall, R.M. 2004. Invasive species: fish and fisheries workshop overview, then and now - foreword. New Zeal. J. Mar. Fresh. 38(3):383-389.

Kolar, C. 2004. Risk assessment and screening for potentially invasive fishes. New Zeal. J. Mar. Fresh. 38(3):391-397.

Kremen, C., Williams, N.M., Bugg, R.L., Fay, J.P., and Thorp, R.W. 2004. The area requirements of an ecosystem service: crop pollination by native bee communities in California. Ecol. Lett. 7(11):1109-1119.

Kumara, H.N., and Singh, M. 2004. Distribution and abundance of primates in rain forests of the Western Ghats, Karnataka, India and the conservation of Macaca silenus. Int. J. Primatol. 25(5):1001-1018.

Laffaille, P., Baisez, A., Rigaud, C., and Feunteun, E. 2004. Habitat preferences of different European eel size classes in a reclaimed marsh: a contribution to species and ecosystem conservation. Wetlands 24(3):642-651.

Larson, M.A., Thompson, F.R., Millspaugh, J.J., Dijak, W.D., and Shifley, S.R. 2004. Linking population viability, habitat suitability, and landscape simulation models for conservation planning. Ecol. Model. 180(1):103-118.

Lavergne, S., and Molofsky, J. 2004. Reed canary grass (Phalaris arundinacea) as a biological model in the study of plant invasions. Critical Rev. Plant Sci. 23(5):415-429.

Lee, D.K., Kang, H.S., and Park, Y.D. 2004. Natural restoration of deforested woodlots in South Korea. Forest Ecol. Manag. 201(1):23-32.

Lee, D.K., and Sayer, J. 2004. Restoration research on degraded forest ecosystems - preface. Forest Ecol. Manag. 201(1):1.

Lee, K.A., and Klasing, K.C. 2004. A role for immunology in invasion biology. TREE 19(10):523-529.

Lee, S., Ma, S., Lim, Y., Choi, H.K., and Shin, H. 2004. Genetic diversity and its implications in the conservation of endangered Zostera japonica in Korea. J. Plant Biol. 47(3):275-281.

Lesica, P., and McCune, B. 2004. Decline of arctic-alpine plants at the southern margin of their range following a decade of climatic warming. J. Veg. Sci. 15(5):679-690.

Levine, J.M., and Rees, M. 2004. Effects of temporal variability on rare plant persistence in annual systems. Am. Nat. 164(3):350-363.

Li, W.H. 2004. Degradation and restoration of forest ecosystems in China. Forest Ecol. Manag. 201(1):33-41.

Li, Y., Cheng, Z.M., Smith, W.A., Ellis, D.R., Chen, Y.Q., Zheng, X.L., Pei, Y., Luo, K.M., Zhao, D.G., Yao, Q.H., Duan, H., and Li, Q. 2004. Invasive ornamental plants: problems, challenges, and molecular tools to neutralize their invasiveness. Critical Rev. Plant Sci. 23(5):381-389.

Ling, N. 2004. Gambusia in New Zealand: really bad or just misunderstood? New Zeal. J. Mar. Fresh. 38(3):473-480.

Lintermans, M. 2004. Human-assisted dispersal of alien freshwater fish in Australia. New Zeal. J. Mar. Fresh. 38(3):481-501.

Lotts, K.C., Waite, T.A., and Vucetich, J.A. 2004. Reliability of absolute and relative predictions of population persistence based on time series. Conserv. Biol. 18(5):1224-1232.

Lotze, H.K., and Milewski, I. 2004. Two centuries of multiple human impacts and successive changes in a North Atlantic food web. Ecol. Appl. 14(5):1428-1447.

Luken, J.O. 2004. An index of invasion for the ground layer of riparian forest vegetation. Nat. Areas J. 24(4):336-340.

Lunney, D., Gresser, S.M., Mahon, P.S., and Matthews, A. 2004. Post-fire survival and reproduction of rehabilitated and unburnt koalas. Biol. Conserv. 120(4):567-575.

Lynch, A.J.J., and Balmer, J. 2004. The ecology, phytosociology and stand structure of an ancient endemic plant Lomatia tasmanica (Proteaceae) approaching extinction. Aust. J. Bot. 52(5):619-627.

MacDonald, G.E. 2004. Cogongrass (Imperata cylindrica) - biology, ecology, and management. Critical Rev. Plant Sci. 23(5):367-380.

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Nowak, A., and Nowak, S. 2004. The effectiveness of plant conservation: a case study of Opole Province, southwest Poland. Environ. Manage. 34(3):363-371.

O'Connell, A.F., Gilbert, A.T., and Hatfield, J.S. 2004. Contribution of natural history collection data to biodiversity assessment in national parks. Conserv. Biol. 18(5):1254-1261.

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Pacheco, L.F. 2004. Large estimates of minimum viable population sizes. Conserv. Biol. 18(5):1178-1179.

Palacios, C.J. 2004. Current status and distribution of birds of prey in the Canary Islands. Bird Conserv. Int. 14(3):203-213.

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Phillips, B.L., Brown, G.P., and Shine, R. 2004. Assessing the potential for an evolutionary response to rapid environmental change: invasive toads and an Australian snake. Evol. Ecol. Res. 6(6):799-811.

Pina, G.P.L., Gamez, R.A.C., and Gonzalez, C.A.L. 2004. Distribution, habitat association, and activity patterns of medium and large sized mammals of Sonora, Mexico. Nat. Areas J. 24(4):354-357.

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Pressey, R.L., Watts, M.E., and Barrett, T.W. 2004. Is maximizing protection the same as minimizing loss? Efficiency and retention as alternative measures of the effectiveness of proposed reserves. Ecol. Lett. 7(11):1035-1046.

Price, P.W., Abrahamson, W.G., Hunter, M.D., and Melika, G. 2004. Using gall wasps on oaks to test broad ecological concepts. Conserv. Biol. 18(5):1405-1416.

Pujadas-Salvà, A.J., and Crespo, M.B. 2004. A new species of Orobanche (Orobanchaceae) from south-eastern Spain. Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 146(1):97-102.

Pywell, R.F., Bullock, J.M., Walker, K.J., Coulson, S.J., Gregory, S.J., and Stevenson, M.J. 2004. Facilitating grassland diversification using the hemiparasitic plant Rhinanthus minor. J. Appl. Ecol. 41(5):880-887.

Reed, D.H., O'Grady, J.J., Brook, B.W., Ballou, J.D., and Frankham, R. 2004. Large estimates of minimum viable population sizes. Conserv. Biol. 18(5):1179.

Regan, T.J., Master, L.L., and Hammerson, G.A. 2004. Capturing expert knowledge for threatened species assessments: a case study using NatureServe conservation status ranks. Acta Oecol. 26(2):95-107.

Reynolds, J.C., Short, M.J., and Leigh, R.J. 2004. Development of population control strategies for mink Mustela vison, using floating rafts as monitors and trap sites. Biol. Conserv. 120(4):533-543.

Ricketts, T.H. 2004. Tropical forest fragments enhance pollinator activity in nearby coffee crops. Conserv. Biol. 18(5):1262-1271.

Rickey, M.A., and Anderson, R.C. 2004. Effects of nitrogen addition on the invasive grass Phragmites australis and a native competitor Spartina pectinata. J. Appl. Ecol. 41(5):888-896.

Ripple, W.J., and Beschta, R.L. 2004. Wolves, elk, willows, and trophic cascades in the upper Gallatin Range of Southwestern Montana, USA. Forest Ecol. Manag. 200(1-3):161-181.

Ross, R.M., Redell, L.A., Bennett, R.M., and Young, J.A. 2004. Mesohabitat use of threatened hemlock forests by breeding birds of the Delaware river basin in northeastern United States. Nat. Areas J. 24(4):307-315.

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Royle, J.A. 2004. Modeling abundance index data from anuran calling surveys. Conserv. Biol. 18(5):1378-1385.

Sadlier, R.A., Smith, S.A., Bauer, A.M., and Whitaker, A.H. 2004. A new genus and species of live-bearing scincid lizard (Reptilia: Scincidae) from New Caledonia. J. Herpetol. 38(3):320-330.

Safi, K., and Kerth, G. 2004. A comparative analysis of specialization and extinction risk in temperate-zone bats. Conserv. Biol. 18(5):1293-1303.

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Sánchez-Fernández, D., Abellán, P., Velasco, J., and Millán, A. 2004. Selecting areas to protect the biodiversity of aquatic ecosystems in a semiarid Mediterranean region using water beetles. Aquat. Conserv. 14(5):465-479.

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Schierenbeck, K.A. 2004. Japanese honeysuckle (Lonicera japonica) as an invasive species; history, ecology, and context. Critical Rev. Plant Sci. 23(5):391-400.

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Shin, J.H., and Lee, D.K. 2004. Strategies for restoration of forest ecosystems degraded by forest fire in Kangwon ecoregion of Korea. Forest Ecol. Manag. 201(1):43-56.

Silliman, B.R., and Bertness, M.D. 2004. Shoreline development drives invasion of Phragmites australis and the loss of plant diversity on New England salt marshes. Conserv. Biol. 18(5):1424-1434.

Sirén, A., Hambäck, P., and Machoa, E. 2004. Including spatial heterogeneity and animal dispersal when evaluating hunting: a model analysis and an empirical assessment in an Amazonian community. Conserv. Biol. 18(5):1315-1329.

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Sorensen, P.W., and Stacey, N.E. 2004. Brief review of fish pheromones and discussion of their possible uses in the control of non-indigenous teleost fishes. New Zeal. J. Mar. Fresh. 38(3):399-417.

Spyreas, G., Ellis, J., Carroll, C., and Molano-Flores, B. 2004. Non-native plant commonness and dominance in the forests, wetlands, and grasslands of Illinois, USA. Nat. Areas J. 24(4):290-299.

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Wickramasinghe, L.P., Harris, S., Jones, G., and Jennings, N.V. 2004. Abundance and species richness of nocturnal insects on organic and conventional farms: effects of agricultural intensification on bat foraging. Conserv. Biol. 18(5):1283-1292.

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Zhang, B., Fang, S.G., and Xi, Y.M. 2004. Low genetic diversity in the endangered crested ibis Nipponia nippon and implications for conservation. Bird Conserv. Int. 14(3):183-190.

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