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Department ofBotany



No. 269
May 2007


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In This Issue


Discovery of Rare Hawaiian Species


A recent discovery of an extremely rare new plant species in Hawaii was made in the context of a collaborative effort between the Department of Botany at the National Museum of Natural History and the National Tropical Botanical Garden (NTBG) to discover, describe, and understand plant diversity of the Pacific Islands. This effort is critical at this time to conserving the diversity of island ecosystems. Known from only four individuals, the plant species, Labordia lorenciana, is among ca. 120 other rare Hawaiian species that are limited to less than 50 individuals. It is now being cultivated for conservation at NTBG.

Labordia lorenciana is described and illustrated from the Hawaiian Island of Kaua'i. This new species, named for David H. Lorence, Director of Science at NTBG, who has made many valuable contributions to Pacific botany and to the study of the large tropical family Rubiaceae (coffee family), most closely resembles the O'ahu endemic species, Labordia kaalae. The new species is described in a paper published in Systematic Botany by Smithsonian scientist Warren Wagner and two colleagues.

Labordia (Loganiaceae) is one of 31 currently recognized vascular plant genera completely restricted to the Hawaiian Islands. It is closely related to the Pacific genus Geniostoma. Labordia comprises 16 species, with 11 species being single-island endemics and the remaining five species occurring on several islands. Three species and two varieties are currently listed as Federally Endangered under the Endangered Species Act. Recent field research by Ken Wood of NTBG within the northwestern canyon region of Kaua'i (i.e., Kawai'iki Valley), has documented another new species known from only a few remaining individuals and critically in need of protection.


A Trove of New Species in the Eastern Pacific


Smithsonian scientists have discovered a biodiversity bounty in a unique, understudied region off the coast of Panama. Approximately 50 percent of the organisms found in some groups are new to science.

Coordinated by Rachel Collin of the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute (STRI), a team of Smithsonian scientists and international collaborators with expertise in snails, crabs, shrimp, worms, jellies and sea cucumbers participated in an intensive effort over 11 days in the region to discover organisms from this ecosystem.

Although they expected to find new species, the team was surprised by the sheer number of novel marine organisms in the region. One group, known as ribbon worms, range in size from those so tiny they live between grains of sand to 6-foot-long specimens that eat entire crabs and sea hares. More than 50 percent of the ribbon worm species collected have never been seen before. One new species of ribbon worm discovered during the expedition live and reproduce among crab eggs. These worms can be important pests of commercial species, but they are often overlooked because they are smaller than the eggs themselves.

One unique feature of the islands off the coast of Panama is that they host animals that are found in the Indo-Pacific, half a world away. This implies that the larvae of species such as Hymenocera picta, a little shrimp collected on Isla Seca off the coast of Panama, can survive a journey of more than 3,000 miles from the Indo-Pacific.

The scientists hope their data will be useful for ANAM (Panama's environmental agency) and to STRI's Juan Mate, who leads the effort to develop an innovative management plan for Coiba National Park, a UNESCO World Heritage site.


Current Literature


Abell, R., Allan, J.D., and Lehner, B. 2007. Unlocking the potential of protected areas for freshwaters. Biol. Conserv. 134(1):48-63.

Abellán, P., Gómez-Zurita, J., Millán, A., Sánchez-Fernández, D., Velasco, J., Galián, J., and Ribera, I. 2007. Conservation genetics in hypersaline inland waters: mitochondrial diversity and phylogeography of an endangered Iberian beetle (Coleoptera: Hydraenidae). Conserv. Genet. 8(1):79-88.

Adams, J.R., and Waits, L.P. 2007. An efficient method for screening faecal DNA genotypes and detecting new individuals and hybrids in the red wolf (Canis rufus) experimental population area. Conserv. Genet. 8(1):123-131.

Almeida, A.D., and Mendes, S.L. 2007. An analysis of the role of local fishermen in the conservation of the loggerhead turtle (Caretta caretta) in Pontal do Ipiranga, Linhares, ES, Brazil. Biol. Conserv. 134(1):106-112.

Altmoos, M., and Henle, K. 2007. Differences in characteristics of reserve network selection using population data versus habitat surrogates. Biodivers. Conserv. 16(1):113-135.

Anderson, R.P., Peterson, A.T., and Egbert, S.L. 2006. Vegetation-index models predict areas vulnerable to purple loosestrife (Lythrum salicaria) invasion in Kansas. Southwest. Nat. 51(4):471-480.

Anzures-Dadda, A., and Manson, R.H. 2007. Patch- and landscape-scale effects on howler monkey distribution and abundance in rainforest fragments. Anim. Conserv. 10(1):69-76.

Araki, H., Ardren, W.R., Olsen, E., Cooper, B., and Blouin, M.S. 2007. Reproductive success of captive-bred steelhead trout in the wild: evaluation of three hatchery programs in the Hood River. Conserv. Biol. 21(1):181-190.

Arenas, F., Bishop, J.D.D., Carlton, J.T., Dyrynda, P.J., Farnham, W.F., Gonzalez, D.J., Jacobs, M.W., Lambert, C., Lambert, G., Nielsen, S.E., Pederson, J.A., Porter, J.S., Ward, S., and Wood, C.A. 2006. Alien species and other notable records from a rapid assessment survey of marinas on the south coast of England. J. Mar. Biol. Assoc. UK 86(6):1329-1337.

Babweteera, F., Savill, P., and Brown, N. 2007. Balanites wilsoniana: regeneration with and without elephants. Biol. Conserv. 134(1):40-47.

Baerwald, M., Bien, V., Feyrer, F., and May, B. 2007. Genetic analysis reveals two distinct Sacramento splittail (Pogonichthys macrolepidotus) populations. Conserv. Genet. 8(1):159-167.

Barrows, C.W. 2006. Population dynamics of a threatened sand dune lizard. Southwest. Nat. 51(4):514-523.

Bearzi, G. 2007. Marine conservation on paper. Conserv. Biol. 21(1):1-3.

Bell, C.D., Solomon, J.L., Blumenthal, J.M., Austin, T.J., Ebanks-Petrie, G., Broderick, A.C., and Godley, B.J. 2007. Monitoring and conservation of critically reduced marine turtle nesting populations: lessons from the Cayman Islands. Anim. Conserv. 10(1):39-47.

Bianconi, G.V., Mikich, S.B., Teixeira, S.D., and Maia, B.H.L.N.S. 2007. Attraction of fruit-eating bats with essential oils of fruits: a potential tool for forest restoration. Biotropica 39(1):136-140.

Boarman, W.I., Patten, M.A., Camp, R.J., and Collis, S.J. 2006. Ecology of a population of subsidized predators: common ravens in the central Mojave Desert, California. J. Arid Environ. 67:248-261.

Bottin, L., Tassin, J., Nasi, R., and Bouvet, J.M. 2007. Molecular, quantitative and abiotic variables for the delineation of evolutionary significant units: case of sandalwood (Santalum austrocaledonicum Vieillard) in New Caledonia. Conserv. Genet. 8(1):99-109.

Bowen, T., Bench, D.W., and Johnson, L.A. 2006. Recent colonization of Midriff islands, Gulf of California, Mexico, by feral honeybees, Apis mellifera. Southwest. Nat. 51(4):542-551.

Braham, R., Murray, C., and Boyer, M. 2006. Mitigating impacts to Michaux's sumac (Rhus michauxii Sarg.): a case study of transplanting an endangered shrub. Castanea 71(4):265-271.

Brickman, D. 2006. Risk assessment model for dispersion of ballast water organisms in shelf seas. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 63(12):2748-2759.

Brooks, M.L., and Berry, K.H. 2006. Dominance and environmental correlates of alien annual plants in the Mojave Desert, USA. J. Arid Environ. 67:100-124.

Brooks, M.L., Matchett, J.R., and Berry, K.H. 2006. Effects of livestock watering sites on alien and native plants in the Mojave Desert, USA. J. Arid Environ. 67:125-147.

Broquet, T., Ménard, N., and Petit, E. 2007. Noninvasive population genetics: a review of sample source, diet, fragment length and microsatellite motif effects on amplification success and genotyping error rates. Conserv. Genet. 8(1):249-260.

Brugière, D., Badjinca, I., Silva, C., Serra, A., and Barry, M. 2006. On the road to extinction? The status of elephant Loxodonta africana in Guinea Bissau and western Guinea, West Africa. Oryx 40(4):442-446.

Brussard, P.F., and Tull, J.C. 2007. Conservation biology and four types of advocacy. Conserv. Biol. 21(1):21-24.

Burgman, M.A., Keith, D., Hopper, S.D., Widyatmoko, D., and Drill, C. 2007. Threat syndromes and conservation of the Australian flora. Biol. Conserv. 134(1):73-82.

Burns, E.L., Eldridge, M.D.B., Crayn, D.M., and Houlden, B.A. 2007. Low phylogeographic structure in a wide spread endangered australian frog Litoria aurea (Anura: Hylidae). Conserv. Genet. 8(1):17-32.

Carwardine, J., Rochester, W.A., Richardson, K.S., Williams, K.J., Pressey, R.L., and Possingham, H.P. 2007. Conservation planning with irreplaceability: does the method matter? Biodivers. Conserv. 16(1):245-258.

Case, M.A., Flinn, K.M., Jancaitis, J., Alley, A., and Paxton, A. 2007. Declining abundance of American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius L.) documented by herbarium specimens. Biol. Conserv. 134(1):22-30.

Chan, K.M.A., Pringle, R.M., Ranganatran, J., Boggs, C.L., Chan, Y.L., Ehrlich, P.R., Haff, P.K., Heller, N.E., Al-Krafaji, K., and Macmynowski, D.P. 2007. When agendas collide: human welfare and biological conservation. Conserv. Biol. 21(1):59-68.

Chen, Y.J., Parmenter, S., and May, B. 2007. Introgression between lahontan and endangered Owens tui chubs, and apparent discovery of a new tui chub in the Owens Valley, California. Conserv. Genet. 8(1):221-238.

Conover, D.O., Clarke, L.M., Munch, S.B., and Wagner, G.N. 2006. Spatial and temporal scales of adaptive divergence in marine fishes and the implications for conservation. J. Fish Biol. 69:21-47.

Crawford, J.A., and Semlitsch, R.D. 2007. Estimation of core terrestrial habitat for stream-breeding salamanders and delineation of riparian buffers for protection of biodiversity. Conserv. Biol. 21(1):152-158.

D'Amato, A.W., Orwig, D.A., and Foster, D.R. 2006. New estimates of Massachusetts old-growth forests: useful data for regional conservation and forest reserve planning. Northeastern Nat. 13(4):495-506.

Danton, P., Perrier, C., and Reyes, M. 2006. New catalogue of the vascular flora of the Juan Fernandez Archipelago (Chile). Acta Bot. Gallica 153(4):399-587.

De Luca, D.W., and Rovero, F. 2006. First records in Tanzania of the vulnerable Jackson's mongoose Bdeogale jacksoni (Herpestidae). Oryx 40(4):468-471.

Dehnen-Schmutz, K., Touza, J., Perrings, C., and Williamson, M. 2007. The horticultural trade and ornamental plant invasions in Britain. Conserv. Biol. 21(1):224-231.

Denoël, M. 2007. Priority areas of intraspecific diversity: Larzac, a global hotspot for facultative paedomorphosis in amphibians. Anim. Conserv. 10(1):110-116.

Dimond, W.J., and Armstrong, D.P. 2007. Adaptive harvesting of source populations for translocation: a case study with New Zealand robins. Conserv. Biol. 21(1):114-124.

Domínguez-Domínguez, O., Boto, L., Alda, F., and De León, G.P.P. 2007. Human impacts on drainages of the Mesa Central, Mexico, and its genetic effects on an endangered fish, Zoogoneticus quitzeoensis. Conserv. Biol. 21(1):168-180.

Driessen, M.M., Mallick, S.A., Lee, A., and Thurstans, S. 2006. Loss of habitat through inundation and the conservation status of two endemic Tasmanian Syncarid crustaceans: Allanaspides hickmani and A. helonomus. Oryx 40(4):464-467.

Edderai, D., and Dame, M. 2006. A census of the commercial bushmeat market in Yaoundé, Cameroon. Oryx 40(4):472-475.

Eggenberg, S., and Landolt, E. 2006. For which plant species does Switzerland have an international responsibility? Bot. Helvetica 116(2):119-133.

Fagan, W.F., and Stephens, A.J. 2006. How local extinction changes rarity: an example with Sonoran Desert fishes. Ecography 29(6):845-852.

Faria, C.M.A., Rodrigues, M., do Amaral, F.Q., Módena, É., and Fernandes, A.M. 2006. The birds of an Atlantic forest fragment at upper Rio Doce valley, Minas Gerais, southeastern Brazil: colonization and extinction. Rev. Bras. Zool. 23(4):1217-1230.

Fernández, J.F., and Sork, V.L. 2007. Genetic variation in fragmented forest stands of the Andean oak Quercus humboldtii Bonpl. (Fagaceae). Biotropica 39(1):72-78.

Feuerer, T., and Hawksworth, D.L. 2007. Biodiversity of lichens, including a world-wide analysis of checklist data based on Takhtajan's floristic regions. Biodivers. Conserv. 16(1):85-98.

Fisher, M. 2006. An Intergovernmental Panel on Biodiversity - could it make a difference? Oryx 40(4):371-372.

Fochetti, R., and De Figueroa, J.M.T. 2006. Notes on diversity and conservation of the European fauna of Plecoptera (Insecta). J. Nat. Hist. 40(41-43):2361-2369.

Forest, F., Grenyer, R., Rouget, M., Davies, T.J., Cowling, R.M., Faith, D.P., Balmford, A., Manning, J.C., Proches, S., van der Bank, M., Reeves, G., Hedderson, T.A.J., and Savolainen, V. 2007. Preserving the evolutionary potential of floras in biodiversity hotspots. Nature 445(7129):757-760.

Forget, P.M., and Jansen, P.A. 2007. Hunting increases dispersal limitation in the tree Carapa procera, a nontimber forest product. Conserv. Biol. 21(1):106-113.

Franco, A.M.A., Palmeirim, J.M., and Sutherland, W.J. 2007. A method for comparing effectiveness of research techniques in conservation and applied ecology. Biol. Conserv. 134(1):96-105.

Galatowitsch, S.M. 2006. Restoring prairie pothole wetlands: does the species pool concept offer decision-making guidance for re-vegetation? Appl. Veg. Sci. 9(2):261-270.

Galbraith, J.A., Sancha, S.E., Maloney, R.F., and Hauber, M.E. 2007. Alarm responses are maintained during captive rearing in chicks of endangered kaki. Anim. Conserv. 10(1):103-109.

Gams, W. 2007. Biodiversity of soil-inhabiting fungi. Biodivers. Conserv. 16(1):69-72.

Gardner, T.A., Barlow, J., Parry, L.W., and Peres, C.A. 2007. Predicting the uncertain future of tropical forest species in a data vacuum. Biotropica 39(1):25-30.

Gardner, T.A., Fitzherbert, E.B., Drewes, R.C., Howell, K.M., and Caro, T. 2007. Spatial and temporal patterns of abundance and diversity of an east African leaf litter amphibian fauna. Biotropica 39(1):105-113.

Gavin, M.C. 2007. Foraging in the fallows: hunting patterns across a successional continuum in the Peruvian Amazon. Biol. Conserv. 134(1):64-72.

Geng, Y.P., Pan, X.Y., Xu, C.Y., Zhang, W.J., Li, B., and Chen, J.K. 2006. Phenotypic plasticity of invasive Alternanthera philoxeroides in relation to different water availability, compared to its native congener. Acta Oecol. 30(3):380-385.

Gherardi, F. 2006. Bioinvasions in fresh waters and the Nero dilemma. Pol. J. Ecol. 54(4):549-561.

Gilbert, M., Watson, R.T., Virani, M.Z., Oaks, J.L., Ahmed, S., Chaudhry, M.J.I., Arshad, M., Mahmood, S., Ali, A., and Khan, A.A. 2006. Rapid population declines and mortality clusters in three Oriental whitebacked vulture Gyps bengalensis colonies in Pakistan due to diclofenac poisoning. Oryx 40(4):388-399.

Gordon, J., Cambell, K., Koenig, S., Nelson, L., and Lewis, P. 2006. A turning point for Jamaica's Cockpit Country. Oryx 40(4):383-384.

Gough, K.F., and Kerley, G.I.H. 2006. Demography and population dynamics in the elephants Loxodonta africana of Addo Elephant National Park, South Africa: is there evidence of density dependent regulation? Oryx 40(4):434-441.

Granados-Tochoy, J.C., Knapp, S., and Orozco, C.I. 2007. Solanum humboldtianum (Solanaceae): an endangered new species from Colombia rediscovered 200 years after its first collection. Syst. Bot. 32(1):200-207.

Gray, M.A., Baldauf, S.L., Mayhew, P.J., and Hill, J.K. 2007. The response of avian feeding guilds to tropical forest disturbance. Conserv. Biol. 21(1):133-141.

Hager, H.A., Gorman, R.M., and Nudds, T.D. 2006. The relative performance of umbrella species for biodiversity conservation in island archipelagos of the Great Lakes, North America. Ecoscience 13(4):475-484.

Hale, K.A., and Briskie, J.V. 2007. Challenges to understanding the consequences of population bottlenecks for the conservation of endangered wildlife. Anim. Conserv. 10(1):19-21.

Hale, K.A., and Briskie, J.V. 2007. Decreased immunocompetence in a severely bottlenecked population of an endemic New Zealand bird. Anim. Conserv. 10(1):2-10.

Hario, M. 2006. Diurnal attendance of nominate Lesser Black-backed Gulls Larus f. fuscus at a Ugandan lake: implications for the conservation of a globally threatened subspecies. Bird Conserv. Int. 16(4):293-297.

Hawley, D.M. 2007. Population bottlenecks: the importance of looking beyond genetics. Anim. Conserv. 10(1):17-18.

Hayward, M.W., O'Brien, J., Hofmeyr, M., and Kerley, G.I.H. 2006. Prey preferences of the African wild dog Lycaon pictus (Canidae: Carnivora): ecological requirements for conservation. J. Mammal. 87(6):1122-1131.

Heckscher, C.M., and McCann, J.M. 2006. Status of Swainson's Warbler on the Delmarva Peninsula. Northeastern Nat. 13(4):521-530.

Hemerik, L., and Klok, C. 2006. Conserving declining species using incomplete demographic information: what help can we expect from the use of matrix population models? Anim. Biol. 56(4):519-533.

Höglund, J., Larsson, J.K., Jansman, H.A.H., and Segelbacher, G. 2007. Genetic variability in European black grouse (Tetrao tetrix). Conserv. Genet. 8(1):239-243.

Holycross, A.T., and Douglas, M.E. 2007. Geographic isolation, genetic divergence, and ecological non-exchangeability define ESUs in a threatened sky-island rattlesnake. Biol. Conserv. 134(1):142-154.

Huerta, M.A.O. 2007. Fragmentation patterns and implications for biodiversity conservation in three biosphere reserves and surrounding regional environments, northeastern Mexico. Biol. Conserv. 134(1):83-95.

Hutton, I., Parkes, J.P., and Sinclair, A.R.E. 2007. Reassembling island ecosystems: the case of Lord Howe Island. Anim. Conserv. 10(1):22-29.

Hyde, K.D., Bussaban, B., Paulus, B., Crous, P.W., Lee, S., Mckenzie, E.H.C., Photita, W., and Lumyong, S. 2007. Diversity of saprobic microfungi. Biodivers. Conserv. 16(1):7-35.

Jacobson, S.K., Mcduff, M.D., and Monroe, M.C. 2007. Promoting conservation through the arts: outreach for hearts and minds. Conserv. Biol. 21(1):7-10.

Jacquemyn, H., Brys, R., Hermy, M., and Willems, J.H. 2007. Long-term dynamics and population viability in one of the last populations of the endangered Spiranthes spiralis (Orchidaceae) in the Netherlands. Biol. Conserv. 134(1):14-21.

Jamieson, I.G., Tracy, L.N., Fletcher, D., and Armstrong, D.P. 2007. Moderate inbreeding depression in a reintroduced population of North Island robins. Anim. Conserv. 10(1):95-102.

Kalamandeen, M., and Gillson, L. 2007. Demything "wilderness": implications for protected area designation and management. Biodivers. Conserv. 16(1):165-182.

Kattan, G.H., León, A., Corredor, G., Beltrán, W., and Parada, M. 2006. Distribution and population density of the Endangered Cauca Guan Penelope perspicax. Bird Conserv. Int. 16(4):299-307.

Katzner, T., Milner-Gulland, E.J., and Bragin, E. 2007. Using modeling to improve monitoring of structured populations: are we collecting the right data? Conserv. Biol. 21(1):241-252.

Keller, R.P., Drake, J.M., and Lodge, D.M. 2007. Fecundity as a basis for risk assessment of nonindigenous freshwater molluscs. Conserv. Biol. 21(1):191-200.

Kelly, L. 2006. The vascular flora of Huggins Island, Onslow County, North Carolina. Castanea 71(4):295-311.

Knopp, T., Cano, J.M., Crochet, P.A., and Marilä, J. 2007. Contrasting levels of variation in neutral and quantitative genetic loci on island populations of moor frogs (Rana arvalis). Conserv. Genet. 8(1):45-56.

Koulibaly, A., Goetze, D., Traore, D., and Porembski, S. 2006. Protected versus exploited savannas: characteristics of the Sudanian vegetation in Ivory Coast. Candollea 61(2):425-452.

Kryger, U., Cole, K.S., Tukker, R., and Scholtz, C.H. 2006. Biology and ecology of Circellium bacchus (Fabricius 1781) (Coleoptera Scarabaeidae), a South African dung beetle of conservation concern. Trop. Zool. 19(2):185-207.

Kuroda, Y., Sato, Y.I., Bounphanousay, C., Kono, Y., and Tanaka, K. 2007. Genetic structure of three Oryza AA genome species (O. rufipogon, O. nivara and O. sativa) as assessed by SSR analysis on the Vientiane Plain of Laos. Conserv. Genet. 8(1):149-158.

Lackey, R.T. 2007. Science, scientists, and policy advocacy. Conserv. Biol. 21(1):12-17.

Lambdon, P.W., and Hulme, P.E. 2006. Predicting the invasion success of Mediterranean alien plants from their introduction characteristics. Ecography 29(6):853-865.

Lambert, A.M., and Casagrande, R.A. 2006. Distribution of native and exotic Phragmites australis in Rhode island. Northeastern Nat. 13(4):551-560.

Lambert, A.M., and Casagrande, R.A. 2006. No evidence of fungal endophytes in native and exotic Phragmites australis. Northeastern Nat. 13(4):561-568.

Lamoreux, J.F., Morrison, J.C., Ricketts, T.H., Olson, D.M., Dinerstein, E., McKnight, M.W., and Shugart, H.H. 2007. The multifaceted nature of biodiversity conservation: reply to Leroux and Schmiegelow. Conserv. Biol. 21(1):269-270.

Laurance, W.F. 2007. A new initiative to use carbon trading for tropical forest conservation. Biotropica 39(1):20-24.

Leroux, S.J., and Schmiegelow, F.K.A. 2007. Biodiversity concordance and the importance of endemism. Conserv. Biol. 21(1):266-268.

Lesbarrères, D., Primmer, C.R., Lodé, T., and Merilä, J. 2006. The effects of 20 years of highway presence on the genetic structure of Rana dalmatina populations. Ecoscience 13(4):531-538.

Lewison, R.I., and Crowder, L.B. 2007. Putting longline bycatch of sea turtles into perspective. Conserv. Biol. 21(1):79-86.

Liao, P.C., Havanond, S., and Huang, S. 2007. Phylogeography of Ceriops tagal (Rhizophoraceae) in Southeast Asia: the land barrier of the Malay Peninsula has caused population differentiation between the Indian Ocean and South China Sea. Conserv. Genet. 8(1):89-98.

Linkie, M., Dinata, Y., Nofrianto, A., and Leader-Williams, N. 2007. Patterns and perceptions of wildlife crop raiding in and around Kerinci Seblat National Park, Sumatra. Anim. Conserv. 10(1):127-135.

Littlewood, N.A., Pakeman, R.J., and Woodin, S.J. 2006. A field assessment of the success of moorland restoration in the rehabilitation of whole plant assemblages. Appl. Veg. Sci. 9(2):295-306.

Loeser, M.R.R., Sisk, T.D., and Crews, T.E. 2007. Impact of grazing intensity during drought in an Arizona grassland. Conserv. Biol. 21(1):87-97.

Lye, K.A., and Pollard, B.J. 2006. Studies in African Cyperaceae 31. Cyperus microcristatus, a new species from Mt Kupe, Cameroon. Nord. J. Bot. 24(3):269-272.

Marazzi, B., Fortunato, R.H., Endress, P.K., and Spichiger, R. 2006. Senna (Casslinae, Leguminosae) in Paraguay: synopsis, occurrence, ecological role and ethnobotany. Candollea 61(2):315-329.

Maron, J.L. 2006. The relative importance of latitude matching and propagule pressure in the colonization success of an invasive forb. Ecography 29(6):819-826.

Marris, E. 2007. Linnaeus at 300: the species and the specious. Nature 446(7133):250-253.

Martínez-Meyer, E., Peterson, A.T., Servín, J.I., and Kiff, L.F. 2006. Ecological niche modelling and prioritizing areas for species reintroductions. Oryx 40(4):411-418.

Maschinski, J., and Duquesnel, J. 2007. Successful reintroductions of the endangered long-lived Sargent's cherry palm, Pseudophoenix sargentii, in the Florida Keys. Biol. Conserv. 134(1):122-129.

Mathiasen, P., Rovere, A.E., and Premoli, A.C. 2007. Genetic structure and early effects of inbreeding in fragmented temperate forests of a self-incompatible tree, Embothrium coccineum. Conserv. Biol. 21(1):232-240.

Mauro, I. 2006. Habitat, microdistribution and conservation status of the enigmatic Bruijn's Brush-turkey Aepypodius bruijnii. Bird Conserv. Int. 16(4):279-292.

McCann, K.I., and Benn, G.A. 2006. Land use patterns within Wattled Crane (Bugeranus carunculatus) home ranges in an agricultural landscape in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Ostrich 77(3-4):186-194.

McDowall, R.M. 2006. Crying wolf, crying foul, or crying shame: alien salmonids and a biodiversity crisis in the southern cool-temperate galaxioid fishes? Rev. Fish Biol. Fisher. 16(3-4):233-422.

McMahon, C.R., Bradshaw, C.J.A., and Hays, G.C. 2007. Applying the heat to research techniques for species conservation. Conserv. Biol. 21(1):271-273.

McNair, D.B., Yntema, L.D., and Cramer-Burke, C. 2006. Use of waterbird abundance for saline wetland site prioritization on St. Croix, United States Virgin Islands. Caribbean J. Sci. 42(2):220-230.

McNeilage, A., Robbins, M.M., Gray, M., Olupot, W., Babaasa, D., Bitariho, R., Kasangaki, A., Rainer, H., Asuma, S., Mugiri, G., and Baker, J. 2006. Census of the mountain gorilla Gorilla beringei beringei population in Bwindi Impenetrable National Park, Uganda. Oryx 40(4):419-427.

Medina, A., Harvey, C.A., Merlo, D.S., Vílchez, S., and Hernández, B. 2007. Bat diversity and movement in an agricultural landscape in Matiguas, Nicaragua. Biotropica 39(1):120-128.

Meffe, G.K. 2007. Conservation focus: policy advocacy and conservation science. Conserv. Biol. 21(1):11.

Melville, J., Goebel, S., Starr, C., Keogh, J.S., and Austin, J.J. 2007. Conservation genetics and species status of an endangered Australian dragon, Tympanocryptis pinguicolla (Reptilia: Agamidae). Conserv. Genet. 8(1):185-195.

Middleton, B., van Diggelen, R., and Jensen, K. 2006. Seed dispersal in fens. Appl. Veg. Sci. 9(2):279-284.

Mihulka, S., Pyšek, P., Martínková, J., and Jarošík, V. 2006. Invasiveness of Oenothera congeners alien to Europe: jack of all trades, master of invasion? Perspect. Plant Ecol. Evol. Syst. 8(2):83-96.

Milner, J.M., Nilsen, E.B., and Andreassen, H.P. 2007. Demographic side effects of selective hunting in ungulates and carnivores. Conserv. Biol. 21(1):36-47.

Mockford, S.W., Herman, T.B., Snyder, M., and Wright, J.M. 2007. Conservation genetics of Blanding's turtle and its application in the identification of evolutionarily significant units. Conserv. Genet. 8(1):209-219.

Mohler, J.W., Morrison, P., and Haas, J. 2006. The mussels of Muddy Creek on Erie National Wildlife Refuge. Northeastern Nat. 13(4):569-582.

Molloy, P.P., Goodwin, N.B., Côté, I.M., Gage, M.J.G., and Reynolds, J.D. 2007. Predicting the effects of exploitation on male-first sex-changing fish. Anim. Conserv. 10(1):30-38.

Mooers, A.Ø. 2007. The diversity of biodiversity. Nature 445(7129):717-718.

Mooney, E.H., and McGraw, J.B. 2007. Alteration of selection regime resulting from harvest of American ginseng, Panax quinquefolius. Conserv. Genet. 8(1):57-67.

Mueller, G.M., and Schmit, J.P. 2007. Fungal biodiversity: what do we know? What can we predict? Biodivers. Conserv. 16(1):1-5.

Mueller, G.M., Schmit, J.P., Leacock, P.R., Buyck, B., Cifuentes, J., Desjardin, D.E., Halling, R.E., Hjortstam, K., Iturriaga, T., Larsson, K.H., Lodge, D.J., May, T.W., Minter, D., Rajchenberg, M., Redhead, S.A., Ryvarden, L., Trappe, J.M., Watling, R., and Wu, Q.W. 2007. Global diversity and distribution of macrofungi. Biodivers. Conserv. 16(1):37-48.

Munro, R.H.M., Nielsen, S.E., Price, M.H., Stenhouse, G.B., and Boyce, M.S. 2006. Seasonal and diel patterns of grizzly bear diet and activity in west-central Alberta. J. Mammal. 87(6):1112-1121.

Murphy, D.D., and Noon, B.R. 2007. The role of scientists in conservation planning on private lands. Conserv. Biol. 21(1):25-28.

Murphy, R.W., Trepanier, T.L., and Morafka, D.J. 2006. Conservation genetics, evolution and distinct population segments of the Mojave fringe-toed lizard, Uma scoparia. J. Arid Environ. 67:226-247.

Murthy, M.S.R., Pujar, G.S., and Giriraj, A. 2006. Geoinformatics-based management of biodiversity from landscape to species scale - an Indian perspective. Curr. Sci. 91(11):1477-1485.

Mysterud, A., Barton, K.A., Jedrzejewska, B., Krasinski, Z.A., Niedzialkowska, M., Kamler, J.F., Yoccoz, N.G., and Stenseth, N.C. 2007. Population ecology and conservation of endangered megafauna: the case of European bison in Bialowieza Primeval Forest, Poland. Anim. Conserv. 10(1):77-87.

Navedo, J.G., and Masero, J.A. 2007. Measuring potential negative effects of traditional harvesting practices on waterbirds: a case study with migrating curlews. Anim. Conserv. 10(1):88-94.

Nebbia, A.J., and Zalba, S.M. 2007. Designing nature reserves: traditional criteria may act as misleading indicators of quality. Biodivers. Conserv. 16(1):223-233.

Neville, H., Isaak, D., Thurow, R., Dunham, J., and Rieman, B. 2007. Microsatellite variation reveals weak genetic structure and retention of genetic variability in threatened Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) within a Snake River watershed. Conserv. Genet. 8(1):133-147.

Noss, R.F. 2007. Values are a good thing in conservation biology. Conserv. Biol. 21(1):18-20.

O'Hanley, J.R., Church, R.L., and Gilless, J.K. 2007. Locating and protecting critical reserve sites to minimize expected and worst-case losses. Biol. Conserv. 134(1):130-141.

Oliveira, A.V., Prioli, A.J., Prioli, S.M.A.P., Bignotto, T.S., Júlio, H.F., Carrer, H., Agostinho, C.S., and Prioli, L.M. 2006. Genetic diversity of invasive and native Cichla (Pisces: Perciformes) populations in Brazil with evidence of interspecific hybridization. J. Fish Biol. 69:260-277.

Oro, D., and Martínez-Abraín, A. 2007. Deconstructing myths on large gulls and their impact on threatened sympatric waterbirds. Anim. Conserv. 10(1):117-126.

Padmanaba, M., and Sheil, D. 2007. Finding and promoting a local conservation consensus in a globally important tropical forest landscape. Biodivers. Conserv. 16(1):137-151.

Pan, X.Y., Geng, Y.P., Zhang, W.J., Li, B., and Chen, J.K. 2006. The influence of abiotic stress and phenotypic plasticity on the distribution of invasive Alternanthera philoxeroides along a riparian zone. Acta Oecol. 30(3):333-341.

Pandit, M.K., Sodhi, N.S., Koh, L.P., Bhaskar, A., and Brook, B.W. 2007. Unreported yet massive deforestation driving loss of endemic biodiversity in Indian Himalaya. Biodivers. Conserv. 16(1):153-163.

Pandit, R., and Laband, D.N. 2007. Threatened species and the spatial concentration of humans. Biodivers. Conserv. 16(1):235-244.

Paquette, S.R. 2007. Importance of the "crocodile hunter" phenomenon. Conserv. Biol. 21(1):6.

Paquette, S.R., and Lapointe, F.J. 2007. The use of shell morphometrics for the management of the endangered malagasy radiated tortoise (Geochelone radiata). Biol. Conserv. 134(1):31-39.

Pavlacky, D.C., and Anderson, S.H. 2007. Does avian species richness in natural patch mosaics follow the forest fragmentation paradigm? Anim. Conserv. 10(1):57-68.

Pejchar, L., Morgan, P.M., Caldwell, M.R., Palmer, C., and Daily, G.C. 2007. Evaluating the potential for conservation development: biophysical, economic, and institutional perspectives. Conserv. Biol. 21(1):69-78.

Pereira, M.J.R., Rebelo, H., Teeling, E.C., O'Brien, S.J., Mackie, I., Bu, S.S.H., Swe, K.M., Mie, K.M., and Bates, P.J.J. 2006. Status of the world's smallest mammal, the bumble-bee bat Craseonycteris thonglongyai, in Myanmar. Oryx 40(4):456-463.

Piepenbring, M. 2007. Inventoring the fungi of Panama. Biodivers. Conserv. 16(1):73-84.

Pillon, Y., and Chase, M.W. 2007. Taxonomic exaggeration and its effects on orchid conservation. Conserv. Biol. 21(1):263-265.

Pillon, Y., Qamaruz-Zaman, F., Fay, M.F., Hendoux, F., and Piquot, Y. 2007. Genetic diversity and ecological differentiation in the endangered fen orchid (Liparis loeselii). Conserv. Genet. 8(1):177-184.

Pitman, N.C.A., Azáldegui, M.D.L., Salas, K., Vigo, G.T., and Lutz, D.A. 2007. Written accounts of an Amazonian landscape over the last 450 years. Conserv. Biol. 21(1):253-262.

Purger, J.J., and Mészáros, L.A. 2006. Possible effects of nest predation on the breeding success of Ferruginous Ducks Aythya nyroca. Bird Conserv. Int. 16(4):309-316.

Randrianandrianina, F., Andriafidison, D., Kofoky, A.F., Ramilijaona, O., Ratrimomanarivo, F., Racey, P.A., and Jenkins, R.K.B. 2006. Habitat use and conservation of bats in rainforest and adjacent human-modified habitats in eastern Madagascar. Acta Chiropterol. 8(2):429-437.

Randrianasolo, A., and Lowry, P.P. 2006. Operculicarya (Anacardiaceae) revisited: an updated taxonomic treatment for Madagascar and the Comoro Islands, with descriptions of two new species. Adansonia 28(2):359-371.

Robin, VV., Sukumar, R., and Thiollay, J.M. 2006. Status and distribution of the White-bellied Shortwing Brachypteryx major in the Western Ghats of Karnataka and Goa, India. Bird Conserv. Int. 16(4):345-351.

Rodríguez, J.P., Balch, J.K., and Rodríguez-Clark, K.M. 2007. Assessing extinction risk in the absence of species-level data: quantitative criteria for terrestrial ecosystems. Biodivers. Conserv. 16(1):183-209.

Rodríguez-Clark, K.M., and Rodríguez, J.P. 2006. First successful fledging of blue-headed conures on Margarita Island, Venezuela, in 8 years. Oryx 40(4):383.

Ruiz-Campos, G., Camarena-Rosales, F., Conturas-Balderas, S., Reyes-Valdez, C.A., De la Cruz-Agüero, J., and Torres-Balcazar, E. 2006. Distribution and abundance of the endangered killifish Fundulus lima, and its interaction with exotic fishes in oases of central Baja California, Mexico. Southwest. Nat. 51(4):502-509.

Rull, V. 2007. The Guayana Highlands: a promised (but threatened) land for ecological and evolutionary science. Biotropica 39(1):31-34.

Ruokonen, M., Andersson, A.C., and Tegelström, H. 2007. Using historical captive stocks in conservation. The case of the lesser white-fronted goose. Conserv. Genet. 8(1):197-207.

Sahley, C.T., Vargas, J.T., and Valdivia, J.S. 2007. Biological sustainability of live shearing of Vicuña in Peru. Conserv. Biol. 21(1):98-105.

Sandbrook, C., and Semple, S. 2006. The rules and the reality of mountain gorilla Gorilla beringei beringei tracking: how close do tourists get? Oryx 40(4):428-433.

Schatz, G.E., and Lowry, P.P. 2006. Endemic families of Madagascar. X. Two new species of Rhopalocarpus Bojer (Sphaerosepalaceae). Adansonia 28(2):329-336.

Schmeller, D.S., and Merilä, J. 2007. Demographic and genetic estimates of effective population and breeding size in the amphibian Rana temporaria. Conserv. Biol. 21(1):142-151.

Schmit, J.P., and Mueller, G.M. 2007. An estimate of the lower limit of global fungal diversity. Biodivers. Conserv. 16(1):99-111.

Scott, J.M., Rachlow, J.L., Lackey, R.T., Pidgorna, A.B., Aycrigg, J.L., Feldman, G.R., Svancara, L.K., Rupp, D.A., Stanish, D.I., and Steinhorst, R.K. 2007. Policy advocacy in science: prevalence, perspectives, and implications for conservation biologists. Conserv. Biol. 21(1):29-35.

Semlitsch, R.D., Ryan, T.J., Ramed, K., Chatfield, M., Drehman, B., Pekarek, N., Spath, M., and Watland, A. 2007. Salamander abundance along road edges and within abandoned logging roads in Appalachian forests. Conserv. Biol. 21(1):159-167.

Shearer, C.A., Descals, E., Kohlmeyer, B., Kohlmeyer, J., Marvanová, L., Padgett, D., Porter, D., Raja, H.A., Schmit, J.P., Thorton, H.A., and Voglymayr, H. 2007. Fungal biodiversity in aquatic habitats. Biodivers. Conserv. 16(1):49-67.

Shekelle, M., Meier, R., Indrawan, M., Maryanto, I., Salim, A., Supriatna, J., Andayani, N., and Wirdateti. 2007. When "not extinct" is not good news: conservation in Sangihe Islands. Conserv. Biol. 21(1):4-5.

Shi, H.T., Parham, J.F., Lau, M., and Tien-Hsi, C. 2007. Farming endangered turtles to extinction in China. Conserv. Biol. 21(1):5-6.

Shirley, L.J., and Battaglia, L.L. 2006. Assessing vegetation change in coastal landscapes of the Northern Gulf of Mexico. Wetlands 26(4):1057-1070.

Siebenhüner, B. 2007. Administrator of global biodiversity: the Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity. Biodivers. Conserv. 16(1):259-274.

Silori, C.S. 2007. Perception of local people towards conservation of forest resources in Nanda Devi Biosphere Reserve, north-western Himalaya, India. Biodivers. Conserv. 16(1):211-222.

Simmons, R.E., Sakko, A., Paterson, J., and Nzuzi, A. 2006. Birds and conservation significance of the Namib Desert's least known coastal wetlands: Baia and Ilha dos Tigres, Angola. Afr. J. Mar. Sci. 28(3-4):713-717.

Skorka, P., Martyka, R., Wojcik, J.D., Babiarz, T., and Skorka, J. 2006. Habitat and nest site selection in the Common Gull Larus canus in southern Poland: significance of man-made habitats for conservation of an endangered species. Acta Ornithol. 41(2):137-144.

Smith, R.J., Goodman, P.S., and Matthews, W.S. 2006. Systematic conservation planning: a review of perceived limitations and an illustration of the benefits, using a case study from Maputaland, South Africa. Oryx 40(4):400-410.

Smits, J.E. 2007. Are we enlightened about the immunocompetence of a severely inbred population of New Zealand robins? Challenges inherent in studies using immunological endpoints. Anim. Conserv. 10(1):14-16.

Sønstebø, J.H., Borgstrøm, R., and Heun, M. 2007. Genetic structure of brown trout (Salmo trutta L.) from the Hardangervidda mountain plateau (Norway) analyzed by microsatellite DNA: a basis for conservation guidelines. Conserv. Genet. 8(1):33-44.

Soons, M.B. 2006. Wind dispersal in freshwater wetlands: knowledge for conservation and restoration. Appl. Veg. Sci. 9(2):271-278.

Sotelo, G., Morán, P., and Posada, D. 2007. Identification and characterization of microsatellite loci in the spiny spider crab Maja brachydactyla. Conserv. Genet. 8(1):245-247.

Spector, S. 2006. Scarabaeine dung beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Scarabaeinae): an invertebrate focal taxon for biodiversity research and conservation. Coleopts. Bull. 60(5):71-83.

Srbek-Araujo, A.C., and Chiarello, A.G. 2006. Recent record of harpy eagle, Harpia harpyia (Linnaeus) (Aves, Accipitridae), in Atlantic forest of Vale do Rio Doce Natural Reserve, Linhares, Espirito Santo, Brazil and implications for the regional conservation of the species. Rev. Bras. Zool. 23(4):1264-1267.

Stefansson, G., and Rosenberg, A.A. 2006. Designing marine protected areas for migrating fish stocks. J. Fish Biol. 69:66-78.

Stevens, C.E., Paszkowski, C.A., and Foote, A.L. 2007. Beaver (Castor canadensis) as a surrogate species for conserving anuran amphibians on boreal streams in Alberta, Canada. Biol. Conserv. 134(1):1-13.

Struebig, M.J., Galdikas, B.M.F., and Suatma. 2006. Bat diversity in oligotrophic forests of southern Borneo. Oryx 40(4):447-455.

Stuart, B.L., and Parham, J.F. 2007. Recent hybrid origin of three rare Chinese turtles. Conserv. Genet. 8(1):169-175.

Suárez, F., García, J.T., Sampietro, F.J., and Garza, V. 2006. The non-breeding distribution of Dupont's Lark Chersophilus duponti in Spain. Bird Conserv. Int. 16(4):317-323.

Taylor, E.B., Tamkee, P., Sterling, G., and Hughson, W. 2007. Microsatellite DNA analysis of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) from western Alberta, Canada: native status and evolutionary distinctiveness of "Athabasca" rainbow trout. Conserv. Genet. 8(1):1-15.

Taylor, J.P., Smith, L.M., and Haukos, D.A. 2006. Evaluation of woody plant restoration in the Middle Rio Grande: ten years after. Wetlands 26(4):1151-1160.

Thiollay, J.M. 2006. Severe decline of large birds in the Northern Sahel of West Africa: a long-term assessment. Bird Conserv. Int. 16(4):353-365.

Thompson, P.M., Mackey, B., Barton, T.R., Duck, C., and Butler, J.R.A. 2007. Assessing the potential impact of salmon fisheries management on the conservation status of harbour seals (Phoca vitulina) in north-east Scotland. Anim. Conserv. 10(1):48-56.

Tingay, R.E., Nicoll, M.A.C., and Visal, S. 2006. Status and distribution of the Grey-headed Fish-Eagle (Ichthyophaga ichthyaetus) in the Prek Toal Core Area of Tonle Sap Lake, Cambodia. J. Raptor Res. 40(4):277-283.

Tompkins, D.M. 2007. Population bottlenecks and avian immunity: implications for conservation. Anim. Conserv. 10(1):11-13.

Trevino, H.S., Skibiel, A.L., Karels, T.J., and Dobson, F.S. 2007. Threats to avifauna on oceanic islands. Conserv. Biol. 21(1):125-132.

Uesugi, R., Nishihiro, J., Tsumura, Y., and Washitani, I. 2007. Restoration of genetic diversity from soil seed banks in a threatened aquatic plant, Nymphoides peltata. Conserv. Genet. 8(1):111-121.

Valière, N., Bonenfant, C., Toïgo, C., Luikart, G., Gaillard, J.M., and Klein, F. 2007. Importance of a pilot study for non-invasive genetic sampling: genotyping errors and population size estimation in red deer. Conserv. Genet. 8(1):69-78.

van Belle, J., Barendregt, A., Schot, P.P., and Wassen, M.J. 2006. The effects of groundwater discharge, mowing and eutrophication on fen vegetation evaluated over half a century. Appl. Veg. Sci. 9(2):195-204.

van Diggelen, R., Middleton, B., Bakker, J., Grootjans, A., and Wassen, M. 2006. Fens and floodplains of the temperate zone: present status, threats, conservation and restoration. Appl. Veg. Sci. 9(2):157-162.

Vandermeer, J., and Perfecto, I. 2007. The agricultural matrix and a future paradigm for conservation. Conserv. Biol. 21(1):274-277.

Vanreusel, W., Maes, D., and Van Dyck, H. 2007. Transferability of species distribution models: a functional habitat approach for two regionally threatened butterflies. Conserv. Biol. 21(1):201-212.

Vashistha, R., Nautiyal, B.P., and Nautiyal, M.C. 2006. Conservation status and morphological variations between populations of Angelica glauca Edgew. and Angelica archangelica Linn. in Garhwal Himalaya. Curr. Sci. 91(11):1537-1542.

Williams, J.A., O'Farrell, M.J., and Riddle, B.R. 2006. Habitat use by bats in a riparian corridor of the Mojave Desert in southern Nevada. J. Mammal. 87(6):1145-1153.

Winfree, R., Griswold, T., and Kremen, C. 2007. Effect of human disturbance on bee communities in a forested ecosystem. Conserv. Biol. 21(1):213-223.

Wood, K.R., Wagner, W.L., and Motley, T.J. 2007. Labordia lorenciana (Loganiaceae): a new critically endangered species from Kaua'i, Hawaiian islands with comments on its conservation. Syst. Bot. 32(1):195-199.

Wunder, S. 2007. The efficiency of payments for environmental services in tropical conservation. Conserv. Biol. 21(1):48-58.

Yamaura, Y., Katoh, K., and Takahashi, T. 2006. Reversing habitat loss: deciduous habitat fragmentation matters to birds in a larch plantation matrix. Ecography 29(6):827-834.

Yu, X.P., Liu, N.F., Xi, Y.M., and Lu, B.Z. 2006. Reproductive success of the Crested Ibis Nipponia nippon. Bird Conserv. Int. 16(4):325-343.

Zamora, J., Verdú, J.R., and Galante, E. 2007. Species richness in Mediterranean agroecosystems: spatial and temporal analysis for biodiversity conservation. Biol. Conserv. 134(1):113-121.


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