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Department ofBotany



No. 268
April 2007


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In This Issue


Multiple Pathways for Parasites


Species invading a new habitat often leave their enemies behind. With fewer predators, competitors, and parasites to impede them, some invasive species can be explosively successful in their new home--just like kudzu and zebra mussels. But sometimes old enemies can catch up with invading species. Sometimes they are already there waiting when the species arrives.

Mark Torchin, an ecologist at the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute in Panama, is part of team led by Osamu Miura of the University of Tohuku in Japan that used genetic markers to follow the fortunes of the Asian mud snail, an invasive intertidal species. The snails were inadvertently brought to North America from Japan in the early 1900s when estuaries were seeded with Pacific oysters to boost the seafood industry. In their native range, mud snails are commonly infected with parasitic flatworms called trematodes. The North American immigrants have them too, but to a much lesser extent. Like many parasites, the flatworms have a complex life cycle, involving several host species. Even if the imported snails had been infected with a full complement of trematode species, many would not have been able to reproduce because of missing additional hosts that they require in the environment.

The scientists found that the North American snails were infected with two common trematode species. The snails and one of the trematode species had reduced genetic variation compared to the native populations in Japan. This was expected: The small numbers of individuals that make up founding populations will represent just a fraction of the genetic variation in the home range. The researchers were able to use the genetics to pinpoint where in the original range the snails and flatworms came from.

The other flatworm species, however, did not fit the pattern. Its genetic variation was undiminished, and its genes also seemed to indicate a broad source region. Because trematode flatworms often infect birds as well as snails in their life cycle, Torchin and his colleagues hypothesize that these flatworms crossed the ocean not with the snails, but with migratory shorebirds. If that's the case, then the flatworms would have already been present in the North American environment when the snails arrived.

This was surely bad news for the snails. But does it matter to human beings? Yes it does, the researchers explain in a recent paper published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. As the world becomes increasingly interconnected, we need to better understand the dynamics of how diseases and parasites of humans, livestock, and wildlife are spread by introduced species. This study shows how outbreaks can arise not by the arrival of a new parasite or pathogen, but by the arrival of a key host in its life cycle. The more new species arrive in a region, the higher the chances that infectious agents that were formerly tourists will become pervasive residents.


Current Literature


Al-Johany, A.M.H. 2007. Distribution and conservation of the Arabian Leopard Panthera pardus nimr in Saudi Arabia. J. Arid Environ. 68(1):20-30.

Anderson, N.J., Bugmann, H., Dearing, J.A., and Gaillard, M.J. 2006. Linking palaeoenvironmental data and models to understand the past and to predict the future. Trends Ecol. Evol. 21(12):696-704.

Anderson, P.K. 2006. The Florida manatee: biology and conservation. Q. Rev. Biol. 81(4):410-411.

Arii, K., and Parrott, L. 2006. Examining the colonization process of exotic species varying in competitive abilities using a cellular automaton model. Ecol. Model. 199(3):219-228.

Austin, J.J., and Melville, J. 2006. Incorporating historical museum specimens into molecular systematic and conservation genetics research. Mol. Ecol. Notes 6(4):1089-1092.

Awan, G.A., Festa-Bianchet, M., and Ahmad, T. 2006. Poaching, recruitment and conservation of Punjab urial Ovis vignei punjabiensis. Wildlife Biol. 12(4):443-449.

Awkerman, J.A., Huyvaert, K.P., Mangel, J., Shigueto, J.A., and Anderson, D.J. 2006. Incidental and intentional catch threatens Galápagos waved albatross. Biol. Conserv. 133(4):483-489.

Baldi, R. 2007. Breeding success of the endemic mara Dolichotis patagonum in relation to habitat selection: conservation implications. J. Arid Environ. 68(1):9-19.

Baldwin, R.F., Calhoun, A.J.K., and deMaynadier, P.G. 2006. Conservation planning for amphibian species with complex habitat requirements: a case study using movements and habitat selection of the wood frog Rana sylvatica. J. Herpetol. 40(4):442-453.

Batabyal, A.A., and Lee, D.M. 2006. The infinitesimal, the deterministic, and the probabilistic: alternate container inspection policies in invasive species management. Biol. Invasions 8(8):1663-1671.

Bejder, L., Samuels, A., Whitehead, H., Gales, N., Mann, J., Connor, R., Heithaus, M., Watson-Capps, J., Flaherty, C., and Krutzen, M. 2006. Decline in relative abundance of bottlenose dolphins exposed to long-term disturbance. Conserv. Biol. 20(6):1791-1798.

Bell, K.E., and Donnelly, M.A. 2006. Influence of forest fragmentation on community structure of frogs and lizards in northeastern Costa Rica. Conserv. Biol. 20(6):1750-1760.

Belote, R.T., and Weltzin, J.F. 2006. Interactions between two co-dominant, invasive plants in the understory of a temperate deciduous forest. Biol. Invasions 8(8):1629-1641.

Berger, J., Cain, S.L., and Berger, K.M. 2006. Connecting the dots: an invariant migration corridor links the Holocene to the present. Biol. Lett. 2(4):528-531.

Blazencic, J., Stevanovic, B., Blazencic, Z., and Stevanovic, V. 2006. Red data list of charophytes in the Balkans. Biodivers. Conserv. 15(11):3445-3457.

Bowen, B.W., Grant, W.S., Hillis-Starr, Z., Shaver, D.J., Bjorndal, A., Bolten, A.B., and Bass, A.L. 2007. Mixed-stock analysis reveals the migrations of juvenile hawksbill turtles (Eretmochelys imbricata) in the Caribbean Sea. Mol. Ecol. 16(1):49-60.

Broadhurst, L.M., and Young, A.G. 2006. Reproductive constraints for the long-term persistence of fragmented Acacia dealbata (Mimosaceae) populations in southeast Australia. Biol. Conserv. 133(4):512-526.

Butler, S.J., Vickery, J.A., and Norris, K. 2007. Farmland biodiversity and the footprint of agriculture. Science 315(5810):381-384.

Caley, P., Lonsdale, W.M., and Pheloung, P.C. 2006. Quantifying uncertainty in predictions of invasiveness, with emphasis on weed risk assessment. Biol. Invasions 8(8):1595-1604.

Camacho, A.I., Torres, T., Puch, C.J., Ortiz, J.E., and Valdecasas, A.G. 2006. Small-scale biogeographical patterns in some groundwater Crustacea, the syncarid, Parabathynellidae. Biodivers. Conserv. 15(11):3527-3541.

Carrete, M., Donázar, J.A., Margalida, A., and Bertran, J. 2006. Linking ecology, behaviour and conservation: does habitat saturation change the mating system of bearded vultures? Biol. Lett. 2(4):624-627.

Castellón, T.D., and Sieving, K.E. 2006. Landscape history, fragmentation, and patch occupancy: models for a forest bird with limited dispersal. Ecol. Appl. 16(6):2223-2234.

Cavallari, M.M., Forzza, R.C., Veasey, E.A., Zucchi, M.I., and Oliveira, G.C.X. 2006. Genetic variation in three endangered species of Encholirium (Bromeliaceae) from Cadeia do Espinhaço, Brazil, setected using RAPD markers. Biodivers. Conserv. 15(14):4357-4373.

Chase, J.M., and Knight, T.M. 2006. Effects of eutrophication and snails on Eurasian watermilfoil (Myriophyllum spicatum) invasion. Biol. Invasions 8(8):1643-1649.

Chaulk, K.G., Robertson, G.J., and Montevecchi, W.A. 2006. Extinction, colonization, and distribution patterns of common eider populations nesting in a naturally fragmented landscape. Can. J. Zool. 84(10):1402-1408.

Chetkiewicz, C.L.B., Clair, C.C.S., and Boyce, M.S. 2006. Corridors for conservation: integrating pattern and process. Annu. Rev. Ecol. Evol. S. 37:317-342.

Chung, K.P.S., and Corlett, R.T. 2006. Rodent diversity in a highly degraded tropical landscape: Hong Kong, South China. Biodivers. Conserv. 15(14):4521-4532.

Cisneros-Heredia, D.F., and Mcdiarmid, R.W. 2006. Review of the taxonomy and conservation status of the Ecuadorian Glassfrog Centrolenella puyoensis Flores & McDiarmid (Amphibia: Anura: Centrolenidae). Zootaxa 1361:21-31.

Clavero, M., and García-Berthou, E. 2006. Homogenization dynamics and introduction routes of invasive freshwater fish in the Iberian Peninsula. Ecol. Appl. 16(6):2313-2324.

Cleary, D. 2006. Who needs to spend money on conservation science anyway? Conserv. Biol. 20(6):1567-1568.

Cleary, D.F.R., Suharsono, and Hoeksema, B.W. 2006. Coral diversity across a disturbance gradient in the Pulau Seribu reef complex off Jakarta, Indonesia. Biodivers. Conserv. 15(11):3653-3674.

Cohen, J.B., Fraser, J.D., and Catlin, D.H. 2006. Survival and site fidelity of Piping Plovers on Long Island, New York. J. Field Ornithol. 77(4):409-417.

Collier, K.J., and Smith, B.J. 2006. Distinctive invertebrate assemblages in rockface seepages enhance lotic biodiversity in northern New Zealand. Biodivers. Conserv. 15(11):3591-3616.

Consiglio, T., Schatz, G.E., McPherson, G., Lowry, P.P., Rabenantoandro, J., Rogers, Z.S., Rabevohitra, R., and Rabehevitra, D. 2006. Deforestation and plant diversity of Madagascar's littoral forests. Conserv. Biol. 20(6):1799-1803.

Cook, W.M., and Faeth, S.H. 2006. Irrigation and land use drive ground arthropod community patterns in an urban desert. Environ. Entomol. 35(6):1532-1540.

Costandius, E., Mouton, P.L.N., and Boucher, C. 2006. Conservation status of the dwarf crag lizard, Pseudocordylus nebulosus, from the Hottentots Holland Mountains, South Africa. S. Afr. J. Wildlife Res. 36(2):123-132.

Courchamp, F., Angulo, E., Rivalan, P., Hall, R.J., Signoret, L., Bull, L., and Meinard, Y. 2006. Rarity value and species extinction: the anthropogenic Allee effect. PLoS Biol. 4(12):2405-2410.

Cox, J.G., and Lima, S.L. 2006. Naiveté and an aquatic-terrestrial dichotomy in the effects of introduced predators. Trends Ecol. Evol. 21(12):674-680.

Cruz, M.J., and Rebelo, R. 2007. Colonization of freshwater habitats by an introduced crayfish, Procambarus clarkii, in Southwest Iberian Peninsula. Hydrobiologia 575:191-201.

Czech, B. 2007. The foundation of a new conservation movement: professional society positions on economic growth. BioScience 57(1):6-7.

Czech, B. 2006. If Rome is burning, why are we fiddling? Conserv. Biol. 20(6):1563-1565.

Da Silva, F.S.D., De Deus, J.R.M., and Hilsdorf, A.W.S. 2006. The upper reached ichthyofauna of the Tietê River, São Paulo, Brazil: aspects of their diversity and conservation. Biodivers. Conserv. 15(11):3569-3577.

Daniels, G.D., and Kirkpatrick, J.B. 2006. Does variation in garden characteristics influence the conservation of birds in suburbia? Biol. Conserv. 133(3):326-335.

Davis, A.P., Govaerts, R., Bridson, D.M., and Stoffelen, P. 2006. An annotated taxonomic conspectus of the genus Coffea (Rubiaceae). Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 152(4):465-512.

Davis, A.S., Landis, D.A., Nuzzo, V., Blossey, B., Gerber, E., and Hinz, H.L. 2006. Demographic models inform selection of biocontrol agents for garlic mustard (Alliaria petiolata). Ecol. Appl. 16(6):2399-2410.

Daws, M.I., Hall, J., Flynn, S., and Pritchard, H.W. 2007. Do invasive species have bigger seeds? Evidence from intra- and inter-specific comparisons. S. Afr. J. Bot. 73(1):138-143.

De la Vega-Salazar, M.Y. 2006. Conservation status of Goodeidae family fishes (Cyprinodontiformes) from the Mexican Central Plateau. Rev. Biol. Trop. 54(1):163-177.

De Solla, S.R., Fernie, K.J., Barrett, G.C., and Bishop, C.A. 2006. Population trends and calling phenology of anuran populations surveyed in Ontario estimated using acoustic surveys. Biodivers. Conserv. 15(11):3481-3497.

de Thoisy, B., Hrbek, T., Farias, I.P., Vasconcelos, W.R., and Lavergne, A. 2006. Genetic structure, population dynamics, and conservation of Black caiman (Melanosuchus niger). Biol. Conserv. 133(4):474-482.

Domínguez-Domínguez, O., Martínez-Meyer, E., Zambrano, L., and De León, G.P.P. 2006. Using ecological-niche modeling as a conservation tool for freshwater species: live-bearing fishes in central Mexico. Conserv. Biol. 20(6):1730-1739.

Dunn, R.R., Gavin, M.C., Sanchez, M.C., and Solomon, J.N. 2006. The pigeon paradox: dependence of global conservation on urban nature. Conserv. Biol. 20(6):1814-1816.

Evans, D.M., Redpath, S.M., Evans, S.A., Elston, D.A., Gardner, C.J., Dennis, P., and Pakeman, R.J. 2006. Low intensity, mixed livestock grazing improves the breeding abundance of a common insectivorous passerine. Biol. Lett. 2(4):636-638.

Ewers, R.M., Kliskey, A.D., Walker, S., Rutledge, D., Harding, J.S., and Didham, R.K. 2006. Past and future trajectories of forest loss in New Zealand. Biol. Conserv. 133(3):312-325.

Fernández, M.E., Gyenge, J.E., and Schlichter, T.M. 2007. Balance of competitive and facilitative effects of exotic trees on a native Patagonian grass. Plant Ecol. 188(1):67-76.

Fiaschi, P. 2006. A new species of Dendropanax (Araliaceae) from the state of Espírito Santo, Brazil. Novon 16(4):480-482.

Fitzpatrick, M.C., Weltzin, J.F., Sanders, N.J., and Dunn, R.R. 2007. The biogeography of prediction error: why does the introduced range of the fire ant over-predict its native range? Global Ecol. Biogeogr. 16(1):24-33.

Fordham, D., Georges, A., Corey, B., and Brook, B.W. 2006. Feral pig predation threatens the local persistence of snake-necked indigenous harvest and turtles in northern Australia. Biol. Conserv. 133(3):379-388.

Fox, H.E., Christian, C., Nordby, J.C., Pergams, O.R.W., Peterson, G.D., and Pyke, C.R. 2006. Perceived barriers to integrating social science and conservation. Conserv. Biol. 20(6):1817-1820.

Fromont, J., Vanderklift, M.A., and Kendrick, G.A. 2006. Marine sponges of the Dampier Archipelago, Western Australia: patterns of species distributions, abundance and diversity. Biodivers. Conserv. 15(11):3731-3750.

Fumanal, B., Plenchette, C., Chauvel, B., and Bretagnolle, F. 2006. Which role can arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi play in the facilitation of Ambrosia artemisiifolia L. invasion in France? Mycorrhiza 17(1):25-35.

Gao, L., and Li, B. 2006. A potential native natural enemy of invasive aquatic weed - water hyacinth. Biol. Invasions 8(8):1689-1692.

George, A.L., Neely, D.A., and Mayden, R.L. 2006. Conservation genetics of an imperiled riverine fish from Eastern North America, the Blotchside Logperch, Percina burtoni (Teleostei: Percidae). Copeia 4:585-594.

Giberto, D.A., Bremec, C.S., Schejter, L., Schiariti, A., Mianzan, H., and Acha, E.M. 2006. The invasive rapa whelk Rapana venosa (Valenciennes 1846): status and potential ecological impacts in the Rio de la Plata estuary, Argentina-Uruguay. J. Shellfish Res. 25(3):919-924.

Godoy, R., Wilkie, D.S., Reyes-García, V., Leonard, W.R., Huanca, T., McDade, T., Vadez, V., and Tanner, S. 2006. Human body-mass index (weight in kg/stature in m2) as a useful proxy to assess the relation between income and wildlife consumption in poor rural societies. Biodivers. Conserv. 15(14):4495-4506.

González-Astorga, J., Vovides, A.P., Octavio-Aguilar, P., Aguirre-Fey, D., Nicolalde-Morejón, F., and Iglesias, C. 2006. Genetic diversity and structure of the cycad Zamia loddigesii Miq. (Zamiaceae): implications for evolution and conservation. Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 152(4):533-544.

Gottlieb, R.S. 2006. Real coda to an imaginary trial. Conserv. Biol. 20(6):1574-1575.

Gross, C.L., and Caddy, H.A.R. 2006. Are differences in breeding mechanisms and fertility among populations contributing to rarity in Grevillea rhizomatosa (Proteaceae)? Am. J. Bot. 93(12):1791-1799.

Hadjisterkotis, E. 2006. The destruction and conservation of the Egyptian fruit bat Rousettus aegyptiacus in Cyprus: a historic review. Eur. J. Wildlife Res. 52(4):282-287.

Haig, S.M., Beever, E.A., Chambers, S.M., Draheim, H.M., Dugger, B.D., Dunham, S., Elliott-Smith, E., Fontaine, J.B., Kesler, D.C., Knaus, B.J., Lopes, I.F., Loschl, P., Mullins, T.D., and Sheffield, L.M. 2006. Taxonomic considerations in listing subspecies under the US Endangered Species Act. Conserv. Biol. 20(6):1584-1594.

Hamann, M., Cuong, C.T., Hong, N.D., Thuoc, P., and Thuhien, B.T. 2006. Distribution and abundance of marine turtles in the Socialist Republic of Viet Nam. Biodivers. Conserv. 15(11):3703-3720.

Hastings, A., Hall, R.J., and Taylor, C.M. 2006. A simple approach to optimal control of invasive species. Theor. Popul. Biol. 70(4):431-435.

Hawksworth, D.L. 2006. Marine, freshwater, and wetlands biodiversity conservation - introduction. Biodivers. Conserv. 15(11):3369-3370.

Hayden, T. 2007. Ground force. Nature 445(7127):481-483.

Higgins, J.V., Touval, J.L., Unnasch, R.S., Reichle, S., Oren, D.C., Waldman, W.R., and Hoekstra, J.M. 2006. Who needs to spend money on conservation science anyway? Conserv. Biol. 20(6):1566-1567.

Hill, R., and Sendashonga, C. 2006. Conservation biology genetically modified organisms, and the biosafety protocol. Conserv. Biol. 20(6):1620-1625.

Holm, T.E., and Clausen, P. 2006. Effects of water level management on autumn staging waterbird and macrophyte diversity in three Danish coastal lagoons. Biodivers. Conserv. 15(14):4399-4423.

Hooftman, D.A.P., Oostermeijer, J.G.B., and den Nijs, J.C.M. 2006. Invasive behaviour of Lactuca serriola (Asteraceae) in the Netherlands: spatial distribution and ecological amplitude. Basic Appl. Ecol. 7(6):507-519.

Hoover, J.P., Tear, T.H., and Baltz, M.E. 2006. Edge effects reduce the nesting success of Acadian Flycatchers in a moderately fragmented forest. J. Field Ornithol. 77(4):425-436.

Hopton, M.E., and Mayer, A.L. 2006. Using self-organizing maps to explore patterns in species richness and protection. Biodivers. Conserv. 15(14):4477-4494.

Howard, C., and Parsons, E.C.M. 2006. Attitudes of Scottish city inhabitants to cetacean conservation. Biodivers. Conserv. 15(14):4335-4356.

Huntley, B., Collingham, Y.C., Green, R.E., Hilton, G.M., Rahbek, C., and Willis, S.G. 2006. Potential impacts of climatic change upon geographical distributions of birds. Ibis 148:8-28.

Hyvärinen, E., Kouki, J., and Martikninen, P. 2006. Fire and green-tree retention in conservation of red-listed and rare deadwood-dependent beetles in Finnish boreal forests. Conserv. Biol. 20(6):1711-1719.

Jägerbrand, A.K., Lindblad, K.E.M., Björk, R.G., Alatalo, J.M., and Molau, U. 2006. Bryophyte and lichen diversity under simulated environmental change compared with observed variation in unmanipulated alpine tundra. Biodivers. Conserv. 15(14):4453-4475.

James, M.C., Sherrill-Mix, S.A., Martin, K., and Myers, R.A. 2006. Canadian waters provide critical foraging habitat for leatherback sea turtles. Biol. Conserv. 133(3):347-357.

Jiménez-Valverde, A., and Lobo, J.M. 2006. Distribution determinants of endangered Iberian spider Macrothele calpeiana (Araneae, Hexathelidae). Environ. Entomol. 35(6):1491-1499.

Joseph, L.N., Field, S.A., Wilcox, C., and Possingham, H.P. 2006. Presence-absence versus abundance data for monitoring threatened species. Conserv. Biol. 20(6):1679-1687.

Joseph, P. 2006. Foreseeing the invasion of introduced plant species into the Lesser Antilles. The case of Martinique Island. Rev. Ecol.-Terre Vie 61(3):209-224.

Kaltenborn, B.P., Bjerke, T., Nyahongo, J.W., and Williams, D.R. 2006. Animal preferences and acceptability of wildlife management actions around Serengeti National Park, Tanzania. Biodivers. Conserv. 15(14):4633-4649.

Kamei, M., and Nakagoshi, N. 2006. Geographic assessment of present protected areas in Japan for representativeness of forest communities. Biodivers. Conserv. 15(14):4583-4600.

Karasawa, S., and Hijii, N. 2006. Does the existence of bird's nest ferns enhance the diversity of oribatid (Acari: Oribatida) communities in a subtropical forest? Biodivers. Conserv. 15(14):4533-4553.

Katilmis, Y., Urhan, R., Kaska, Y., and Baskale, E. 2006. Invertebrate infestation on eggs and hatchlings of the loggerhead turtle, Caretta caretta, in Dalaman, Turkey. Biodivers. Conserv. 15(11):3721-3730.

Kneitel, J.M., and Perrault, D. 2006. Disturbance-induced changes in community composition increase species invasion success. Community Ecol. 7(2):245-252.

Koellner, T., and Schmitz, O.J. 2006. Biodiversity, ecosystem function, and investment risk. BioScience 56(12):977-985.

Kollmann, L.J.C., and Sobral, M. 2006. Myrcia inconspicua (Myrtaceae), a new species from Espírito Santo, Brazil. Novon 16(4):501-504.

Kursar, T.A., Caballero-George, C.C., Capson, T.L., Cubilla-Rios, L., Gerwick, W.H., Gupta, M.P., Ibañez, A., Linington, R.G., McPhail, K.L., Ortega-Barría, E., Romero, L.I., Solis, P.N., and Coley, P.D. 2006. Securing economic benefits and promoting conservation through bioprospecting. BioScience 56(12):1005-1012.

Laha, M., and Mattingly, H.T. 2007. Ex situ evaluation of impacts of invasive mosquitofish on the imperiled Barrens topminnow. Environ. Biol. Fish. 78(1):1-11.

Lazzarotto, H., Brito, M.F.G., and Caramaschi, E.P. 2007. Threatened fishes of the world: Pareiorhaphis garbei (Ihering, 1911) (Ostariophysii: Loricariidae). Environ. Biol. Fish. 78(1):91-92.

Lehman, S.M. 2007. Spatial variations in Eulemur fulvus rufus and Lepilemur mustelinus densities in Madagascar. Folia Primatolog. 78(1):46-55.

Lehman, S.M., Rajaonson, A., and Day, S. 2006. Edge effects on the density of Cheirogaleus major. Int. J. Primatol. 27(6):1569-1588.

Lewin, I., and Smolinski, A. 2006. Rare, threatened and alien species in the gastropod communities in the clay pit ponds in relation to the environmental factors (The Ciechanowska Upland, Central Poland). Biodivers. Conserv. 15(11):3617-3635.

Li, Z.Q., Yu, D., Xiong, W., and Wang, D. 2006. Aquatic plants diversity in arid zones of Northwest China: patterns, threats and conservation. Biodivers. Conserv. 15(11):3417-3444.

Li, Z.Q., Yu, D., Xiong, W., Wang, Q., and Tu, M.H. 2006. Testing the higher-taxon approach: a case study of aquatic marcophytes in China's northwest arid zone and its implications for conservation. Biodivers. Conserv. 15(11):3401-3416.

Li, Z.Y., and Rogers, M.E. 2006. Food items consumed by white-headed langurs in Fusui, China. Int. J. Primatol. 27(6):1551-1567.

Lodge, D.M., Williams, S., MacIsaac, H.J., Hayes, K.R., Leung, B., Reichard, S., Mack, R.N., Moyle, P.B., Smith, M., Andow, D.A., Carlton, J.T., and McMichael, A. 2006. Biological invasions: recommendations for US policy and management. Ecol. Appl. 16(6):2035-2054.

Loehle, C. 2006. Endemic plant distributions in eastern North America: implications for conservation. J. Forestry 104(8):415-418.

Loiselle, P.V. 2006. A review of the Malagasy Pachypanchax (Teleostei: Cyprinodontiformes, Aplocheilidae), with descriptions of four new species. Zootaxa 1366:1-44.

Luiselli, L., Akani, G.C., and Politano, E. 2006. Effects of habitat alteration caused by petrochemical activities and oil spills on the habitat use and interspecific relationships among four species of Afrotropical freshwater turtles. Biodivers. Conserv. 15(11):3751-3767.

Maes, D., and Bonte, D. 2006. Using distribution patterns of five threatened invertebrates in a highly fragmented dune landscape to develop a multispecies conservation approach. Biol. Conserv. 133(4):490-499.

Maiorano, L., Falcucci, A., and Boitani, L. 2006. Gap analysis of terrestrial vertebrates in Italy: priorities for conservation planning in a human dominated landscape. Biol. Conserv. 133(4):455-473.

Mandryk, A.M., and Wein, R.W. 2006. Exotic vascular plant invasiveness and forest invasibility in urban boreal forest types. Biol. Invasions 8(8):1651-1662.

Martínez, I., Carreño, F., Escudero, A., and Rubio, A. 2006. Are threatened lichen species well-protected in Spain? Effectiveness of a protected areas network. Biol. Conserv. 133(4):500-511.

Martinich, J.A., Solarz, S.L., and Lyons, J.R. 2006. Preparing students for conservation careers through project-based learning. Conserv. Biol. 20(6):1579-1583.

McGarvey, D.J. 2007. Merging precaution with sound science under the Endangered Species Act. BioScience 57(1):65-70.

McGeoch, M.A., Chown, S.L., and Kalwij, J.M. 2006. A global indicator for biological invasion. Conserv. Biol. 20(6):1635-1646.

Melbourne, B.A., Cornell, H.V., Davies, K.F., Dugaw, C.J., Elmendorf, S., Freestone, A.L., Hall, R.J., Harrison, S., Hastings, A., Holland, M., Holyoak, M., Lambrinos, J., Moore, K., and Yokomizo, H. 2007. Invasion in a heterogeneous world: resistance, coexistence or hostile takeover? Ecol. Lett. 10(1):77-94.

Mercado-Silva, N., Olden, J.D., Maxted, J.T., Hrabik, T.R., and Vander Zanden, M.J. 2006. Forecasting the spread of invasive rainbow smelt in the Laurentian Great Lakes region of North America. Conserv. Biol. 20(6):1740-1749.

Micael, J., Azevedo, J.M.N., and Costa, A.C. 2006. Biological characterisation of a subtidal tunnel in São Miguel island (Azores). Biodivers. Conserv. 15(11):3675-3684.

Miller, M.P., Haig, S.M., and Wagner, R.S. 2006. Phylogeography and spatial genetic structure of the Southern torrent salamander: implications for conservation and management. J. Heredity 97(6):561-570.

Miller, M.P., Weigel, D.E., and Mock, K.E. 2006. Patterns of genetic structure in the endangered aquatic gastropod Valvata utahensis (Mollusca: Valvatidae) at small and large spatial scales. Freshwater Biol. 51(12):2362-2375.

Mitrovski, P., Heinze, D.A., Broome, L., Hoffmann, A.A., and Weeks, A.R. 2007. High levels of variation despite genetic fragmentation in populations of the endangered mountain pygmy-possum, Burramys parvus, in alpine Australia. Mol. Ecol. 16(1):75-87.

Miura, O., Torchin, M.E., Kuris, A.M., Hechinger, R.F., and Chiba, S. 2006. Introduced cryptic species of parasites exhibit different invasion pathways . Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 103(52):19818-19823.

Moilanen, A., Wintle, B.A., Elith, J., and Burgman, M. 2006. Uncertainty analysis for regional-scale reserve selection. Conserv. Biol. 20(6):1688-1697.

Mony, C., Mony, J.F., Thiébaut, G., and Muller, S. 2006. Floristic and ecological diversity of Ranunculus aquatic habitats in the sub-Atlantic range: implications for conservation. Biodivers. Conserv. 15(11):3383-3400.

Moore, J.A., and Gillingham, J.C. 2006. Spatial ecology and multi-scale habitat selection by a threatened rattlesnake: the Eastern Massasauga (Sistrurus catenatus catenatus). Copeia 4:742-751.

Mortimer, J.A., Meylan, P.A., and Donnelly, M. 2007. Whose turtles are they, anyway? Mol. Ecol. 16(1):17-18.

Nagayi-Yawe, K.J., Ogutu-Ohwayo, R., Kizito, Y.S., and Balirwa, J.S. 2006. Population characteristics of Oreochromis esculentus in the Victoria and Kyoga lake basins. Implications for conservation and improvement of the stocks. Afr. J. Ecol. 44(4):423-430.

Naidoo, R., Balmford, A., Ferraro, P.J., Polasky, S., Ricketts, T.H., and Rouget, M. 2006. Integrating economic costs into conservation planning. Trends Ecol. Evol. 21(12):681-687.

Nepstad, D.C., Stickler, C.M., and Almeida, O.T. 2006. Globalization of the Amazon soy and beef industries: opportunities for conservation. Conserv. Biol. 20(6):1595-1603.

Neves, F.M., and Bemvenuti, C.E. 2006. The ghost crab Ocypode quadrata (Fabricius, 1787) as a potential indicator of anthropic impact along the Rio Grande do Sul coast, Brazil. Biol. Conserv. 133(4):431-435.

Nguyen, T.T.T., and De Silva, S.S. 2006. Freshwater finfish biodiversity and conservation: an Asian perspective. Biodivers. Conserv. 15(11):3543-3568.

Nichols, J.D., and Williams, B.K. 2006. Monitoring for conservation. Trends Ecol. Evol. 21(12):668-673.

Öckinger, E., Eriksson, A.K., and Smith, H.G. 2006. Effects of grassland abandonment, restoration and management on butterflies and vascular plants. Biol. Conserv. 133(3):291-300.

Olabarria, C. 2006. Faunal change and bathymetric diversity gradient in deep-sea prosobranchs from Northeastern Atlantic. Biodivers. Conserv. 15(11):3685-3702.

Olden, J.D., McCarthy, J.M., Maxted, J.T., Fetzer, W.W., and Vander Zanden, M.J. 2006. The rapid spread of rusty crayfish (Orconectes rusticus) with observations on native crayfish declines in Wisconsin (USA) over the past 130 years. Biol. Invasions 8(8):1621-1628.

Orr, D.W. 2006. The trial. Conserv. Biol. 20(6):1570-1573.

Orth, R.J., Carruthers, T.J.B., Dennison, W.C., Duarte, C.M., Fourqurean, J.W., Heck, K.L., Hughes, A.R., Kendrick, G.A., Kenworthy, W.J., Olyarnik, S., Short, F.T., Waycott, M., and Williams, S.L. 2006. A global crisis for seagrass ecosystems. BioScience 56(12):987-996.

Pacheco, J., Ceballos, G., Daily, G.C., Ehrlich, P.R., Suzán, G., Rodríguez-Herrera, B., and Marcé, E. 2006. Diversity, natural history and conservation of mammals from San Vito de Coto Brus, Costa Rica. Rev. Biol. Trop. 54(1):219-240.

Page, H.M., Dugan, J.E., Culver, C.S., and Hoesterey, J.C. 2006. Exotic invertebrate species on offshore oil platforms. Mar. Ecol. Progr. Ser. 325:101-107.

Paillisson, J.M., Reeber, S., Carpentier, A., and Marion, L. 2006. Plant-water regime management in a wetland: consequences for a floating vegetation-nesting bird, whiskered tern Chlidonias hybridus. Biodivers. Conserv. 15(11):3469-3480.

Paltto, H., Nordén, B., Götmark, F., and Franc, N. 2006. At which spatial and temporal scales does landscape context affect local density of Red Data Book and Indicator species? Biol. Conserv. 133(4):442-454.

Pankiw, T. 2006. Asian honey bees: biology, conservation, and human interactions. Q. Rev. Biol. 81(4):408.

Paracuellos, M. 2006. How can habitat selection affect the use of a wetland complex by waterbirds? Biodivers. Conserv. 15(14):4569-4582.

Parr, C.L., and Andersen, A.N. 2006. Patch mosaic burning for biodiversity conservation: a critique of the pyrodiversity paradigm. Conserv. Biol. 20(6):1610-1619.

Pasiecznik, N.M., Vall, A.O.M., Nourissier-Mountou, S., Danthu, P., Murch, J., McHugh, M.J., and Harris, P.J.C. 2006. Discovery of a life history shift: precocious flowering in an introduced population of Prosopis. Biol. Invasions 8(8):1681-1687.

Patankar, R., von Hippel, F.A., and Bell, M.A. 2006. Extinction of a weakly armoured threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) population in Prator Lake, Alaska. Ecol. Freshw. Fish 15(4):482-487.

Pautasso, M. 2007. Scale dependence of the correlation between human population presence and vertebrate and plant species richness. Ecol. Lett. 10(1):16-24.

Pearson, D.L. 2006. A historical review of the studies of Neotropical tiger beetles (Coleoptera: Cicindelidae) with special reference to their use in biodiversity and conservation. Stud. Neotrop. Fauna Environ. 41(3):217-226.

Peltzer, P.M., Lajmanovich, R.C., Attademo, A.M., and Beltzer, A.H. 2006. Diversity of anurans across agricultural ponds in Argentina. Biodivers. Conserv. 15(11):3499-3513.

Pennisi, E. 2007. US weighs protection for polar bears. Science 315(5808):25.

Phillips, O.L., Rose, S., Mendoza, A.M., and Vargas, P.N. 2006. Resilience of southwestern Amazon forests to anthropogenic edge effects. Conserv. Biol. 20(6):1698-1710.

Pierce, S., Ceriani, R.M., Villa, M., and Cerabolini, B. 2006. Quantifying relative extinction risks and targeting intervention for the orchid flora of a natural park in the European prealps. Conserv. Biol. 20(6):1804-1810.

Pip, E. 2006. Littoral mollusc communities and water quality in southern Lake Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada. Biodivers. Conserv. 15(11):3637-3652.

Pockl, M. 2007. Strategies of a successful new invader in European fresh waters: fecundity and reproductive potential of the Ponto-Caspian amphipod Dikerogammarus villosus in the Austrian Danube, compared with the indigenous Gammarus fossarum and G. roeseli. Freshwater Biol. 52(1):50-63.

Price, S.J., Dorcas, M.E., Gallant, A.L., Klaver, R.W., and Willson, J.D. 2006. Three decades of urbanization: estimating the impact of land-cover change on stream salamander populations. Biol. Conserv. 133(4):436-441.

Pullin, A.S., and Stewart, G.B. 2006. Guidelines for systematic review in conservation and environmental management. Conserv. Biol. 20(6):1647-1656.

Qian, H., and Ricklefs, R.E. 2006. The role of exotic species in homogenizing the North American flora. Ecol. Lett. 9(12):1293-1298.

Rand, T.A., and Louda, S.A. 2006. Spillover of agriculturally subsidized predators as a potential threat to native insect herbivores in fragmented landscapes. Conserv. Biol. 20(6):1720-1729.

Raxworthy, C.J., and Nussbaum, R.A. 2006. Six new species of occipital-lobed Calumma chameleons (Squamata: Chamaeleonidae) from Montane Regions of Madagascar, with a new description and revision of Calumma brevicorne. Copeia 4:711-734.

Reddiex, B., Forsyth, D.M., McDonald-Madden, E., Einoder, L.D., Griffioen, P.A., Chick, R.R., and Robley, A.J. 2006. Control of pest mammals for biodiversity protection in Australia. I. Patterns of control and monitoring. Wildlife Res. 33(8):691-709.

Redding, D.W., and Mooers, A.Ø. 2006. Incorporating evolutionary measures into conservation prioritization. Conserv. Biol. 20(6):1670-1678.

Ringsby, T.H., Sæther, B.E., Jensen, H., and Engen, S. 2006. Demographic characteristics of extinction in a small, insular population of house sparrows in northern Norway. Conserv. Biol. 20(6):1761-1767.

Ripple, W.J., and Beschta, R.L. 2006. Linking a cougar decline, trophic cascade, and catastrophic regime shift in Zion National Park. Biol. Conserv. 133(4):397-408.

Rolando, A., Caprio, E., Rinaldi, E., and Ellena, I. 2007. The impact of high-altitude ski-runs on alpine grassland bird communities. J. Appl. Ecol. 44(1):210-219.

Rolston, H. 2006. Disenchanting the rhetoric: human uniqueness and human responsibility. Conserv. Biol. 20(6):1576-1578.

Rondinini, C., Chiozza, F., and Boitani, L. 2006. High human density in the irreplaceable sites for African vertebrates conservation. Biol. Conserv. 133(3):358-363.

Rudel, T.K. 2006. Shrinking tropical forests, human agents of change, and conservation policy. Conserv. Biol. 20(6):1604-1609.

Saleh, M.A. 2007. Assessment of mangrove vegetation on Abu Minqar Island of the Red Sea. J. Arid Environ. 68(2):331-336.

Samways, M.J. 2006. National red list of South African Odonata. Odonatologica 35(4):341-368.

Samways, M.J., and Tarboton, W. 2006. Rediscovery of Metacnemis angusta (Selys) in the Western Cape, South Africa, with description of male and redescription of female (Zygoptera: Platycnemididae). Odonatologica 35(4):375-378.

Sánchez-Fernández, D., Abellán, P., Mellado, A., Velasco, J., and Millán, A. 2006. Are water beetles good indicators of biodiversity in Mediterranean aquatic ecosystems? The case of the segura river basin (SE spain). Biodivers. Conserv. 15(14):4507-4520.

Sarkar, U.K., Deepak, P.K., Negi, R.S., Singh, S., and Kapoor, D. 2006. Captive breeding of endangered fish Chitala chitala (Hamilton-Buchanan) for species conservation and sustainable utilization. Biodivers. Conserv. 15(11):3579-3589.

Scheibling, R.E., and Gagnon, P. 2006. Competitive interactions between the invasive green alga Codium fragile ssp tomentosoides and native canopy-forming seaweeds in Nova Scotia (Canada). Mar. Ecol. Progr. Ser. 325:1-14.

Sebastia, M.T. 2007. Plant guilds drive biomass response to global warming and water availability in subalpine grassland. J. Appl. Ecol. 44(1):158-167.

Segura, I., Rocha-Olivares, A., Flores-Ramírez, S., and Rojas-Bracho, L. 2006. Conservation implications of the genetic and ecological distinction of Tursiops truncatus ecotypes in the Gulf of California. Biol. Conserv. 133(3):336-346.

Shier, D.M. 2006. Effect of family support on the success of translocated black-tailed prairie dogs. Conserv. Biol. 20(6):1780-1790.

Skeffington, M.S., Moran, J., O Connor, Á., Regan, E., Coxon, C.E., Scott, N.E., and Gormally, M. 2006. Turloughs - Ireland's unique wetland habitat. Biol. Conserv. 133(3):265-290.

Slik, J.W.F., and Van Balen, S. 2006. Bird community changes in response to single and repeated fires in a lowland tropical rainforest of eastern Borneo. Biodivers. Conserv. 15(14):4425-4451.

Smith, G.R., and Iverson, J.B. 2006. Changes in sex ratio over time in the endangered iguana Cyclura cychlura inornata. Can. J. Zool. 84(10):1522-1527.

Snyder, W.E., and Evans, E.W. 2006. Ecological effects of invasive arthropod generalist predators. Annu. Rev. Ecol. Evol. S. 37:95-122.

Sobral, M., and Couto, F. 2006. Four new Myrtaceae from eastern Brazil. Novon 16(4):520-529.

Sobral, M., and Proença, C.E.B. 2006. Siphoneugena delicata (Myrtaceae), a new species from the montane Atlantic forests of southeastern Brazil. Novon 16(4):530-532.

Sodhi, N.S., Brooks, T.M., Koh, L.P., Acciaioli, G., Erb, M., Tan, A.K.J., Curran, L.M., Brosius, P., Lee, T.M., Patlis, J.M., Gumal, M., and Lee, R.J. 2006. Biodiversity and human livelihood crises in the Malay archipelago. Conserv. Biol. 20(6):1811-1813.

Spitaler, R., and Zidorn, C. 2006. Rediscovery of Androsace hausmannii (Primulaceae) and Braya alpina (Brassicaceae) in North Tyrol: implications for geobotany and listings of alpine taxa in red lists. Phyton Ann. Rei Bot. 46(1):83-98.

Stojanovic, M., and Karaman, S. 2006. Threat status and distribution of the earthworm genus Helodrilus Hoffmeister, 1845; sensu Zicsi 1985, on the Balkans and the neighboring regions. Biodivers. Conserv. 15(14):4601-4617.

Stokstad, E. 2007. Feared quagga mussel turns up in western United States. Science 315(5811):453.

Strecker, U. 2006. The impact of invasive fish on an endemic Cyprinodon species flock (Teleostei) from Laguna Chichancanab, Yucatan, Mexico. Ecol. Freshw. Fish 15(4):408-418.

Su, G.H., Huang, Y.L., Tan, F.X., Ni, X.W., Tang, T., and Shi, S.H. 2007. Conservation genetics of Lumnitzera littorea (Combretaceae), an endangered mangrove, from the Indo-West Pacific. Mar. Biol. 150(3):321-328.

Tapio, I., Värv, S., Bennewitz, J., Maleviciute, J., Fimland, E., Grislis, Z., Meuwissen, T.H.E., Miceikiene, I., Olsaker, I., Viinalass, H., Vilkki, J., and Kantanen, J. 2006. Prioritization for conservation of northern European cattle breeds based on analysis of microsatellite data. Conserv. Biol. 20(6):1768-1779.

Tattoni, C., Preatoni, D.G., Lurz, P.W.W., Rushton, S.P., Tosi, G., Bertolino, S., Martinoli, A., and Wauters, L.A. 2006. Modelling the expansion of a grey squirrel population: implications for squirrel control. Biol. Invasions 8(8):1605-1619.

Terrier, A., Castella, E., Falkner, G., and Killeen, I.J. 2006. Species account for Anisus vorticulus (Troschel, 1834) (Gastropoda: Planorbidae), a species listed in annexes II and IV of the habitats directive. J. Conchology 39:193-205.

Thieltges, D.W., Strasser, M., and Reise, K. 2006. How bad are invaders in coastal waters? The case of the American slipper limpet Crepidula fornicata in western Europe. Biol. Invasions 8(8):1673-1680.

Tinker, M.T., Doak, D.F., Estes, J.A., Hatfield, B.B., Hatfield, B.B., Staedler, M.M., and Bodkin, J.L. 2006. Incorporating diverse data and realistic complexity into demographic estimation procedures for sea otters. Ecol. Appl. 16(6):2293-2312.

Tirpak, J.M., Giuliano, W.M., Miller, C.A., Allen, T.J., Bittner, S., Buehler, D.A., Edwards, J.W., Harper, C.A., Igo, W.K., Normar, G.W., Seamster, M., and Stauffer, D.F. 2006. Ruffed grouse population dynamics in the central and southern Appalachians. Biol. Conserv. 133(3):364-378.

Tobin, P.C., Whitmire, S.L., Johnson, D.M., Bjørnstad, O.N., and Liebhold, A.M. 2007. Invasion speed is affected by geographical variation in the strength of Allee effects. Ecol. Lett. 10(1):36-43.

Topic, J., and Stancic, Z. 2006. Extinction of fen and bog plants and their habitats in Croatia. Biodivers. Conserv. 15(11):3371-3381.

Torres, J., Miquel, J., Casanova, J.C., Ribas, A., Feliu, C., and Morand, S. 2006. Endoparasite species richness of Iberian carnivores: influences of host density and range distribution. Biodivers. Conserv. 15(14):4619-4632.

Turner, W.R., Wilcove, D.S., and Swain, H.M. 2006. Assessing the effectiveness of reserve acquisition programs in protecting rare and threatened species. Conserv. Biol. 20(6):1657-1669.

Uehara-Prado, M., Brown, K.S., and Freitas, A.V.L. 2007. Species richness, composition and abundance of fruit-feeding butterflies in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest: comparison between a fragmented and a continuous landscape. Global Ecol. Biogeogr. 16(1):43-54.

Vâlcu, M. 2006. Seasonal changes in bird species diversity at the interface between forest and reed-bed. Biodivers. Conserv. 15(11):3459-3467.

Valtonen, A., Jantunen, J., and Saarinen, K. 2006. Flora and lepidoptera fauna adversely affected by invasive Lupinus polyphyllus along road verges. Biol. Conserv. 133(3):389-396.

Van Appledorn, M., Lamb, D.A., Albalak, K., and Bach, C.E. 2007. Zebra mussels decrease burrowing ability and growth of a native snail, Campeloma decisum. Hydrobiologia 575:441-445.

Van Dyke, F., and Darragh, J.A. 2006. Short- and long-term changes in elk use and forage production in sagebrush communities following prescribed burning. Biodivers. Conserv. 15(14):4375-4398.

van Eeden, D.G., van Rensburg, B.J., De Wijn, M., and Bothma, J.D. 2006. The value of community-based conservation in a heterogeneous landscape: an avian case study from sand forest in Maputaland, South Africa. S. Afr. J. Wildlife Res. 36(2):153-157.

van Gils, J.A., Piersma, T., Dekinga, A., Spaans, B., and Kraan, C. 2006. Shellfish dredging pushes a flexible avian top predator out of a marine protected area. PLoS Biol. 4(12):2399-2404.

Varghese, A.O., and Murthy, Y.V.N.K. 2006. Application of geoinformatics for conservation and management of rare and threatened plant species. Curr. Sci. 91(6):762-769.

Vasudevan, K., Kumar, A., and Chellam, R. 2006. Species turnover: the case of stream amphibians of rainforests in the Western Ghats, southern India. Biodivers. Conserv. 15(11):3515-3525.

Wesche, S., Kirby, K., and Ghazoul, J. 2006. Plant assemblages in British beech woodlands within and beyond native range: implications of future climate change for their conservation. Forest Ecol. Manag. 236(2-3):385-392.

Whittingham, M.J., Krebs, J.R., Swetnam, R.D., Vickery, J.A., Wilson, J.D., and Freckleton, R.P. 2007. Should conservation strategies consider spatial generality? Farmland birds show regional not national patterns of habitat association. Ecol. Lett. 10(1):25-35.

Wiersma, Y.F., and Nudds, T.D. 2006. Conservation targets for viable species assemblages in Canada: are percentage targets appropriate? Biodivers. Conserv. 15(14):4555-4567.

Willi, Y., Van Buskirk, J., and Hoffmann, A.A. 2006. Limits to the adaptive potential of small populations. Annu. Rev. Ecol. Evol. S. 37:433-458.

Williams, N.S.G., Morgan, J.W., McCarthy, M.A., and McDonnell, M.J. 2006. Local extinction of grassland plants: the landscape matrix is more important than patch attributes. Ecology 87(12):3000-3006.

Williams, R., Lusseau, D., and Hammond, P.S. 2006. Estimating relative energetic costs of human disturbance to killer whales (Orcinus orca). Biol. Conserv. 133(3):301-311.

Wolman, A.G. 2006. Measurement and meaningfulness in conservation science. Conserv. Biol. 20(6):1626-1634.

Zerbini, A.N., Waite, J.M., Laake, J.L., and Wade, P.R. 2006. Abundance, trends and distribution of baleen whales off Western Alaska and the central Aleutian Islands. Deep-Sea Res. Pt. I 53(11):1772-1790.

Zielinski, W.J., Carroll, C., and Dunk, J.R. 2006. Using landscape suitability models to reconcile conservation planning for two key forest predators. Biol. Conserv. 133(4):409-430.


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