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Department ofBotany



No. 273
September 2007


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In This Issue


Smithsonian Scientists Show Differing Patterns of Rain Forest Biodiversity


One of the major issues in conservation and natural resource management is the distribution of species across landscapes. How widespread are species on average, and how much does the composition of a community of species change from place to place (known as "beta diversity")? Obviously, the pattern differs in different kinds of organisms and habitats, and beta diversity can be extreme across some environmental gradients.

An international group of entomologists and botanists, including Scott Miller and Karolyn Darrow from the National Museum of Natural History and Yves Basset from the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute in Panama, with NMNH research associates Vojtech Novotny (Czech Academy of Sciences) and George Weiblen (University of Minnesota) and many others, has assembled a large data set representing 500 species of caterpillars, ambrosia beetles, and fruit flies across 75,000 square kilometers of contiguous lowland rain forest in Papua New Guinea. The study published in the 9 August 2007 issue of Nature shows that most lowland New Guinea insect and plant species are widely distributed. The results imply that where relatively uniform altitude, climate and soil support a low beta diversity of vegetation, the plant-feeding insect community also has low beta diversity.

The results have implications for the design of nature reserves as well as the control of forest pests. "There are some philosophical questions that our data should be useful to address," Miller said. "If you can preserve 10,000 hectares of forest, is it better to preserve it as 10 small 1,000 hectare plots or one large 10,000 hectare plot?"

Strategies for preserving high and low beta diversity forests might not be the same. "Our data from the New Guinea lowland forest suggests that bigger is better," he said. "In this kind of relatively uniform habitat, you're not losing a lot of beta diversity that would have to be represented by several smaller sites. But the opposite might apply on elevation or climate gradient."

There is still much to learn because collecting high intensity data is a very time-consuming process. "We haven't solved the conservation management question by any means," Miller said. He noted this kind of study needs to be replicated across a large spatial scale in the Amazon Basin and the Congo Basin to see if the low beta diversity pattern holds.


Current Literature


Abbott, K.L., Greaves, S.N.J., Ritchie, P.A., and Lester, P.J. 2007. Behaviourally and genetically distinct populations of an invasive ant provide insight into invasion history and impacts on a tropical ant community. Biol. Invasions 9(4):453-463.

Ackleh, A.S., Allen, L.J.S., and Carter, J. 2007. Establishing a beachhead: a stochastic population model with an Allee effect applied to species invasion. Theor. Popul. Biol. 71(3):290-300.

Adams, A.A.Y., Skagen, S.K., and Savidge, J.A. 2007. Population-specific demographic estimates provide insights into declines of lark buntings (Calamospiza melanocorys). Auk 124(2):578-593.

Albanese, G., Vickery, P.D., and Sievert, P.R. 2007. Habitat characteristics of adult frosted elfins (Callophrys irus) in sandplain communities of southeastern Massachusetts, USA. Biol. Conserv. 136(1):53-64.

Allstadt, A., Caraco, T., and Korniss, G. 2007. Ecological invasion: spatial clustering and the critical radius. Evol. Ecol. Res. 9(3):375-394.

Alves, R.R.D., and Pereira, G.A. 2007. Commercialization and use of snakes in North and Northeastern Brazil: implications for conservation and management. Biodivers. Conserv. 16(4):969-985.

Anadón, J.D., Giménez, A., Martínez, M., Palazón, J.A., and Esteve, M.A. 2007. Assessing changes in habitat quality due to land use changes in the spur-thighed tortoise Testudo graeca using hierarchical predictive habitat models. Divers. Distrib. 13(3):324-331.

Arizmendi, M.D., Constanza, M.S., Lourdes, J., Ivonne, F.M., and Edgar, L.S. 2007. Effect of the presence of nectar feeders on the breeding success of Salvia mexicana and Salvia fulgens in a suburban park near México City. Biol. Conserv. 136(1):155-158.

Aronson, M.F.J., Handel, S.N., and Clemants, S.E. 2007. Fruit type, life form and origin determine the success of woody plant invaders in an urban landscape. Biol. Invasions 9(4):465-475.

Arroyo-Quiroz, I., Pérez-Gil, R., and Leader-Williams, N. 2007. Mexico in the international reptile skin trade: a case study. Biodivers. Conserv. 16(4):931-952.

Azeria, E.T., Sanmartin, I., Ås, S., Carlson, A., and Burgess, N. 2007. Biogeographic patterns of the East African coastal forest vertebrate fauna. Biodivers. Conserv. 16(4):883-912.

Ball, M.C., Pither, R., Manseau, M., Clark, J., Petersen, S.D., Kingston, S., Morrill, N., and Wilson, P. 2007. Characterization of target nuclear DNA from faeces reduces technical issues associated with the assumptions of low-quality and quantity template. Conserv. Genet. 8(3):577-586.

Banks, M.A., Ellis, E.R., Wright, A., and Wright, P.C. 2007. Global population size of a critically endangered lemur, Perrier's sifaka. Anim. Conserv. 10(2):254-262.

Barea-Azcón, J.M., Virgós, E., Ballesteros-Duperón, E., Moleón, M., and Chirosa, M. 2007. Surveying carnivores at large spatial scales: a comparison of four broad-applied methods. Biodivers. Conserv. 16(4):1213-1230.

Barrows, C.W., and Allen, M.F. 2007. Biological monitoring and bridging the gap between land management and science. Nat. Areas J. 27(2):194-197.

Baskin, C.C., Wurts, J., Liu, Z.M., and Baskini, J.M. 2007. A method for breaking physical dormancy in seeds of the endemic Tibetan plateau shrub Sophora moorcroftiana var. moorcroftiana (Fabaceae) and implications for restoration. Nat. Areas J. 27(2):118-123.

Batáry, P., Báldi, A., and Erdõs, S. 2007. Grassland versus non-grassland bird abundance and diversity in managed grasslands: local, landscape and regional scale effects. Biodivers. Conserv. 16(4):871-881.

Belant, J.L. 2007. Human-caused mortality and population trends of American marten and fisher in a US national park. Nat. Areas J. 27(2):155-160.

Berkeley, L.I., McCarty, J.P., and Wolfenbarger, L.L. 2007. Postfledging survival and movement in dickcissels (Spiza americana): implications for habitat management and conservation. Auk 124(2):396-409.

Bernardi, G., Ruiz-Campos, G., and Camarena-Rosales, F. 2007. Genetic isolation and evolutionary history of oases populations of the Baja California killifish, Fundulus lima. Conserv. Genet. 8(3):547-554.

Bito, D. 2007. An alien in an archipelago: Spathodea campanulata and the geographic variability of its moth (Lepidoptera) communities in the New Guinea and Bismarck Islands. J. Biogeogr. 34(5):769-778.

Boessenkool, S., Taylor, S.S., Tepolt, C.K., Komdeur, J., and Jamieson, I.G. 2007. Large mainland populations of South Island robins retain greater genetic diversity than offshore island refuges. Conserv. Genet. 8(3):705-714.

Böhme, M.U., Schneeweiß, N., Fritz, U., Schlegel, M., and Berendonk, T.U. 2007. Small edge populations at risk: genetic diversity of the green lizard (Lacerta viridis viridis) in Germany and implications for conservation management. Conserv. Genet. 8(3):555-563.

Bried, J., Nicolaus, M., Jarne, P., Dubois, M.P., and Jouventin, P. 2007. Population biology of the wandering albatross (Diomedea exulans) in the Crozet and Kerguelen archipelagos, southern Indian Ocean, approached through genetic and demographic methods. J. Zool. 272(1):20-29.

Brooke, M.D., Hilton, G.M., and Martins, T.L.F. 2007. The complexities of costing eradications: a reply to Donlan & Wilcox. Anim. Conserv. 10(2):157-158.

Brotons, L., Herrando, S., and Pla, M. 2007. Updating bird species distribution at large spatial scales: applications of habitat modelling to data from long-term monitoring programs. Divers. Distrib. 13(3):276-288.

Brown, L.E., Hannah, D.M., and Milner, A.M. 2007. Vulnerability of alpine stream biodiversity to shrinking glaciers and snowpacks. Global Change Biol. 13(5):958-966.

Buettner, U.K., Davies-Mostert, H.T., du Toit, J.T., and Mills, M.G.L. 2007. Factors affecting juvenile survival in African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus) in Kruger National Park, South Africa. J. Zool. 272(1):10-19.

Bulte, E.H., Damania, R., and Van Kooten, G.C. 2007. The effects of one-off ivory sales on elephant mortality. J. Wildlife Manag. 71(2):613-618.

Cano, L., Escarre, J., and Sans, F.X. 2007. Factors affecting the invasion success of Senecio inaequidens and S. pterophorus in Mediterranean plant communities. J. Veg. Sci. 18(2):281-288.

Carrete, M., Grande, J.M., Tella, J.L., Sánchez-Zapata, J.A., Donázar, J.A., Díaz-Delgadoa, R., and Romo, A. 2007. Habitat, human pressure, and social behavior: partialling out factors affecting large-scale territory extinction in an endangered vulture. Biol. Conserv. 136(1):143-154.

Cassel-Lundhagen, A., and Sjögren-Gulve, P. 2007. Limited dispersal by the rare scarce heath butterfly - potential consequences for population persistence. J. Insect Conserv. 11(2):113-121.

Castro-Luna, A.A., Sosa, V.J., and Castillo-Campos, G. 2007. Bat diversity and abundance associated with the degree of secondary succession in a tropical forest mosaic in south-eastern Mexico. Anim. Conserv. 10(2):219-228.

Chapman, K.A., and Reich, P.B. 2007. Land use and habitat gradients determine bird community diversity and abundance in suburban, rural and reserve landscapes of Minnesota, USA. Biol. Conserv. 135(4):527-541.

Chase, T., and Rothley, K.D. 2007. Hierarchical tree classifiers to find suitable sites for sandplain grasslands and heathlands on Martha's Vineyard Island, Massachusetts. Biol. Conserv. 136(1):65-75.

Clarke, C.G., and Patterson, W.A. 2007. The distribution of disturbance-dependent rare plants in a coastal Massachusetts sandplain: implications for conservation and management. Biol. Conserv. 136(1):4-16.

Collins, A.R., Jose, S., Daneshgar, P., and Ramsey, C.L. 2007. Elton's hypothesis revisited: an experimental test using cogongrass. Biol. Invasions 9(4):433-443.

Costello, C., Drake, J.M., and Lodge, D.M. 2007. Evaluating an invasive species policy: ballast water exchange in the Great Lakes. Ecol. Appl. 17(3):655-662.

Cozzolino, S., Cafasso, D., Pellegrino, G., Musacchio, A., and Widmer, A. 2007. Genetic variation in time and space: the use of herbarium specimens to reconstruct patterns of genetic variation in the endangered orchid Anacamptis palustris. Conserv. Genet. 8(3):629-639.

Cronin, M.A. 2007. The Preble's meadow jumping mouse: subjective subspecies, advocacy and management. Anim. Conserv. 10(2):159-161.

Dalrymple, S.E. 2007. Biological flora of the British Isles: Melampyrum sylvaticum L. J. Ecology 95(3):583-597.

de Ita, A.O., and de Silva, H.G. 2007. Territoriality and survivorship of the sierra madre sparrow in La Cima, México. Biodivers. Conserv. 16(4):1055-1061.

Deagle, B.E., and Tollit, D.J. 2007. Quantitative analysis of prey DNA in pinniped faeces: potential to estimate diet composition? Conserv. Genet. 8(3):743-747.

Decottignies, P., Beninger, P.G., Rince, Y., Robins, R.J., and Riera, P. 2007. Exploitation of natural food sources by two sympatric, invasive suspension-feeders: Crassostrea gigas and Crepidula fornicata. Mar. Ecol. Progr. Ser. 334:179-192.

Deng, Z.F., An, S.Q., Zhou, C.F., Wang, Z.S., Zhi, Y.B., Wang, Y.J., Shi, S.H., Chen, L., and Zhao, C.J. 2007. Genetic structure and habitat selection of the tall form Spartina alterniflora Loisel. in China. Hydrobiologia 583:195-204.

Dennis, R.L.H., and Hardy, P.B. 2007. Support for mending the matrix: resource seeking by butterflies in apparent non-resource zones. J. Insect Conserv. 11(2):157-168.

Diniz, J.A.F., Bini, L.M., Pinto, M.P., Rangel, T.F.L.V.B., Carvalho, P., Vieira, S.L., and Bastos, R.P. 2007. Conservation biogeography of anurans in Brazilian Cerrado. Biodivers. Conserv. 16(4):997-1008.

Donlan, C.J., and Wilcox, C. 2007. Complexities of costing eradications. Anim. Conserv. 10(2):154-156.

Drechsler, M., Grimm, V., Mysiak, J., and Wätzold, F. 2007. Differences and similarities between ecological and economic models for biodiversity conservation. Ecol. Econ. 62(2):232-241.

Drechsler, M., and Wätzold, F. 2007. Ecological-economic modelling for the sustainable use and conservation of biodiversity. Ecol. Econ. 62(2):203-206.

Duncan, R.P., and Blackburn, T.M. 2007. Causes of extinction in island birds. Anim. Conserv. 10(2):149-150.

Durnin, M.E., Palsbøll, P.J., Ryder, O.A., and McCullough, D.R. 2007. A reliable genetic technique for sex determination of giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) from non-invasively collected hair samples. Conserv. Genet. 8(3):715-720.

Eastwood, M.M., Donahue, M.J., and Fowler, A.E. 2007. Reconstructing past biological invasions: niche shifts in response to invasive predators and competitors. Biol. Invasions 9(4):397-407.

Elith, J., and Leathwick, J. 2007. Predicting species distributions from museum and herbarium records using multiresponse models fitted with multivariate adaptive regression splines. Divers. Distrib. 13(3):265-275.

Evans, A.M., and Gregoire, T.G. 2007. A geographically variable model of hemlock woolly adelgid spread. Biol. Invasions 9(4):369-382.

Farnsworth, E.J. 2007. Plant life history traits of rare versus frequent plant taxa of sandplains: implications for research and management trials. Biol. Conserv. 136(1):44-52.

Ferrier, S., Manion, G., Elith, J., and Richardson, K. 2007. Using generalized dissimilarity modelling to analyse and predict patterns of beta diversity in regional biodiversity assessment. Divers. Distrib. 13(3):252-264.

Field, S.G., Lange, M., Schulenburg, H., Velavan, T.P., and Michiels, N.K. 2007. Genetic diversity and parasite defense in a fragmented urban metapopulation of earthworms. Anim. Conserv. 10(2):162-175.

Finnoff, D., Shogren, J.F., Leung, B., and Lodge, D. 2007. Take a risk: preferring prevention over control of biological invaders. Ecol. Econ. 62(2):216-222.

Flanagan, N.S., Peakall, R., Clements, M.A., and Otero, J.T. 2007. Identification of the endangered Australian orchid Microtis angusii using an allele-specific PCR assay. Conserv. Genet. 8(3):721-725.

Flory, S.L., Rudgers, J.A., and Clay, K. 2007. Experimental light treatments affect invasion success and the impact of Microstegium vimineum on the resident community. Nat. Areas J. 27(2):124-132.

Forcey, G.M., Linz, G.M., Thogmartin, W.E., and Bleier, W.J. 2007. Influence of land use and climate on wetland breeding birds in the Prairie Pothole region of Canada. Can. J. Zool. 85(3):421-436.

Forrester, J.A., Leopold, D.J., and Art, H.W. 2007. Disturbance history and mortality patterns in a rare Atlantic barrier island maritime Holly Forest. Nat. Areas J. 27(2):169-182.

Fraser, D.J., Jones, M.W., McParland, T.L., and Hutchings, J.A. 2007. Loss of historical immigration and the unsuccessful rehabilitation of extirpated salmon populations. Conserv. Genet. 8(3):527-546.

Freeland, J.R., Anderson, S., Allen, D., and Looney, D. 2007. Museum samples provide novel insights into the taxonomy and genetic diversity of Irish red grouse. Conserv. Genet. 8(3):695-703.

Friedlander, A.M., Brown, E.K., and Monaco, M.E. 2007. Coupling ecology and GIS to evaluate efficacy of marine protected areas in Hawaii. Ecol. Appl. 17(3):715-730.

Gardner, J.L., and Heinsohn, R.G. 2007. Probable consequences of high female mortality for speckled warblers living in habitat remnants. Biol. Conserv. 135(4):473-483.

Gaspari, S., Airoldi, S., and Hoelzel, A.R. 2007. Risso's dolphins (Grampus griseus) in UK waters are differentiated from a population in the Mediterranean Sea and genetically less diverse. Conserv. Genet. 8(3):727-732.

Gerhardt, F., and Collinge, S.K. 2007. Abiotic constraints eclipse biotic resistance in determining invasibility along experimental vernal pool gradients. Ecol. Appl. 17(3):922-933.

Gibb, H., and Hjältén, J. 2007. Effects of low severity burning after clear-cutting on mid-boreal ant communities in the two years after fire. J. Insect Conserv. 11(2):169-175.

Giralt, D., and Valera, F. 2007. Population trends and spatial synchrony in peripheral populations of the endangered Lesser grey shrike in response to environmental change. Biodivers. Conserv. 16(4):841-856.

Goldberg, T.L., Gillespie, T.R., Rwego, I.B., Wheeler, E., Estoff, E.L., and Chapman, C.A. 2007. Patterns of gastrointestinal bacterial exchange between chimpanzees and humans involved in research and tourism in western Uganda. Biol. Conserv. 135(4):511-517.

González-Zevallos, D., Yario, P., and Caille, G. 2007. Seabird mortality at trawler warp cables and a proposed mitigation measure: a case of study in Golfo San Jorge, Patagonia, Argentina. Biol. Conserv. 136(1):108-116.

Gormley, L.H.L., Furley, P.A., and Watt, A.D. 2007. Distribution of ground-dwelling beetles in fragmented tropical habitats. J. Insect Conserv. 11(2):131-139.

Graf, R.F., Bollmann, K., Bugmann, H., and Sitter, W. 2007. Forest and landscape structure as predictors of capercaillie occurrence. J. Wildlife Manag. 71(2):356-365.

Grand, J., Cummings, M.P., Rebelo, T.G., Ricketts, T.H., and Neel, M.C. 2007. Biased data reduce efficiency and effectiveness of conservation reserve networks. Ecol. Lett. 10(5):364-374.

Gregr, E.J., and Bodtker, K.M. 2007. Adaptive classification of marine ecosystems: identifying biologically meaningful regions in the marine environment. Deep-Sea Res. Pt. I 54(3):385-402.

Groombridge, J. 2007. Genetics and extinction of island endemics: the importance of historical perspectives. Anim. Conserv. 10(2):147-148.

Guadagnin, D.L., and Maltchik, L. 2007. Habitat and landscape factors associated with neotropical waterbird occurrence and richness in wetland fragments. Biodivers. Conserv. 16(4):1231-1244.

Guiasu, R.C. 2007. Conservation and diversity of the crayfishes of the genus Fallicambarus Hobbs, 1969 (Decapoda, Cambaridae), with an emphasis on the status of Fallicambarus fodiens (Cottle, 1863) in Canada. Crustaceana 80(2):207-223.

Guil, N., and Cabrero-Sañudo, F.J. 2007. Analysis of the species description process for a little known invertebrate group: the limnoterrestrial tardigrades (Bilateria, Tardigrada). Biodivers. Conserv. 16(4):1063-1086.

Guisan, A., Graham, C.H., Elith, J., Huettmann, F., and NCEAS Species Distribution Modelling Group. 2007. Sensitivity of predictive species distribution models to change in grain size. Divers. Distrib. 13(3):332-340.

Hagman, M., and Shine, R. 2007. Effects of invasive cane toads on Australian mosquitoes: does the dark cloud have a silver lining? Biol. Invasions 9(4):445-452.

Hajji, G.M., Zachos, F.E., Charfi-Cheikrouha, F., and Hartl, G.B. 2007. Conservation genetics of the imperilled Barbary red deer in Tunisia. Anim. Conserv. 10(2):229-235.

Hájková, P., Pertoldi, C., Zemanová, B., Roche, K., Hájek, B., Bryja, J., and Zima, J. 2007. Genetic structure and evidence for recent population decline in Eurasian otter populations in the Czech and Slovak Republics: implications for conservation. J. Zool. 272(1):1-9.

Hannon, E.R., and Hafernik, J.E. 2007. Reintroduction of the rare damselfly Ischnura gemina (Odonata: Coenagrionidae) into an urban California park. J. Insect Conserv. 11(2):141-149.

Hartel, T., Nemes, S., Cogalniceanu, D., Öllerer, K., Schweiger, O., Moga, C.I., and Demeter, L. 2007. The effect of fish and aquatic habitat complexity on amphibians. Hydrobiologia 583:173-182.

Hartwig, T.S., and Kiviat, E. 2007. Microhabitat association of blanding's turtles in natural and constructed wetlands in southeastern New York. J. Wildlife Manag. 71(2):576-582.

Heenan, P.B., and de Lange, P.J. 2007. Two new species of Dianella (Hemerocallidaceae) from New Zealand. New Zeal. J. Bot. 45(1):269-285.

Heenan, P.B., Mitchell, A.D., McLenachan, P.A., Lockhart, P.J., and de Lange, P.J. 2007. Natural variation and conservation of Lepidium sisymbrioides Hook. f. and L. solandri Kirk (Brassicaceae) in South Island, New Zealand, based on morphological and DNA sequence data. New Zeal. J. Bot. 45(1):237-264.

Heil, L., Fernández-Juricic, E., Renison, D., Cingolani, A.M., and Blumstein, D.T. 2007. Avian responses to tourism in the biogeographically isolated high Córdoba Mountains, Argentina. Biodivers. Conserv. 16(4):1009-1026.

Helfield, J.M., Capon, S.J., Nilsson, C., Jansson, R., and Palm, D. 2007. Restoration of rivers used for timber floating: effects on riparian plant diversity. Ecol. Appl. 17(3):840-851.

Herborg, L.M., Jerde, C.L., Lodge, D.M., Ruiz, G.M., and MacIsaac, H.J. 2007. Predicting invasion risk using measures of introduction effort and environmental niche models. Ecol. Appl. 17(3):663-674.

Hermy, M., and Verheyen, K. 2007. Legacies of the past in the present-day forest biodiversity: a review of past land-use effects on forest plant species composition and diversity. Ecol. Res. 22(3):361-371.

Hodgkison, S., Hero, J.M., and Warnken, J. 2007. The efficacy of small-scale conservation efforts, as assessed on Australian golf courses. Biol. Conserv. 135(4):576-586.

Hodgson, A.J., Marsh, H., Delean, S., and Marcus, L. 2007. Is attempting to change marine mammal behaviour a generic solution to the bycatch problem? A dugong case study. Anim. Conserv. 10(2):263-273.

Holmern, T., Nyahongo, J., and Røskaft, E. 2007. Livestock loss caused by predators outside the Serengeti National Park, Tanzania. Biol. Conserv. 135(4):518-526.

Holzkämper, A., and Seppelt, R. 2007. Evaluating cost-effectiveness of conservation management actions in an agricultural landscape on a regional scale. Biol. Conserv. 136(1):117-127.

Honrado, J., Alves, P., Lomba, A., Torres, J., and Caldas, F.B. 2007. Ecology, diversity and conservation of relict laurel-leaved mesophytic scrublands in mainland Portugal. Acta Bot. Gallica 154(1):63-77.

Huth, A., and Tietjen, B. 2007. Management strategies for tropical rain forests: results of ecological models and requirements for ecological-economic modelling. Ecol. Econ. 62(2):207-215.

Ichikawa, M. 2007. Degradation and loss of forest land and land-use changes in Sarawak, East Malaysia: a study of native land use by the Iban. Ecol. Res. 22(3):403-413.

Ilgaz, Ç., Türkozan, O., Özdemir, A., Kaska, Y., and Stachowitsch, M. 2007. Population decline of loggerhead turtles: two potential scenarios for Fethiye beach, Turkey. Biodivers. Conserv. 16(4):1027-1037.

Isaksson, D., Wallander, J., and Larsson, M. 2007. Managing predation on ground-nesting birds: the effectiveness of nest exclosures. Biol. Conserv. 136(1):136-142.

Jacobs, M.J., and MacIsaac, H.J. 2007. Fouling of fishing line by the waterflea Cercopagis pengoi: a mechanism of human-mediated dispersal of zooplankton? Hydrobiologia 583:119-126.

Jamieson, I.G. 2007. Has the debate over genetics and extinction of island endemics truly been resolved? Anim. Conserv. 10(2):139-144.

Jamieson, I.G. 2007. Role of genetic factors in extinction of island endemics: complementary or competing explanations? Anim. Conserv. 10(2):151-153.

Jehl, J.R. 2007. Disappearance of breeding semipalmated sandpipers from Churchill, Manitoba: more than a local phenomenon. Condor 109(2):351-360.

Jiguet, F., Robert, A., Micol, T., and Barbraud, C. 2007. Quantifying stochastic and deterministic threats to island seabirds: last endemic prions face extinction from falcon peregrinations. Anim. Conserv. 10(2):245-253.

Jönsson, M.T., Fraver, S., Jonsson, B.G., Dynesius, M., Rydgård, M., and Esseen, P.A. 2007. Eighteen years of tree mortality and structural change in an experimentally fragmented Norway spruce forest. Forest Ecol. Manag. 242(2-3):306-313.

Jönsson, M.T., and Jonsson, B.G. 2007. Assessing coarse woody debris in Swedish woodland key habitats: implications for conservation and management. Forest Ecol. Manag. 242(2-3):363-373.

Kaneko, S., Isagi, Y., and Nobushima, F. 2007. Development of microsatellite markers for Metrosideros boninensis (Myrtaceae), an endangered endemic plant species from the Bonin Islands, Japan. Conserv. Genet. 8(3):753-755.

Karatayev, A.Y., Boltovskoy, D., Padilla, D.K., and Burlakova, L.E. 2007. The invasive bivalves Dreissena polymorpha and Limnoperna fortunei: parallels, contrasts, potential spread and invasion impacts. J. Shellfish Res. 26(1):205-213.

Khudamrongsawat, J., and Kuhajda, B.R. 2007. Life history of the Warrior darter (Etheostoma bellator) and comparison with the endangered vermilion darter (Etheostoma chermocki). J. Freshwater Ecol. 22(2):241-248.

Kilbane, C.A., and Kareiva, P. 2007. Incentives for employing conservation easements in Washington State. Nat. Areas J. 27(2):116-117.

Killengreen, S.T., Ims, R.A., Yoccoz, N.G., Bråthen, K.A., Henden, J.A., and Schott, T. 2007. Structural characteristics of a low Arctic tundra ecosystem and the retreat of the Arctic fox. Biol. Conserv. 135(4):459-472.

Killmaster, C.H., Osborn, D.A., Warren, R.J., and Miller, K.V. 2007. Deer and understory plant responses to a large-scale herd reduction on a Georgia State Park. Nat. Areas J. 27(2):161-168.

King, D.I., Hernandez-Mayorga, M.D., Trubey, R., Raudales, R., and Rappole, J.H. 2007. An evaluation of the contribution of cultivated allspice (Pimenta dioca) to vertebrate biodiversity conservation in Nicaragua. Biodivers. Conserv. 16(4):1299-1320.

King, S., and Warburton, K. 2007. The environmental preferences of three species of Australian freshwater fish in relation to the effects of riparian degradation. Environ. Biol. Fish. 78(4):307-316.

Kofoky, A., Andriafidison, D., Ratrimomanarivo, F., Razafimanahaka, H.J., Rakotondravony, D., Racey, P.A., and Jenkins, R.K.B. 2007. Habitat use, roost selection and conservation of bats in Tsingy de Bemaraha National Park, Madagascar. Biodivers. Conserv. 16(4):1039-1053.

Koopman, M.E., Hayward, G.D., and McDonald, D.B. 2007. High connectivity and minimal genetic structure among North American boreal owl (Aegolius funereus) populations, regardless of habitat matrix. Auk 124(2):690-704.

Kozhara, A.V., Zhulidov, A.V., Gollasch, S., Przybylski, M., Poznyak, V.G., Zhulidov, D.A., and Gurtovaya, T.Y. 2007. Range extension and conservation status of the bitterling, Rhodeus sericeus amarus in Russia and adjacent countries. Folia Zoolog. 56(1):97-108.

Krištín, A., Hoi, H., Valera, F., and Hoi, C. 2007. Philopatry, dispersal patterns and nest-site reuse in Lesser Grey Shrikes (Lanius minor). Biodivers. Conserv. 16(4):987-995.

Lagan, P., Mannan, S., and Matsubayashi, H. 2007. Sustainable use of tropical forests by reduced-impact logging in Deramakot Forest Reserve, Sabah, Malaysia. Ecol. Res. 22(3):414-421.

Larson, B.M.H., Catling, P.M., and Waldron, G.E. 2007. The biology of Canadian weeds. 135. Lonicera japonica Thunb. Can. J. Plant Sci. 87(2):423-438.

Leger, E.A., and Rice, K.J. 2007. Assessing the speed and predictability of local adaptation in invasive California poppies (Eschscholzia californica). J. Evol. Biol. 20(3):1090-1103.

Lei, F.M., Wei, G.A., Zhao, H.F., Yin, Z.H., and Lu, J.L. 2007. China subregional avian endemism and biodiversity conservation. Biodivers. Conserv. 16(4):1119-1130.

Lenz, T.L., Jacob, A., and Wedekind, C. 2007. Manipulating sex ratio to increase population growth: the example of the Lesser Kestrel. Anim. Conserv. 10(2):236-244.

Lindborg, R. 2007. Evaluating the distribution of plant life-history traits in relation to current and historical landscape configurations. J. Ecology 95(3):555-564.

Link, S.O. 2007. Restoring nature's complexity. Nat. Areas J. 27(2):114-115.

Linke, S., Pressey, R.L., Bailey, R.C., and Norris, R.H. 2007. Management options for river conservation planning: condition and conservation re-visited. Freshwater Biol. 52(5):918-938.

Livia, L., Francesca, V., Antonella, P., Fausto, P., and Bernardino, R. 2007. A PCR-RFLP method on faecal samples to distinguish Martes martes, Martes foina, Mustela putorius and Vulpes vulpes. Conserv. Genet. 8(3):757-759.

Long, P.R., Székely, T., Kershaw, M., and O'Connell, M. 2007. Ecological factors and human threats both drive wildfowl population declines. Anim. Conserv. 10(2):183-191.

López, H., Contreras-Díaz, H.G., Oromí, P., and Juan, C. 2007. Delimiting species boundaries for endangered Canary Island grasshoppers based on DNA sequence data. Conserv. Genet. 8(3):587-598.

López-López, P., García-Ripollés, C., Soutullo, Á., Cadahía, L., and Urios, V. 2007. Identifying potentially suitable nesting habitat for golden eagles applied to 'important bird areas' design. Anim. Conserv. 10(2):208-218.

Lortie, C.J., and Cushman, J.H. 2007. Effects of a directional abiotic gradient on plant community dynamics and invasion in a coastal dune system. J. Ecology 95(3):468-481.

Louy, D., Habel, J.C., Schmitt, T., Assmann, T., Meyer, M., and Muller, P. 2007. Strongly diverging population genetic patterns of three skipper species: the role of habitat fragmentation and dispersal ability. Conserv. Genet. 8(3):671-681.

Magnussen, J.E., Pikitch, E.K., Clarke, S.C., Nicholson, C., Hoelzel, A.R., and Shivji, M.S. 2007. Genetic tracking of basking shark products in international trade. Anim. Conserv. 10(2):199-207.

Maron, M. 2007. Threshold effect of eucalypt density on an aggressive avian competitor. Biol. Conserv. 136(1):100-107.

Maron, M., and Fitzsimons, J.A. 2007. Agricultural intensification and loss of matrix habitat over 23 years in the West Wimmera, south-eastern Australia. Biol. Conserv. 135(4):587-593.

Martins, S.D., Sanderson, J.G., and Silva-Júnior, J.D.E. 2007. Monitoring mammals in the Caxiuanã National Forest, Brazil - first results from the Tropical Ecology, Assessment and Monitoring (TEAM) program. Biodivers. Conserv. 16(4):857-870.

McDowall, R.M., and Stevens, M.I. 2007. Taxonomic status of the Tarndale bully Gobiomorphus alpinus (Teleostei : Eleotridae), revisited - again. J. Royal Soc. N. Z. 37(1):15-29.

Medina, F.M., and García, R. 2007. Predation of insects by feral cats (Felis silvestris catus L., 1758) on an oceanic island (La Palma, Canary Island). J. Insect Conserv. 11(2):203-207.

Meiners, S.J. 2007. Native and exotic plant species exhibit similar population dynamics during succession. Ecology 88(5):1098-1104.

Moinde-Fockler, N.N., Oguge, N.O., Karere, G.M., Otina, D., and Suleman, M.A. 2007. Human and natural impacts on forests along lower Tana river, Kenya: implications towards conservation and management of endemic primate species and their habitat. Biodivers. Conserv. 16(4):1161-1173.

Moza, M.K., and Bhatnagar, A.K. 2007. Plant reproductive biology studies crucial for conservation. Curr. Sci. 92(9):1207.

Mueller, K.W. 2007. Status of the crayfish stocks in Pine Lake, King County, Washington five years after the discovery of the invasive red swamp crayfish Procambarus clarkii (Girard, 1852). J. Freshwater Ecol. 22(2):351-353.

Nagamitsu, T., Kenta, T., Inari, N., Horita, H., Goka, K., and Hiura, T. 2007. Foraging interactions between native and exotic bumblebees: enclosure experiments using native flowering plants. J. Insect Conserv. 11(2):123-130.

Nakamura, A., Catterall, C.P., House, A.P.N., Kitching, R.L., and Burwell, C.J. 2007. The use of ants and other soil and litter arthropods as bio-indicators of the impacts of rainforest clearing and subsequent land use. J. Insect Conserv. 11(2):177-186.

Nehrbass, N., Winkler, E., Müllerová, J., Pergl, J., Pyšek, P., and Perglová, I. 2007. A simulation model of plant invasion: long-distance dispersal determines the pattern of spread. Biol. Invasions 9(4):383-395.

Neill, C. 2007. The challenge of managing disturbance regimes, terrestrial communities and rare species in a suburbanizing region: the northeastern US coastal sandplain. Biol. Conserv. 136(1):1-3.

Neill, C., Von Holle, B., Kleese, K., Ivy, K.D., Colllins, A.R., Treat, C., and Dean, M. 2007. Historical influences on the vegetation and soils of the Martha's Vineyard, Massachusetts coastal sandplain: implications for conservation and restoration. Biol. Conserv. 136(1):17-32.

Nel, J.L., Roux, D.J., Maree, G., Kleynhans, C.J., Moolman, J., Reyers, B., Rouget, M., and Cowling, R.M. 2007. Rivers in peril inside and outside protected areas: a systematic approach to conservation assessment of river ecosystems. Divers. Distrib. 13(3):341-352.

New, T.R. 2007. Understanding the requirements of the insects we seek to conserve. J. Insect Conserv. 11(2):95-97.

Noël, S., Ouellet, M., Galois, P., and Lapointe, F.J. 2007. Impact of urban fragmentation on the genetic structure of the eastern red-backed salamander. Conserv. Genet. 8(3):599-606.

Novotny, V., Miller, S.E., Hulcr, J., Drew, R.A.I., Basset, Y., Janda, M., Setliff, G.P., Darrow, K., Stewart, A.J.A., Auga, J., Isua, B., Molem, K., Manumbor, M., Tamtiai, E., Mogia, M., and Weiblen, G.D. 2007. Low beta diversity of herbivorous insects in tropical forests. Nature 448(7154):692-695.

Nunes, M.F.C., and Galetti, M. 2007. Use of forest fragments by blue-winged macaws (Primolius maracana) within a fragmented landscape. Biodivers. Conserv. 16(4):953-967.

O'Dea, N., and Whittaker, R.J. 2007. How resilient are Andean montane forest bird communities to habitat degradation? Biodivers. Conserv. 16(4):1131-1159.

Ohba, S. 2007. Notes on predators and their effect on the survivorship of the endangered giant water bug, Kirkaldyia (= Lethocerus) deyrolli (Heteroptera, Belostomatidae), in Japanese rice fields. Hydrobiologia 583:377-381.

Ojaveer, H., Gollasch, S., Jaanus, A., Kotta, J., Laine, A.O., Minde, A., Normant, M., and Panov, V.E. 2007. Chinese mitten crab Eriocheir sinensis in the Baltic Sea - a supply-side invader? Biol. Invasions 9(4):409-418.

Ojeda-Martinez, C., Bayle-Sempere, J.T., Sánchez-Jerez, P., Forcada, A., and Valle, C. 2007. Detecting conservation benefits in spatially protected fish populations with meta-analysis of long-term monitoring data. Mar. Biol. 151(3):1153-1161.

Olivier, D., Jean-Marie, S., Ménoni, E., Nathalie, P., Christian, M., and Taberlet, P. 2007. Phylogeography of the capercaillie in Eurasia: what is the conservation status in the Pyrenees and Cantabrian Mounts? Conserv. Genet. 8(3):513-526.

Onorato, D.P., Hellgren, E.C., Van Den Bussche, R.A., Doan-Crider, D.L., and Skiles, J.R. 2007. Genetic structure of American black bears in the desert southwest of North America: conservation implications for recolonization. Conserv. Genet. 8(3):565-576.

Osborne, P.E., Foody, G.M., and Suárez-Seoane, S. 2007. Non-stationarity and local approaches to modelling the distributions of wildlife. Divers. Distrib. 13(3):313-323.

Pande, A., Williams, C.L., Lant, C.L., and Gibson, D.J. 2007. Using map algebra to determine the mesoscale distribution of invasive plants: the case of Celastrus orbiculatus in Southern Illinois, USA. Biol. Invasions 9(4):419-431.

Parker, I.M., and Gilbert, G.S. 2007. When there is no escape: the effects of natural enemies on native, invasive, and noninvasive plants. Ecology 88(5):1210-1224.

Pasinelli, G. 2007. Nest site selection in middle and great spotted woodpeckers Dendrocopos medius & D. major: implications for forest management and conservation. Biodivers. Conserv. 16(4):1283-1298.

Peh, K.S.H. 2007. Potential effects of climate change on elevational distributions of tropical birds in Southeast Asia. Condor 109(2):437-441.

Pérez, M., Branco, M., Llavona, A., Ribeiro, P.A., Santos, A.M., Hawkins, S.J., Dávila, J.A., Presa, P., and Alexandrino, P. 2007. Development of microsatellite loci for the black-footed limpet, Patella depressa, and cross-amplification in two other Patella species. Conserv. Genet. 8(3):739-742.

Perhans, K., Gustafsson, L., Jonsson, F., Nordin, U., and Weibull, H. 2007. Bryophytes and lichens in different types of forest set-asides in boreal Sweden. Forest Ecol. Manag. 242(2-3):374-390.

Pitcher, T.E., and Neff, B.D. 2007. Genetic quality and offspring performance in Chinook salmon: implications for supportive breeding. Conserv. Genet. 8(3):607-616.

Pontes, A.R.M., Normande, I.C., Fernandes, A.C.A., Ribeiro, P.F.R., and Soares, M.L. 2007. Fragmentation causes rarity in common marmosets in the Atlantic forest of northeastern Brazil. Biodivers. Conserv. 16(4):1175-1182.

Poynton, J.C., Loader, S.P., Sherratt, E., and Clarke, B.T. 2007. Amphibian diversity in east african biodiversity hotspots: altitudinal and latitudinal patterns. Biodivers. Conserv. 16(4):1103-1118.

Pykälä, J. 2007. Implementation of Forest Act habitats in Finland: does it protect the right habitats for threatened species? Forest Ecol. Manag. 242(2-3):281-287.

Raniello, R., Mollo, E., Lorenti, M., Gavagnin, M., and Buia, M.C. 2007. Phytotoxic activity of caulerpenyne from the Mediterranean invasive variety of Caulerpa racemosa: a potential allelochemical. Biol. Invasions 9(4):361-368.

Reed, D.H. 2007. Extinction of island endemics: it is not inbreeding depression. Anim. Conserv. 10(2):145-146.

Reyes-Arriagada, R., Campos-Ellwanger, P., Schlatter, R.P., and Baduini, C. 2007. Sooty Shearwater (Puffinus griseus) on Guafo Island: the largest seabird colony in the world? Biodivers. Conserv. 16(4):913-930.

Reynolds, M.H., and Citta, J.J. 2007. Postfledging survival of Laysan ducks. J. Wildlife Manag. 71(2):383-388.

Richardson, D.M., and Thuiller, W. 2007. Home away from home - objective mapping of high-risk source areas for plant introductions. Divers. Distrib. 13(3):299-312.

Robles, H., Ciudad, C., Vera, R., Olea, P.P., Purroy, F.J., and Matthysen, E. 2007. Sylvopastoral management and conservation of the middle spotted woodpecker at the south-western edge of its distribution range. Forest Ecol. Manag. 242(2-3):343-352.

Rodríguez, J.P., Brotons, L., Bustamante, J., and Seoane, J. 2007. The application of predictive modelling of species distribution to biodiversity conservation. Divers. Distrib. 13(3):243-251.

Rodríguez-Muñoz, R., Mirol, P.M., Segelbacher, G., Fernández, A., and Tregenza, T. 2007. Genetic differentiation of an endangered capercaillie (Tetrao urogallus) population at the Southern edge of the species range. Conserv. Genet. 8(3):659-670.

Rogers, P.C., Shepperd, W.D., and Bartos, D.L. 2007. Aspen in the Sierra Nevada: regional conservation of a continental species. Nat. Areas J. 27(2):183-193.

Romero-Nájera, I., Cuarón, A.D., and González-Baca, C. 2007. Distribution, abundance, and habitat use of introduced Boa constrictor threatening the native biota of Cozumel Island, Mexico. Biodivers. Conserv. 16(4):1183-1195.

Rossmanith, E., Blaum, N., Grimm, V., and Jeltsch, F. 2007. Pattern-oriented modelling for estimating unknown pre-breeding survival rates: the case of the Lesser Spotted Woodpecker (Picoides minor). Biol. Conserv. 135(4):555-564.

Rouquette, J.R., and Thompson, D.J. 2007. Roosting site selection in the endangered damselfly, Coenagrion mercuriale, and implications for habitat design. J. Insect Conserv. 11(2):187-193.

Rowe, D.K. 2007. Exotic fish introductions and the decline of water clarity in small North Island, New Zealand lakes: a multi-species problem. Hydrobiologia 583:345-358.

Salama, N.K.G., Knowler, J.T., and Adams, C.E. 2007. Increasing abundance and diversity in the moth assemblage of east Loch Lomondside, Scotland over a 35 year period. J. Insect Conserv. 11(2):151-156.

Sandel, M., and Harris, P.M. 2007. Threatened fishes of the world: Elassoma boehlkei (Rohde and Arndt 1987) (Elassomatidae). Environ. Biol. Fish. 78(4):289-290.

Saumure, R.A., Herman, T.B., and Titman, R.D. 2007. Effects of haying and agricultural practices on a declining species: the North American wood turtle, Glyptemys insculpta. Biol. Conserv. 135(4):565-575.

Scalici, M., and Gherardi, F. 2007. Structure and dynamics of an invasive population of the red swamp crayfish (Procambarus clarkii) in a Mediterranean wetland. Hydrobiologia 583:309-319.

Schmitz, M.F., Sánchez, I.A., and de Aranzabal, I. 2007. Influence of management regimes of adjacent land uses on the woody plant richness of hedgerows in Spanish cultural landscapes. Biol. Conserv. 135(4):542-554.

Schrey, A.W., Sloss, B.L., Sheehan, R.J., Heidinger, R.C., and Heist, E.J. 2007. Genetic discrimination of middle Mississippi River Scaphirhynchus sturgeon into pallid, shovelnose, and putative hybrids with multiple microsatellite loci. Conserv. Genet. 8(3):683-693.

Seastedt, T.R., and Suding, K.N. 2007. Biotic constraints on the invasion of diffuse knapweed (Centaurea diffusa) in North American grasslands. Oecologia 151(4):626-636.

Sexton, O.J., Drda, W.J., Sexton, K.G., and Bramble, J.E. 2007. The effects of flooding upon the snake fauna of an isolated refuge. Nat. Areas J. 27(2):133-144.

Skonhoft, A. 2007. Economic modeling approaches for wildlife and species conservation. Ecol. Econ. 62(2):223-231.

Smit, I.P.J., Grant, C.C., and Devereux, B.J. 2007. Do artificial waterholes influence the way herbivores use the landscape? Herbivore distribution patterns around rivers and artificial surface water sources in a large African savanna park. Biol. Conserv. 136(1):85-99.

Smith, J.E., Whelan, C.J., Taylor, S.J., Denight, M.L., and Stake, M.M. 2007. Novel predator-prey interactions: is resistance futile? Evol. Ecol. Res. 9(3):433-446.

Soares, C., and Brito, J.C. 2007. Environmental correlates for species richness among amphibians and reptiles in a climate transition area. Biodivers. Conserv. 16(4):1087-1102.

Soulsbury, C.D., Iossa, G., Edwards, K.J., Baker, P.J., and Harris, S. 2007. Allelic dropout from a high-quality DNA source. Conserv. Genet. 8(3):733-738.

Spinks, P.Q., and Shaffer, H.B. 2007. Conservation phylogenetics of the Asian box turtles (Geoemydidae, Cuora): mitochondrial introgression, numts, and inferences from multiple nuclear loci. Conserv. Genet. 8(3):641-657.

Stevens, M.I., Winter, D.J., Morris, R., McCartney, J., and Greenslade, P. 2007. New Zealand's giant Collembola: new information on distribution and morphology for Holacanthella Borner, 1906 (Neanuridae: Uchidanurinae). New Zeal. J. Zool. 34(1):63-78.

Swarup, D., Patra, R.C., Prakash, V., Cuthbert, R., Das, D., Avari, P., Pain, D.J., Green, R.E., Sharma, A.K., Saini, M., Das, D., and Taggart, M. 2007. Safety of meloxicam to critically endangered Gyps vultures and other scavenging birds in India. Anim. Conserv. 10(2):192-198.

Talukdar, B.K., Barua, M., and Sarma, P.K. 2007. Tracing straying routes of rhinoceros in Pabitora Wildlife Sanctuary, Assam. Curr. Sci. 92(9):1303-1305.

Thieme, M., Lehner, B., Abell, R., Hamilton, S.K., Kellndorfer, J., Powell, G., and Riveros, J.C. 2007. Freshwater conservation planning in data-poor areas: an example from a remote Amazonian basin (Madre de Dios River, Peru and Bolivia). Biol. Conserv. 135(4):484-501.

Thomsen, M.S., Wernberg, T., Stæhr, P., Krause-Jensen, D., Risgaard-Petersen, N., and Silliman, B.R. 2007. Alien macroalgae in Denmark - a broad-scale national perspective. Mar. Biol. Res. 3(2):61-72.

Tisdell, C., and Swarna Nantha, H. 2007. Comparison of funding and demand for the conservation of the charismatic koala with those for the critically endangered wombat Lasiorhinus krefftii. Biodivers. Conserv. 16(4):1261-1281.

Trainor, A.M., Shenk, T.M., and Wilson, K.R. 2007. Microhabitat characteristics of Preble's meadow jumping mouse high-use areas. J. Wildlife Manag. 71(2):469-477.

Trolle, M., Bissaro, M.C., and Prado, H.M. 2007. Mammal survey at a ranch of the Brazilian Cerrado. Biodivers. Conserv. 16(4):1205-1211.

Trolle, M., Noss, A.J., Lima, E.D.S., and Dalponte, J.C. 2007. Camera-trap studies of maned wolf density in the Cerrado and the Pantanal of Brazil. Biodivers. Conserv. 16(4):1197-1204.

Uyarra, M.C., and Côté, I.M. 2007. The quest for cryptic creatures: impacts of species-focused recreational diving on corals. Biol. Conserv. 136(1):77-84.

Van Dyke, F., Schmeling, J.D., Starkenburg, S., Yoo, S.H., and Stewart, P.W. 2007. Responses of plant and bird communities to prescribed burning in tallgrass prairies. Biodivers. Conserv. 16(4):827-839.

Vander Haegen, W.M. 2007. Fragmention by agriculture influences reproductive success of birds in a shrubsteppe landscape. Ecol. Appl. 17(3):934-947.

Venarsky, M.P., Wilhelm, F.M., and Anderson, F.E. 2007. Conservation strategies supported by non-lethal life history sampling of the US federally listed Illinois cave amphipod, Gammarus acherondytes. J. Crustacean Biol. 27(2):202-211.

Von Holle, B., and Motzkin, G. 2007. Historical land use and environmental determinants of nonnative plant distribution in coastal southern New England. Biol. Conserv. 136(1):33-43.

Wang, J.H., Boles, L.C., Higgins, B., and Lohmann, K.J. 2007. Behavioral responses of sea turtles to lightsticks used in longline fisheries. Anim. Conserv. 10(2):176-182.

Westgaard, J.I., Tafese, T., Wesmajervi, M.S., Stenvik, J., Fjalestad, K.T., Damsgård, B., and Delghandi, M. 2007. Identification and characterisation of thirteen new microsatellites for Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua L.) from a repeat-enriched library. Conserv. Genet. 8(3):749-751.

White, P.J., Davis, T.L., Barnowe-Meyer, K.K., Crabtree, R.L., and Garrott, R.A. 2007. Partial migration and philopatry of Yellowstone pronghorn. Biol. Conserv. 135(4):502-510.

Wilkie, L., Cassis, G., and Gray, M. 2007. The effects on terrestrial arthropod communities of invasion of a coastal heath ecosystem by the exotic weed bitou bush (Chrysanthemoides monilifera ssp. rotundata L.). Biol. Invasions 9(4):477-498.

Williams, D.A., Muchugu, E., Overholt, W.A., and Cuda, J.P. 2007. Colonization patterns of the invasive Brazilian peppertree, Schinus terebinthifolius, in Florida. Heredity 98(5):284-293.

Wilmer, J.W., and Wilcox, C. 2007. Fine scale patterns of migration and gene flow in the endangered mound spring snail, Fonscochlea accepta (Mollusca: Hydrobiidae) in arid Australia. Conserv. Genet. 8(3):617-628.

Wilson, A., Vickery, J., and Pendlebury, C. 2007. Agri-environment schemes as a tool for reversing declining populations of grassland waders: mixed benefits from Environmentally Sensitive Areas in England. Biol. Conserv. 136(1):128-135.

Woodroffe, R., Frank, L.G., Lindsey, P.A., Ranah, S.M.K.O., and Romañach, S. 2007. Livestock husbandry as a tool for carnivore conservation in Africa's community rangelands: a case-control study. Biodivers. Conserv. 16(4):1245-1260.

Zardi, G.I., McQuaid, C.D., and Nicastro, K.R. 2007. Balancing survival and reproduction: seasonality of wave action, attachment strength and reproductive output in indigenous Perna perna and invasive Mytilus galloprovincialis mussels. Mar. Ecol. Progr. Ser. 334:155-163.

Zhang, J.T., Meng, D.P., and Ru, W.M. 2007. The ecological characteristics of the endangered species Paeonia suffruticosa var. spontanea in China. Nat. Areas J. 27(2):145-154.

Zúñiga-Vega, J.J., Valverde, T., Rojas-González, R.I., and Lemos-Espinal, J.A. 2007. Analysis of the population dynamics of an endangered lizard (Xenosaurus grandis) through the use of projection matrices. Copeia 2007(2):324-335.


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