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Department ofBotany



No. 247
July 2005


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In This Issue


Natural History Research Proves Integral for Plant Conservation


Effective conservation of biodiversity is dependent upon a firm understanding of the basic biological attributes of species. The immense data on plants and animals contained in the collections of the world's natural history museums, herbaria, and botanical gardens have always been critical for conservation purposes, but only recently have museum scientists become active in assessing and developing environmental management programs. In a recently published book, Plant Conservation: A Natural History Approach edited by Gary A. Krupnick and W. John Kress (University of Chicago Press), scientists from the National Museum of Natural History at the Smithsonian Institution along with their collaborators have presented a convincing portrait of the importance of museum research for effective conservation assessment and management.

Plant Conservation: A Natural History Approach. Edited by Gary A. Krupnick and W. John Kress

Plant Conservation explores the value of botanical collections and museum science in contemporary biodiversity conservation studies. Plant conservation is explored from a natural history perspective through the actions, observations, and investigations of botanists in the field, herbaria, and laboratory. No less than 27 scientists from the Smithsonian Institution participated in writing the book. They were joined by 21 collaborators representing research institutions in the USA, Brazil, England, Germany, Scotland, and Venezuela.

Plant Conservation is launched with a provocative foreword by Dan Janzen and then proceeds with a broad view of plant biodiversity, a consideration of evolutionary and taxonomic consequences of habitat alteration, a review of specific threats to plant diversity (such as invasive species and global climate change), a discussion of the consequences of plant population decline at the ecological, evolutionary, and taxonomic levels, an assessment of techniques for mapping centers of botanical diversity, and, finally, an overview of management strategies that protect plant biodiversity from further decline.

In this book, plants are considered in their broadest sense, including marine algae, unicellular dinoflagellates, lichens, mosses, and flowering plants while a multitude of habitats from all corners of the globe are covered from species-rich tropical rain forests to underwater kelp forests.

Plant Conservation emphasizes the role museums and botanical gardens with their rich holdings of scientific collections and unique perspective on the diversity of life will ultimately play in the future of biodiversity conservation.


Epicenter of Marine Biodiversity is Discovered


Increased marine conservation efforts in the Philippines are warranted as justified in a study by Kent Carpenter (Old Dominion University) and Victor Springer (National Museum of Natural History) just published in the journal Environmental Biology of Fishes. The Indo-Malay-Philippines Archipelago (IMPA) has long been recognized as harboring more marine species than any other comparable area in the world. Based on an analysis of the generalized distributions of 2,983 marine species that are of interest to or enter the commercial fisheries of the IMPA, the authors found that within the IMPA, the Philippines has the highest concentration of marine fish species per unit of area. This study corroborates a study by Roberts et al. (2002) based on coral reef species.

The identification of the Philippines as a major center of marine biodiversity is troubling to the authors because of the heightened level of threat to marine environments there. "The concentration of limited range endemics in the Philippines poses a danger of mass extinctions on a marine scale similar to endangered Brazilian rainforests." But "solely as an example of peak diversity and endemism, there is ample justification to prioritize the Philippines for conservation."


Current Literature


Albrecht, W.D., Maschinski, J., Mracna, A., and Murray, S. 2005. A community participatory project to restore a native grassland. Nat. Areas J. 25(2):137-146.

Alley, H., Rieger, M., and Affolter, J.M. 2005. Effects of developmental light level on photosynthesis and biomass production in Echinacea laevigata, a federally listed endangered species. Nat. Areas J. 25(2):117-122.

Alves, R., Figueiredo, E., and Davis, A.P. 2005. Taxonomy and conservation of the genus Psychotria (Rubiaceae) in S.Tome e Principe (Gulf of Guinea). Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 147(4):469-481.

Andersen, A.N., Cook, G.D., Corbett, L.K., Douglas, M.M., Eager, R.W., Russell-Smith, J., Setterfield, S.A., Williams, R.J., and Woinarski, J.C.Z. 2005. Fire frequency and biodiversity conservation in Australian tropical savannas: implications from the Kapalga fire experiment. Austral Ecol. 30(2):155-167.

Arellano, L., Favila, M.E., and Huerta, C. 2005. Diversity of dung and carrion beetles in a disturbed Mexican tropical montane cloud forest and on shade coffee plantations. Biodivers. Conserv. 14(3):601-615.

Avendaño-Mendoza, C., Morón-Ríos, A., Cano, E., and León-Cortés, J. 2005. Dung beetle community (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Scarabaeinae) in a tropical landscape at the Lachua Region, Guatemala. Biodivers. Conserv. 14(4):801-822.

Balcombe, C.K., Anderson, J.T., Fortney, R.H., Rentch, J.S., Grafton, W.N., and Kordek, W.S. 2005. A comparison of plant communities in mitigation and reference wetlands in the mid-Appalachians. Wetlands 25(1):130-142.

Benavides, A.M., Duque, A.J., Duivenvoorden, J.F., Vasco, G.A., and Callejas, R. 2005. A first quantitative census of vascular epiphytes in rain forests of Colombian Amazonia. Biodivers. Conserv. 14(3):739-758.

Bernhardt, E.S., Palmer, M.A., Allan, J.D., Alexander, G., Barnas, K., Brooks, S., Carr, J., Clayton, S., Dahm, C., Follstad-Shah, J., Galat, D., Gloss, S., Goodwin, P., Hart, D., Hassett, B., Jenkinson, R., Katz, S., Kondolf, G.M., Lake, P.S., Lave, R., Meyer, J.L., O'Donnell, T.K., Pagano, L., Powell, B., and Sudduth, E. 2005. Synthesizing US river restoration efforts. Science 308(5722):636-637.

Birks, H.J.B. 2005. Mind the gap: how open were European primeval forests? TREE 20(4):154-156.

Botsford, L.W. 2005. Potential contributions of marine reserves to sustainable fisheries: recent modeling results. Bull. Mar. Sci. 76(2):245-259.

Bourmaud, C.A.F., Abouïdane, A., Boissier, P., Leclère, L., Mirault, E., and Pennober, G. 2005. Coastal and marine biodiversity of La Reunion. Indian J. Mar. Sci. 34(1):98-103.

Branca, F., Bahcevandziev, K., Perticone, V., and Monteiro, A. 2005. Sources of resistance to downy mildew (Peronospora parasitica (Pers. (ex Fr.) Fr.) in Sicilian germplasm of cauliflower and broccoli. Biodivers. Conserv. 14(4):841-848.

Brauer, J. 2005. Establishing indicators for biodiversity. Science 308(5723):791.

Breceda, A., Arriaga, L., Bojorquez, L., and Rodriguez, M. 2005. Defining critical areas for conservation and restoration in a Mexican biosphere reserve: a case study. Nat. Areas J. 25(2):123-129.

Brennan, L.A., and Kuvlesky, W.P. 2005. North American grassland birds: an unfolding conservation crisis? J. Wildlife Manag. 69(1):1-13.

Bruneau, A., Joly, S., Starr, J.R., and Drouin, J.N. 2005. Molecular markers indicate that the narrow Quebec endemics Rosa rousseauiorum and Rosa williamsii are synonymous with the widespread Rosa blanda. Can. J. Bot. 83(4):386-398.

Bulte, E.H., and Rondeau, D. 2005. Why compensating wildlife damages may be bad for conservation. J. Wildlife Manag. 69(1):14-19.

Bundy, A., Fanning, P., and Zwanenburg, K.C.T. 2005. Balancing exploitation and conservation of the eastern Scotian shelf ecosystem: application of a 4D ecosystem exploitation index. ICES J. Mar. Sci. 62(3):503-510.

Bustamante, R.O., and Simonetti, J.A. 2005. Is Pinus radiata invading the native vegetation in central Chile? Demographic responses in a fragmented forest. Biol. Invasions 7(2):243-249.

Carlsson, N.O.L., and Lacoursiere, J.O. 2005. Herbivory on aquatic vascular plants by the introduced golden apple snail (Pomacea canaliculata) in Lao PDR. Biol. Invasions 7(2):233-241.

Carpaneto, G.M., Mazziotta, A., and Piattella, E. 2005. Changes in food resources and conservation of scarab beetles: from sheep to dog dung in a green urban area of Rome (Coleoptera, Scarabaeoidea). Biol. Conserv. 123(4):547-556.

Carpenter, A.I., Robson, O., Rowcliffe, J.M., and Watkinson, A.R. 2005. The impacts of international and national governance changes on a traded resource: a case study of Madagascar and its chameleon trade. Biol. Conserv. 123(3):279-287.

Carpenter, K.E., and Springer, V.G. 2005. The center of marine shore fish biodiversity: the Philippine Islands. Environ. Biol. Fish. 72(4):467-480.

Casazza, G., Barberis, G., and Minuto, L. 2005. Ecological characteristics and rarity of endemic plants of the Italian Maritime Alps. Biol. Conserv. 123(3):361-371.

Cassey, P., Blackburn, T.M., Duncan, R.P., and Lockwood, J.L. 2005. Lessons from the establishment of exotic species: a meta-analytical case study using birds. J. Anim. Ecol. 74(2):250-258.

Castilla, J.C., Uribe, M., Bahamonde, N., Clarke, M., Desqueyroux-Faúndez, R., Kong, I., Moyano, H., Rozbaczylo, N., Santelices, B., Valdovinos, C., and Zavala, P. 2005. Down under the southeastern Pacific: marine non-indigenous species in Chile. Biol. Invasions 7(2):213-232.

Chatrou, L.W., and Pirie, M.D. 2005. Three new rarely collected or endangered species of Annonaceae from Venezuela. Blumea 50(1):33-40.

Chavan, V., Achuthankutty, C.T., Vanden Berghe, E., and Wafar, M. 2005. IndOBIS, an Ocean Biogeographic Information System for assessment and conservation of Indian Ocean biodiversity. Indian J. Mar. Sci. 34(1):120-127.

Cheylan, M., and Grillet, P. 2005. Former and current status of the ocellated lizard Lacerta lepida in France. Implications in terms of conservation. Vie Milieu 55(1):15-30.

Chornesky, E.A., Bartuska, A.M., Aplet, G.H., Britton, K.O., Cummings-Carlson, J., Davis, F.W., Eskow, J., Gordon, D.R., Gottschalk, K.W., Haack, R.A., Hansen, A.J., Mack, R.N., Rahel, F.J., Shannon, M.A., Wainger, L.A., and Wigley, T.B. 2005. Science priorities for reducing the threat of invasive species to sustainable forestry. BioScience 55(4):335-348.

Clark, H.O., Warrick, G.D., Cypher, B.L., Kelly, P.A., Williams, D.F., and Grubbs, D.E. 2005. Competitive interactions between endangered kit foxes and nonnative red foxes. West. N. Am. Naturalist 65(2):153-163.

Clark, S.L., Hallgren, S.W., Stahle, D.W., and Lynch, T.B. 2005. Characteristics of the keystone ancient forest preserve, an old-growth forest in the Cross Timbers of Oklahoma, USA. Nat. Areas J. 25(2):165-175.

Clarke, F.M., Rostant, L.V., and Racey, P.A. 2005. Life after logging: post-logging recovery of a neotropical bat community. J. Appl. Ecol. 42(2):409-420.

Conway, W.C., Smith, L.M., and Ray, J.D. 2005. Shorebird habitat use and nest-site selection in the Playa Lakes Region. J. Wildlife Manag. 69(1):174-184.

Cook, L.F., and Toft, C.A. 2005. Dynamics of extinction: population decline in the colonially nesting tricolored blackbird Agelaius tricolor. Bird Conserv. Int. 15(1):73-88.

Coppeto, S.A., and Harcourt, A.H. 2005. Is a biology of rarity in primates yet possible? Biodivers. Conserv. 14(4):1017-1022.

Cunningham, R.B., and Lindenmayer, D.B. 2005. Modeling count data of rare species: some statistical issues. Ecology 86(5):1135-1142.

Czech, B., Trauger, D.L., Farley, J., Costanza, R., Daly, H.E., Hall, C.A.S., Noss, R.F., Krall, L., and Krausman, P.R. 2005. Establishing indicators for biodiversity. Science 308(5723):791-792.

Danby, R.K., and Slocombe, D.S. 2005. Regional ecology, ecosystem geography, and transboundary protected areas in the St. Elias Mountains. Ecol. Appl. 15(2):405-422.

Davis, A.L.V., Scholtz, C.H., and Deschodt, C. 2005. A dung beetle survey of selected Gauteng nature reserves: implications for conservation of the provincial scarabaeine fauna. Afr. Entomol. 13(1):1-16.

Davis, J.A. 2005. Density and population estimates of Amani sunbird Anthreptes pallidigaster in Kenya's Arabuko-Sokoke Forest. Bird Conserv. Int. 15(1):53-62.

de Gruchy, M.A., Reader, R.J., and Larson, D.W. 2005. Biomass, productivity, and dominance of alien plants: a multihabitat study in a national park. Ecology 86(5):1259-1266.

Desalle, R. 2005. Conservation genetics - genetics at the brink of extinction. Heredity 94(4):386-387.

Diamond, D.D., True, C.D., Gordon, T.M., Sowa, S.P., Foster, W.E., and Jones, K.B. 2005. Influence of targets and assessment region size on perceived conservation priorities. Environ. Manage. 35(2):130-137.

Dickson, B.G., Jenness, J.S., and Beier, P. 2005. Influence of vegetation, topography, and roads on cougar movement in southern California. J. Wildlife Manag. 69(1):264-276.

Dimitrakopoulos, P.G., Galanidis, A., Siamantziouras, A.S.D., and Troumbis, A.Y. 2005. Short-term invasibility patterns in burnt and unburnt experimental Mediterranean grassland communities of varying diversities. Oecologia 143(3):428-437.

Dobson, A.P., Balmford, A., Crane, P.R., Green, R.E., and Mace, G.M. 2005. Establishing indicators for biodiversity - response. Science 308(5723):792.

Doerner, K.C., Braden, W., Cork, J., Cunningham, T., Rice, A., Furman, B.J., and McElroy, D. 2005. Population genetics of resurgence: white-tailed deer in Kentucky. J. Wildlife Manag. 69(1):345-355.

Driscoll, D.A., and Hardy, C.M. 2005. Dispersal and phylogeography of the agamid lizard Amphibolurus nobbi in fragmented and continuous habitat. Mol. Ecol. 14(6):1613-1629.

Dudgeon, D. 2005. Last chance to see ... : ex situ conservation and the fate of the baiji. Aquat. Conserv. 15(2):105-108.

Dzialak, M.R., Lacki, M.J., and Carter, K.M. 2005. Characterization of potential release sites for peregrine falcon reintroduction. Nat. Areas J. 25(2):188-196.

Emerson, B.C., and Kolm, N. 2005. Species diversity can drive speciation. Nature 434(7036):1015-1017.

Ennos, R.A., French, G.C., and Hollingsworth, P.M. 2005. Conserving taxonomic complexity. TREE 20(4):164-168.

Etter, A., McAlpine, C., Pullar, D., and Possingham, H. 2005. Modeling the age of tropical moist forest fragments in heavily-cleared lowland landscapes of Colombia. Forest Ecol. Manag. 208(1-3):249-260.

Fazey, I., Fischer, J., and Lindenmayer, D.B. 2005. Who does all the research in conservation biology? Biodivers. Conserv. 14(4):917-934.

Finlayson, B., Somer, W., Duffield, D., Propst, D., Mellison, C., Pettengill, T., Sexauer, H., Nesler, T., Gurtin, S., Elliot, J., Partridge, F., and Skaar, D. 2005. Native inland trout restoration on national forests in the western United States: time for improvement? Fisheries 30(5):10-19.

Fischer, J., Fazey, I., Briese, R., and Lindenmayer, D.B. 2005. Making the matrix matter: challenges in Australian grazing landscapes. Biodivers. Conserv. 14(3):561-578.

Fischer, J., and Lindenmayer, D.B. 2005. Perfectly nested or significantly nested - an important difference for conservation management. Oikos 109(3):485-494.

Fischer, J., Lindenmayer, D.B., Barry, S., and Flowers, E. 2005. Lizard distribution patterns in the Tumut fragmentation "natural experiment" in south-eastern Australia. Biol. Conserv. 123(3):301-315.

Fletcher, R.J. 2005. Multiple edge effects and their implications in fragmented landscapes. J. Anim. Ecol. 74(2):342-352.

Flores, J., Arredondo, A., and Jurado, E. 2005. Comparative seed germination in species of Turbinicarpus: an endangered cacti genus. Nat. Areas J. 25(2):183-187.

Foissner, W., Berger, H., Xu, K., and Zechmeister-Boltenstern, S. 2005. A huge, undescribed soil ciliate (Protozoa: Ciliophora) diversity in natural forest stands of Central Europe. Biodivers. Conserv. 14(3):617-701.

Fox, G.A. 2005. Extinction risk of heterogeneous populations. Ecology 86(5):1191-1198.

Frankham, R. 2005. Invasion biology - resolving the genetic paradox in invasive species. Heredity 94(4):385.

Freilich, J.E., Camp, R.J., Duda, J.J., and Karl, A.E. 2005. Problems with sampling desert tortoises: a simulation analysis based on field data. J. Wildlife Manag. 69(1):45-56.

Gachet, S., Véla, E., and Tatoni, T. 2005. BASECO: a floristic and ecological database of Mediterranean French flora. Biodivers. Conserv. 14(4):1023-1034.

Gamarra, J.G.P., Montoya, J.M., Alonso, D., and Solé, R.V. 2005. Competition and introduction regime shape exotic bird communities in Hawaii. Biol. Invasions 7(2):297-307.

Garbyal, S.S., Aggarwal, K.K., and Babu, C.R. 2005. Return of biodiversity in Darma valley, Dharchula Himalayas, Uttaranchal, North India following fortuitous changes in traditional lifestyle of the local inhabitants. Curr. Sci. 88(5):722-725.

García, D., Quevedo, M., Obeso, J.R., and Abajo, A. 2005. Fragmentation patterns and protection of montane forest in the Cantabrian range (NW Spain). Forest Ecol. Manag. 208(1-3):29-43.

Garshelis, D.L., Gibeau, M.L., and Herrero, S. 2005. Grizzly bear demographics in and around Banff National Park and Kananaskis Country, Alberta. J. Wildlife Manag. 69(1):277-297.

Ge, X.J., Yu, Y., Yuan, Y.M., Huang, H.W., and Yan, C. 2005. Genetic diversity and geographic differentiation in endangered Ammopiptanthus (Leguminosae) populations in desert regions of northwest China as revealed by ISSR analysis. Ann. Botany 95(5):843-851.

Ge, X.J., Zhang, L.B., Yuan, Y.M., Hao, G., and Chiang, T.Y. 2005. Strong genetic differentiation of the East-Himalayan Megacodon stylophorus (Gentianaceae) detected by inter-simple sequence repeats (ISSR). Biodivers. Conserv. 14(4):849-861.

Goossens, B., Setchell, J.M., Tchidongo, E., Dilambaka, E., Vidal, C., Ancrenaz, A., and Jamart, A. 2005. Survival, interactions with conspecifics and reproduction in 37 chimpanzees released Into the wild. Biol. Conserv. 123(4):461-475.

Goparaju, L., Tripathi, A., and Jha, C.S. 2005. Forest fragmentation impacts on phytodiversity - an analysis using remote sensing and GIS. Curr. Sci. 88(8):1264-1274.

Grelle, C.E.V., Alves, M.A.S., Bergallo, H.G., Geise, L., Rocha, C.F.D., Van Sluys, M., and Caramaschi, U. 2005. Prediction of threatened tetrapods based on the species-area relationship in Atlantic forest, Brazil. J. Zool. 265:359-364.

Griffin, R.D., Stahle, D.W., and Therrell, M.D. 2005. Repeat photography in the ancient Cross Timbers of Oklahoma, USA. Nat. Areas J. 25(2):176-182.

Haig, S.M., Ferland, C.L., Cuthbert, F.J., Dingledine, J., Goossen, J.P., Hecht, A., and McPhillips, N. 2005. A complete species census and evidence for regional declines in piping plovers. J. Wildlife Manag. 69(1):160-173.

Haines, A.M., Tewes, M.E., and Laack, L.L. 2005. Survival and sources of mortality in ocelots. J. Wildlife Manag. 69(1):255-263.

Hamilton, J.B., Curtis, G.L., Snedaker, S.M., and White, D.K. 2005. Distribution of anadromous fishes in the Upper Klamath river watershed prior to hydropower dams - a synthesis of the historical evidence. Fisheries 30(4):10-20.

Hampe, A., and Petit, R.J. 2005. Conserving biodiversity under climate change: the rear edge matters. Ecol. Lett. 8(5):461-467.

Harrod, R.J., and Halpern, C.B. 2005. Effects of experimental shading and competitor removal on vegetative and reproductive performance of Trifolium thompsonii Morton, a rare endemic herb of eastern Washington. Nat. Areas J. 25(2):156-164.

Hebert, C.E., Duffe, J., Weseloh, D.V.C., Senese, E.M.T., and Haffner, G.D. 2005. Unique island habitats may be threatened by double-crested cormorants. J. Wildlife Manag. 69(1):68-76.

Hebert, C.E., and Wassenaar, L.I. 2005. Stable isotopes provide evidence for poor northern pintail production on the Canadian prairies. J. Wildlife Manag. 69(1):101-109.

Henningsen, J.C., and Best, L.B. 2005. Grassland bird use of riparian filter strips in southeast Iowa. J. Wildlife Manag. 69(1):198-210.

Hewitt, C.L., Campbell, M.L., McEnnulty, F., Moore, K.M., Murfet, N.B., Robertson, B., and Schaffelke, B. 2005. Efficacy of physical removal of a marine pest: the introduced kelp Undaria pinnatifida in a Tasmanian marine reserve. Biol. Invasions 7(2):251-263.

Hodder, J., Ebert-May, D., and Williams, K.S. 2005. Unraveling complexity: building an understanding of Everglades restoration. Front. Ecol. Environ. 3(3):170-171.

Holbech, L.H. 2005. The implications of selective logging and forest fragmentation for the conservation of avian diversity in evergreen forests of south-west Ghana. Bird Conserv. Int. 15(1):27-52.

Holt, E.A., and Severns, P.M. 2005. The effects of prescribed burning on wet prairie lichen communities. Nat. Areas J. 25(2):130-136.

Hylander, K., Dynesius, M., Jonsson, B.G., and Nilsson, C. 2005. Substrate form determines the fate of bryophytes in riparian buffer strips. Ecol. Appl. 15(2):674-688.

Iriarte, J.A., Lobos, G.A., and Jaksic, F.M. 2005. Invasive vertebrate species in Chile and their control and monitoring by governmental agencies. Rev. Chil. Hist. Nat. 78(1):143-154.

Jégu, M., and Keith, P. 2005. Threatened fishes of the world: Tometes lebaili (Jégu, Keith & Belmont-Jégu 2002) (Characidae: Serrasalminae). Environ. Biol. Fish. 72(4):378.

Jha, S. 2005. Can Natural World Heritage Sites promote development and social harmony? Biodivers. Conserv. 14(4):981-991.

Jug, T., Berrebi, P., and Snoj, A. 2005. Distribution of non-native trout in Slovenia and their introgression with native trout populations as observed through microsatellite DNA analysis. Biol. Conserv. 123(3):381-388.

Kaczmarsky, L.T., Draud, M., and Williams, E.H. 2005. Is there a relationship between proximity to sewage effluent and the prevalence of coral disease. Caribbean J. Sci. 41(1):124-137.

Kathiresan, K., and Rajendran, N. 2005. Mangrove ecosystems of the Indian Ocean region. Indian J. Mar. Sci. 34(1):104-113.

Katsanevakis, S. 2005. Population ecology of the endangered fan mussel Pinna nobilis in a marine lake. Endang. Species Res. 2005(1):1-9. <http://www.int-res.com/articles/esr/2005/ESR7.pdf>

Keesing, J., and Irvine, T. 2005. Coastal biodiversity in the Indian Ocean: the known, the unknown and the unknowable. Indian J. Mar. Sci. 34(1):11-26.

Kelt, D.A., Konno, E.S., and Wilson, J.A. 2005. Habitat management for the endangered Stephens' kangaroo rat: the effect of mowing and grazing. J. Wildlife Manag. 69(1):424-429.

Kessler, M., Keßler, P.J.A., Gradstein, S.R., Bach, K., Schmull, M., and Pitopang, R. 2005. Tree diversity in primary forest and different land use systems in Central Sulawesi, Indonesia. Biodivers. Conserv. 14(3):547-560.

Kingston, N., and Waldren, S. 2005. A conservation appraisal of the rare and endemic vascular plants of Pitcairn Island. Biodivers. Conserv. 14(4):781-800.

Krabbenhoft, T.J., Rohde, F.C., and Quattro, J.M. 2005. Threatened fishes of the world: Menidia extensa (Hubbs & Raney 1946) (Atherinopsidae). Environ. Biol. Fish. 73(1):48.

Kremen, C. 2005. Managing ecosystem services: what do we need to know about their ecology? Ecol. Lett. 8(5):468-479.

Kresanova, K., Misikova-Janovicova, K., and Kubinska, A. 2005. Diversity of bryophytes in agro-coenoses of Slovakia. Biologia 60(1):9-15.

Krüger, P. 2005. The role of ecotourism in conservation: panacea or Pandora's box? Biodivers. Conserv. 14(3):579-600.

Krupnick, G.A., and Kress, W.J. (eds.). 2005. Plant Conservation: A Natural History Approach. The University of Chicago Press. Chicago and London. 344 pp.

Kubota, Y., Katsuda, K., and Kikuzawa, K. 2005. Secondary succession and effects of clear-logging on diversity in the subtropical forests on Okinawa Island, southern Japan. Biodivers. Conserv. 14(4):879-901.

Lambertsen, R.H., Rasmussen, K.J., Lancaster, W.C., and Hintz, R.J. 2005. Functional morphology of the mouth of the bowhead whale and its implications for conservation. J. Mammal. 86(2):342-352.

Lambrecht-McDowell, S.C., and Radosevich, S.R. 2005. Population demographics and trade-offs to reproduction of an invasive and noninvasive species of Rubus. Biol. Invasions 7(2):281-295.

Lavergne, S., Thuiller, W., Molina, J., and Debussche, M. 2005. Environmental and human factors influencing rare plant local occurrence, extinction and persistence: a 115-year study in the Mediterranean region. J. Biogeogr. 32(5):799-811.

Lee, R.J., Gorog, A.J., Dwiyahreni, A., Siwu, S., Riley, J., Alexander, H., Paoli, G.D., and Ramono, W. 2005. Wildlife trade and implications for law enforcement in Indonesia: a case study from North Sulawesi. Biol. Conserv. 123(4):477-488.

Leonardos, I., Paschos, I., and Prassa, M. 2005. Threatened fishes of the world: Phoxinellus epiroticus (Steindachner 1895) (Cyprinidae). Environ. Biol. Fish. 72(3):250.

Leunda, P.M., Miranda, R., Madoz, J., Parmenter, S., Chen, Y.J., and May, B. 2005. Threatened fishes of the world: Siphateles bicolor snyderi (Miller, 1973) (Cyprinidae). Environ. Biol. Fish. 73(1):109-110.

Li, F.G., and Xa, N.H. 2005. Population structure and genetic diversity of an endangered species, Glyptostrobus pensilis (Cupressaceae). Bot. Bull. Acad. Sin. 46(2):155-162.

Lin, Z.S., and Xie, Z.L. 2005. Does habitat restoration cause species extinction? Biol. Conserv. 123(3):349-354.

Lindsey, P.A., Alexander, R.R., du Toit, J.T., and Mills, M.G.L. 2005. The potential contribution of ecotourism to African wild dog Lycaon pictus conservation in South Africa. Biol. Conserv. 123(3):339-348.

Livingston, P.A., Aydin, K., Boldt, J., Ianelli, J., and Jurado-Molina, J. 2005. A framework for ecosystem impacts assessment using an indicator approach. ICES J. Mar. Sci. 62(3):592-597.

Lobos, G., Ferres, M., and Palma, R.E. 2005. Presence of the invasive genera Mus and Rattus in natural areas in Chile: an environmental and epidemiological risk. Rev. Chil. Hist. Nat. 78(1):113-124.

Lotze, H.K. 2005. Radical changes in the Wadden Sea fauna and flora over the last 2,000 years. Helgoland Mar. Res. 59(1):71-83.

Lotze, H.K., Reise, K., Worm, B., van Beusekom, J., Busch, M., Ehlers, A., Heinrich, D., Hoffmann, R.C., Holm, P., Jensen, C., Knottnerus, O.S., Langhanki, N., Prummel, W., Vollmer, M., and Wolff, W.J. 2005. Human transformations of the Wadden Sea ecosystem through time: a synthesis. Helgoland Mar. Res. 59(1):84-95.

López-García, M.C., and Maillet, J. 2005. Biological characteristics of an invasive south African species. Biol. Invasions 7(2):181-194.

Mal, T.K., and Lovett-Doust, J. 2005. Phenotypic plasticity in vegetative and reproductive traits in an invasive weed, Lythrum salicaria (Lythraceae) in response to soil moisture. Am. J. Bot. 92(5):819-825.

Mark, A.F., and McLennan, B. 2005. The conservation status of New Zealand's indigenous grasslands. New Zeal. J. Bot. 43(1):245-270.

Marsh, H., De'ath, G., Gribble, N., and Lane, B. 2005. Historical marine population estimates: triggers or targets for conservation? The dugong case study. Ecol. Appl. 15(2):481-492.

Martin, B.A., and Saiki, M.K. 2005. Relation of desert pupfish abundance to selected environmental variables in natural and manmade habitats in the Salton Sea basin. Environ. Biol. Fish. 73(1):97-107.

Martin, J.M., and Heske, E.J. 2005. Juvenile dispersal of Franklin's ground squirrel (Spermophilus franklinii) from a prairie "island". Am. Midl. Nat. 153(2):444-449.

Martin-Smith, K.M., and Vincent, A.C.J. 2005. Seahorse declines in the Derwent estuary, Tasmania in the absence of fishing pressure. Biol. Conserv. 123(4):533-545.

Martin, T.G., and Possingham, H.P. 2005. Predicting the impact of livestock grazing on birds using foraging height data. J. Appl. Ecol. 42(2):400-408.

Mayfield, M.M., and Daily, G.C. 2005. Countryside biogeography of neotropical herbaceous and shrubby plants. Ecol. Appl. 15(2):423-439.

McCranie, J.R., Espinal, M.R., and Wilson, L.D. 2005. New species of montane salamander of the Bolitoglossa dunni group from northern Comayagua, Honduras (Urodela: Plethodontidae). J. Herpetol. 39(1):108-112.

McMaster, D.G., Devries, J.H., and Davis, S.K. 2005. Grassland birds nesting in haylands of southern Saskatchewan: landscape influences and conservation priorities. J. Wildlife Manag. 69(1):211-221.

Meléndez-Ackerman, E.J., Aragón, S., Morales-Vargas, M., Sustache, J., Axelrod, F.S., Fuentes, C., Ackerman, J.D., García, M., and Fernández, D.S. 2005. Monitoring efforts yield new plant records for Mona Island, Puerto Rico, a tropical dry forest wonderland. Caribbean J. Sci. 41(1):150-152.

Menzel, J.M., Ford, W.M., Menzel, M.A., Carter, T.C., Gardner, J.E., Garner, J.D., and Hofmann, J.E. 2005. Summer habitat use and home-range analysis of the endangered Indiana bat. J. Wildlife Manag. 69(1):430-436.

Minton, R.L., and Savarese, S.P. 2005. Consideration of genetic relationships in management decisions for the endangered Anthony's riversnail, Leptoxis crassa anthonyi (Redfield, 1854) (Gastropoda: Pleuroceridae). Nautilus 119(1):11-14.

Miranda, R., Leunda, P.M., Escala, C., and Oscoz, J. 2005. Threatened fishes of the world: Barbus haasi (Mertens 1925) (Cyprinidae). Environ. Biol. Fish. 72(3):282.

Mize, R., Evans, R.E., MacRoberts, B.R., MacRoberts, M.H., and Rudolph, D.C. 2005. Restoration of pitcher plant bogs in eastern Texas, USA. Nat. Areas J. 25(2):197-201.

Mockford, S.W., McEachern, L., Herman, T.B., Synder, M., and Wright, J.M. 2005. Population genetic structure of a disjunct population of Blanding's turtle (Emydoidea blandingii) in Nova Scotia, Canada. Biol. Conserv. 123(3):373-380.

Morgan, E.C., and Overholt, W.A. 2005. New records of invasive exotic plant species in St. Lucie County, Florida. Castanea 70(1):59-62.

Morrison, L.W., Korzukhin, M.D., and Porter, S.D. 2005. Predicted range expansion of the invasive fire ant, Solenopsis invicta, in the eastern United States based on the VEMAP global warming scenario. Divers. Distrib. 11(3):199-204.

Moyle, P.B., and Israel, J.A. 2005. Untested assumptions: effectiveness of screening diversions for conservation of fish populations. Fisheries 30(5):20-35.

Nevin, O.T., and Gilbert, B.K. 2005. Measuring the cost of risk avoidance in brown bears: further evidence of positive impacts of ecotourism. Biol. Conserv. 123(4):453-460.

Nicholas, W.L., and Trueman, J.W.H. 2005. Biodiversity of marine nematodes in Australian sandy beaches from tropical and temperate regions. Biodivers. Conserv. 14(4):823-839.

Nyberg, C.D., and Wallentinus, I. 2005. Can species traits be used to predict marine macroalgal introductions? Biol. Invasions 7(2):265-279.

O'Boyle, R., Sinclair, M., Keizer, P., Lee, K., Ricard, D., and Yeats, P. 2005. Indicators for ecosystem-based management on the Scotian shelf: bridging the gap between theory and practice. ICES J. Mar. Sci. 62(3):598-605.

Öckinger, E., Niklasson, M., and Nilsson, S.G. 2005. Is local distribution of the epiphytic lichen Lobaria pulmonaria limited by dispersal capacity or habitat quality? Biodivers. Conserv. 14(3):759-773.

Ogutu, J.O., Bhola, N., and Reid, R. 2005. The effects of pastoralism and protection on the density and distribution of carnivores and their prey in the Mara ecosystem of Kenya. J. Zool. 265:281-293.

Ohtaka, A., Gelder, S.R., Kawai, T., Saito, K., Nakata, K., and Nishino, M. 2005. New records and distributions of two North American branchiobdellidan species (Annelida: Clitellata) from introduced signal crayfish, Pacifastacus leniusculus, in Japan. Biol. Invasions 7(2):149-156.

Olson, M.E., Lomelí, S.J.A., and Cacho, N.I. 2005. Extinction threat in the Pedilanthus clade (Euphorbia Euphorbiaceae) with special reference to the recently rediscovered E. conzattii (P. pulchellus). Am. J. Bot. 92(4):634-641.

Ortega, Y.K., and Pearson, D.E. 2005. Weak vs. strong invaders of natural plant communities: assessing invasibility and impact. Ecol. Appl. 15(2):651-661.

Pärtel, M., Kalamees, R., Reier, Ü., Tuvi, E.L., Roosaluste, E., Vellak, A., and Zobel, M. 2005. Grouping and prioritization of vascular plant species for conservation: combining natural rarity and management need. Biol. Conserv. 123(3):271-278.

Pearl, C.A., Adams, M.J., Leuthold, N., and Bury, R.B. 2005. Amphibian occurrence and aquatic invaders in a changing landscape: implications for wetland mitigation in the Willamette Valley, Oregon, USA. Wetlands 25(1):76-88.

Pearson, D., Shine, R., and Williams, A. 2005. Spatial ecology of a threatened python (Morelia spilota imbricata) and the effects of anthropogenic habitat change. Austral Ecol. 30(3):261-274.

Pearson, R.G., and Dawson, T.P. 2005. Long-distance plant dispersal and habitat fragmentation: identifying conservation targets for spatial landscape planning under climate change. Biol. Conserv. 123(3):389-401.

Peh, K.S.H., de Jong, J., Sodhi, N.S., Lim, S.L.H., and Yap, C.A.M. 2005. Lowland rainforest avifauna and human disturbance: persistence of primar forest birds in selectively logged forests and mixed-rural habitats of southern Peninsular Malaysia. Biol. Conserv. 123(4):489-505.

Pellet, P.F., Ugarte, E., Osorio, E.M., and Herrera, F.D. 2005. Biodiversity conservation in Chile, legally enough? The need for mapping the law before deciding. Rev. Chil. Hist. Nat. 78(1):125-141.

Peters, M.D., McMullen, C.K., and Hill, L.M. 2005. Noteworthy additions to the vascular flora of Rockingham County, Virginia. Castanea 70(1):63-69.

Pollock, M.L., Milner, J.M., Waterhouse, A., Holland, J.P., and Legg, C.J. 2005. Impacts of livestock in regenerating upland birch woodlands in Scotland. Biol. Conserv. 123(4):443-452.

Poulin, J., Weller, S.G., and Sakai, A.K. 2005. Genetic diversity does not affect the invasiveness of fountain grass (Pennisetum setaceum) in Arizona, California and Hawaii. Divers. Distrib. 11(3):241-247.

Prasanthkumar, M.G., Skornickova, J., Sabu, M., and Jayasree, S. 2005. Conservation priority and phytogeographical significance of Rhynchanthus longiflorus Hook. F. (Zingiberaceae): a rare endangered species from Mizo Hills, NE India. Curr. Sci. 88(6):977-980.

Rao, D.V.S. 2005. Comprehensive review of the records of the biota of the Indian Seas and introduction of non-indigenous species. Aquat. Conserv. 15(2):117-146.

Richter, R., and Stromberg, J.C. 2005. Soil seed banks of two montane riparian areas: implications for restoration. Biodivers. Conserv. 14(4):993-1016.

Rohrman, D.F. 2005. Endangering endangered species. Front. Ecol. Environ. 3(3):172.

Rosenzweig, M.L. 2005. Avoiding mass extinction: basic and applied challenges. Am. Midl. Nat. 153(2):195-208.

Rudnick, D., Veldhuizen, T., Tullis, R., Culver, C., Hieb, K., and Tsukimura, B. 2005. A life history model for the San Francisco Estuary population of the Chinese mitten crab, Eriocheir sinensis (Decapoda: Grapsoidea). Biol. Invasions 7(2):333-350.

Rymer, P.D., Whelan, R.J., Ayre, D.J., Weston, P.H., and Russell, K.G. 2005. Reproductive success and pollinator effectiveness differ in common and rare Persoonia species (Proteaceae). Biol. Conserv. 123(4):521-532.

Saarinen, K., Valtonen, A., Jantunen, J., and Saarnio, S. 2005. Butterflies and diurnal moths along road verges: does road type affect diversity and abundance? Biol. Conserv. 123(3):403-412.

Sagar, R., and Singh, J.S. 2005. Structure, diversity, and regeneration of tropical dry deciduous forest of northern India. Biodivers. Conserv. 14(4):935-959.

Salo, L.F. 2005. Red brome (Bromus rubens subsp. madritensis) in North America: possible modes for early introductions, subsequent spread. Biol. Invasions 7(2):165-180.

Sapota, M.R., and Skóra, K.E. 2005. Spread of alien (non-indigenous) fish species Neogobius melanostomus in the Gulf of Gdansk (south Baltic). Biol. Invasions 7(2):157-164.

Saura-Mas, S., and Lloret, F. 2005. Wind effects on dispersal patterns of the invasive alien Cortaderia selloana in Mediterranean wetlands. Acta Oecol. 27(2):129-133.

Scharlemann, J.P.W., Balmford, A., and Green, R.E. 2005. The level of threat to restricted-range bird species can be predicted from mapped data on land use and human population. Biol. Conserv. 123(3):317-326.

Schogolev, I., Rudenko, A., and Crivelli, A.J. 2005. Status of pelicans and cormorants on the northern Black Sea. Bird Conserv. Int. 15(1):63-71.

Schrott, G.R., With, K.A., and King, A.T.W. 2005. On the importance of landscape history for assessing extinction risk. Ecol. Appl. 15(2):493-506.

Schwartz, M.K., and Mills, L.S. 2005. Gene flow after inbreeding leads to higher survival in deer mice. Biol. Conserv. 123(4):413-420.

Sera, B., Ferakova, V., Kocianova, E., Vagenknecht, V., Majzlan, O., and Dubravcova, Z. 2005. Peucedanum arenarium subsp. arenarium - a critically endangered species of the Slovak flora (morphometry, distribution, biology). Biologia 60(1):17-23.

Shahabuddin, Schulze, C.H., and Tscharntke, T. 2005. Changes of dung beetle communities from rainforests towards agroforestry systems and annual cultures in Sulawesi (Indonesia). Biodivers. Conserv. 14(4):863-877.

Shapcott, A., Lamont, R.W., and Thomson, A. 2005. How do rare Boronia species differ from their more widespread congeners? Aust. J. Bot. 53(2):171-183.

Sharma, G.P., Singh, J.S., and Raghubanshi, A.S. 2005. Plant invasions: emerging trends and future implications. Curr. Sci. 88(5):726-734.

Sigg, D.P., Goldizen, A.W., and Pople, A.R. 2005. The importance of mating system in translocation programs: reproductive success of released male bridled nailtail wallabies. Biol. Conserv. 123(3):289-300.

Sihvonen, P., and Siljander, M. 2005. Species diversity and geographical distribution of Scopulini moths (Lepidoptera: Geometridae, Sterrhinae) on a world-wide scale. Biodivers. Conserv. 14(3):703-721.

Simpfendorfer, C.A. 2005. Threatened fishes of the world: Pristis pectinata Latham, 1794 (Pristidae). Environ. Biol. Fish. 73(1):20.

Sinclair, A., Nantel, P., and Catling, P. 2005. Dynamics of threatened goldenseal populations and implications for recovery. Biol. Conserv. 123(3):355-360.

Sklar, F.H., Chimney, M.J., Newman, S., McCormick, P., Gawlik, D., Miao, S.L., McVoy, C., Said, W., Newman, J., Coronado, C., Crozier, G., Korvela, M., and Rutchey, K. 2005. The ecological-societal underpinnings of Everglades restoration. Front. Ecol. Environ. 3(3):161-169.

Smith, K.G. 2005. Effects of nonindigenous tadpoles on native tadpoles in Florida: evidence of competition. Biol. Conserv. 123(4):433-441.

Smith, R.I.L. 2005. The thermophilic bryoflora of Deception Island: unique plant communities as a criterion for designating an Antarctic specially protected area. Antarct. Sci. 17(1):17-27.

Spieles, D.J. 2005. Vegetation development in created, restored, and enhanced mitigation wetland banks of the United States. Wetlands 25(1):51-63.

Stohlgren, T.J., Guenther, D.A., Evangelista, P.H., and Alley, N. 2005. Patterns of plant species richness, rarity, endemism, and uniqueness in an arid landscape. Ecol. Appl. 15(2):715-725.

Sutherst, R.W., and Maywald, G. 2005. A climate model of the red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta Buren (Hymenoptera: Formicidae): implications for invasion of new regions, particularly Oceania. Environ. Entomol. 34(2):317-335.

Talhouk, S.N., Dardas, M., Dagher, M., Clubbe, C., Jury, S., Zurayk, R., and Maunder, M. 2005. Patterns of floristic diversity in semi-natural coastal vegetation of Lebanon and implications for conservation. Biodivers. Conserv. 14(4):903-915.

Taylor, M.F.J., Suckling, K.F., and Rachlinski, J.J. 2005. The effectiveness of the Endangered Species Act: a quantitative analysis. BioScience 55(4):360-367.

Thomson, V.P., and Leishman, M.R. 2005. Post-fire vegetation dynamics in nutrient-enriched and non-enriched sclerophyll woodland. Austral Ecol. 30(3):250-260.

Thorburn, D.C., and Morgan, D.L. 2005. Threatened fishes of the world: Pristis microdon Latham 1794 (Pristidae). Environ. Biol. Fish. 72(4):465-466.

Tolonen, K.T., Holopainen, I.J., Hämäläinen, H., Rahkola-Sorsa, M., Ylöstalo, P., Mikkonen, K., and Karjalainen, J. 2005. Littoral species diversity and biomass: concordance among organismal groups and the effects of environmental variables. Biodivers. Conserv. 14(4):961-980.

Tomasik, E., and Cook, J.A. 2005. Mitochondrial phylogeography and conservation genetics of wolverine (Gulo gulo) of northwestern North America. J. Mammal. 86(2):386-396.

Uezu, A., Metzger, J.P., and Vielliard, J.M.E. 2005. Effects of structural and functional connectivity and patch size on the abundance of seven Atlantic forest bird species. Biol. Conserv. 123(4):507-519.

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van der Horst, D., and Gimona, A. 2005. Where new farm woodlands support biodiversity action plans: a spatial multi-criteria analysis. Biol. Conserv. 123(4):421-432.

Walker, S., Wilson, J.B., and Lee, W.G. 2005. Does fluctuating resource availability increase invasibility? Evidence from field experiments in New Zealand short tussock grassland. Biol. Invasions 7(2):195-211.

Watson, J.E.M., Whittaker, R.J., and Dawson, T.P. 2005. The importance of littoral forest remnants for indigenous bird conservation in southeastern Madagascar. Biodivers. Conserv. 14(3):523-545.

Wätzold, F., and Schwerdtner, K. 2005. Why be wasteful when preserving a valuable resource? A review article on the cost-effectiveness of European biodiversity conservation policy. Biol. Conserv. 123(3):327-338.

Webb, J.K., Shine, R., and Christian, K.A. 2005. Does intraspecific niche partitioning in a native predator influence its response to an invasion by a toxic prey species? Austral Ecol. 30(2):201-209.

Whittingham, M.J., Swetnam, R.D., Wilson, J.D., Chamberlain, D.E., and Freckleton, R.P. 2005. Habitat selection by yellowhammers Emberiza citrinella on lowland farmland at two spatial scales: implications for conservation management. J. Appl. Ecol. 42(2):270-280.

Wilmers, C.C., and Getz, W.M. 2005. Gray wolves as climate change buffers in Yellowstone. PLoS Biol. 3(4):571-576.

Wilsey, B.J., Chalcraft, D.R., Bowles, C.M., and Willig, M.R. 2005. Relationships among indices suggest that richness is an incomplete surrogate for grassland biodiversity. Ecology 86(5):1178-1184.

Wipf, S., Rixen, C., Fischer, M., Schmid, B., and Stoeckli, V. 2005. Effects of ski piste preparation on alpine vegetation. J. Appl. Ecol. 42(2):306-316.

Wofford, J.E.B., Gresswell, R.E., and Banks, M.A. 2005. Influence of barriers to movement on within-watershed genetic variation of coastal cutthroat trout. Ecol. Appl. 15(2):628-637.

Work, T.T., McCullough, D.G., Cavey, J.F., and Komsa, R. 2005. Arrival rate of nonindigenous insect species into the United States through foreign trade. Biol. Invasions 7(2):323-332.

Xie, G.W., Wang, D.L., Yuan, Y.M., and Ge, X.J. 2005. Population genetic structure of Monimopetalum chinense (Celastraceae), an endangered endemic species of eastern China. Ann. Botany 95(5):773-777.

Xie, J.G., Jian, S.G., and Liu, N. 2005. Genetic variation in the endemic plant Cycas debaoensis on the basis of ISSR analysis. Aust. J. Bot. 53(2):141-145.

Yamada, S.B., Dumbauld, B.R., Kalin, A., Hunt, C.E., Figlar-Barnes, R., and Randall, A. 2005. Growth and persistence of a recent invader Carcinus maenas in estuaries of the northeastern Pacific. Biol. Invasions 7(2):309-321.

Yeoman, F., and Mac Nally, R. 2005. The avifaunas of some fragmented, periurban, coastal woodlands in south-eastern Australia. Landscape Urban Plan. 72(4):297-312.

You, M.S., Xu, D.M., Cai, H.J., and Vasseur, L. 2005. Practical importance for conservation of insect diversity in China. Biodivers. Conserv. 14(3):723-737.

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