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Department ofBotany



No. 297
September 2009


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In This Issue


Two Extinct Bat Species Discovered in Museum Collections


The skull of a flying fox bat from the Smithsonian's mammal collections. (Photo by John Barrat)

The skull of a flying fox bat from the Smithsonian's mammal collections. (Photo by John Barrat)

In a recent paper published in American Museum Novitates, National Museum of Natural History scientists Kris Helgen, Lauren Helgen and Don Wilson describe two new species of flying foxes (giant fruit-eating bats of the genus Pteropus) from the Pacific archipelago of Samoa. One, Pteropus allenorum, a bat that probably weighed about half a pound, is known by a single specimen collected in 1856, stored at the Academy of Natural Sciences in Philadelphia. The other, P. coxi, which likely weighed well over a pound, was the largest known native terrestrial mammal of Polynesia, and is documented by two specimens collected by the U.S. Exploring Expedition in Samoa (1839-1841) and stored at the National Museum of Natural History.

Neither species has been definitively recorded in more than 150 years. It is likely that both are now extinct (two other species of flying fox still survive in the archipelago).

These unexpected discoveries in museum jars and cabinets compellingly demonstrate the outstanding and lasting value of museum collections both in cataloging global biodiversity and in documenting patterns of extinction. Further, these discoveries remind us of the ecological fragility of many oceanic islands and the role of conservation biology in documenting extinctions so that further species extinctions can be prevented.


Current Literature


Acevedo-Whitehouse, K. 2009. The importance of disease management programmes for wildlife conservation. Anim. Conserv. 12(3):185-186.

Aizen, M.A., Garibaldi, L.A., Cunningham, S.A., and Klein, A.M. 2009. How much does agriculture depend on pollinators? Lessons from long-term trends in crop production. Ann. Botany 103(9):1579-1588.

Akasaka, M., and Tsuyuzaki, S. 2009. Comparisons of recruitment, survival, and growth in invasive and native saplings on a volcano. Plant Ecol. 202(2):235-245.

Akasaka, T., Nakano, D., and Nakamura, F. 2009. Influence of prey variables, food supply, and river restoration on the foraging activity of Daubenton's bat (Myotis daubentonii) in the Shibetsu River, a large lowland river in Japan. Biol. Conserv. 142(7):1302-1310.

Alexander, K.A. 2009. Successful intervention in a disease outbreak in the endangered Iberian lynx: what can we learn? Anim. Conserv. 12(3):183-184.

Alho, J.S., Lillandt, B.G., Jaari, S., and Merilä, J. 2009. Multilocus heterozygosity and inbreeding in the Siberian jay. Conserv. Genet. 10(3):605-609.

Anadón, J.D., Giménez, A., Ballestar, R., and Pérez, I. 2009. Evaluation of local ecological knowledge as a method for collecting extensive data on animal abundance. Conserv. Biol. 23(3):617-625.

Anderson, D.L. 2009. Ground versus canopy methods for the study of birds in tropical forest canopies: implications for ecology and conservation. Condor 111(2):226-237.

Andrew, M.E., and Ustin, S.L. 2009. Habitat suitability modelling of an invasive plant with advanced remote sensing data. Divers. Distrib. 15(4):627-640.

Armagan, M., and Ünal, M. 2009. A new record for Turkey: Centaurea aziziana Rech.f. (Asteraceae). Turk. J. Bot. 33(3):235-238.

Armenteras, D., Rodríguez, N., and Retana, J. 2009. Are conservation strategies effective in avoiding the deforestation of the Colombian Guyana Shield? Biol. Conserv. 142(7):1411-1419.

Arroyo-Rodríguez, V., and Mandujano, S. 2009. Conceptualization and measurement of habitat fragmentation from the primates' perspective. Int. J. Primatol. 30(3):497-514.

Arroyo-Rodríguez, V., Pineda, E., Escobar, F., and Benítez-Malvido, J. 2009. Value of small patches in the conservation of plant-species diversity in highly fragmented rainforest. Conserv. Biol. 23(3):729-739.

Bagci, Y., Dogu, S., and Akaydin, G. 2009. Acantholimon doganii sp. nov. (Plumbaginaceae) with persistent circinnate leaf bases, from Turkey. Nord. J. Bot. 27(3):228-231.

Bagci, Y., Savran, A., and Basköse, I. 2009. Ornithogalum nurdaniae (Liliaceae), a new species from north-west Anatolia, Turkey. Turk. J. Bot. 33(3):163-167.

Baker, L.R., Tanimola, A.A., Olubode, O.S., and Garshelis, D.L. 2009. Distribution and abundance of sacred monkeys in Igboland, southern Nigeria. Am. J. Primatol. 71(7):574-586.

Ban, N.C. 2009. Minimum data requirements for designing a set of marine protected areas, using commonly available abiotic and biotic datasets. Biodivers. Conserv. 18(7):1829-1845.

Baptiste, A.K., and Nordenstam, B.J. 2009. Impact of oil and gas drilling in Trinidad: factors influencing environmental attitudes and behaviours within three rural wetland communities. Environ. Conserv. 36(1):14-21.

Barbaro, L., and van Halder, I. 2009. Linking bird, carabid beetle and butterfly life-history traits to habitat fragmentation in mosaic landscapes. Ecography 32(2):321-333.

Barbraud, C., Delord, K., Marteau, C., and Weimerskirch, H. 2009. Estimates of population size of white-chinned petrels and grey petrels at Kerguelen Islands and sensitivity to fisheries. Anim. Conserv. 12(3):258-265.

Barclay, H.J., and Humble, L. 2009. Probability models to facilitate a declaration that an exotic insect species has not yet invaded an area. Biol. Invasions 11(6):1267-1280.

Barney, J.N., Whitlow, T.H., and DiTommaso, A. 2009. Evolution of an invasive phenotype: shift to belowground dominance and enhanced competitive ability in the introduced range. Plant Ecol. 202(2):275-284.

Bascompte, J., and Stouffer, D.B. 2009. The assembly and disassembly of ecological networks. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London. [Biol.] 364(1524):1781-1787.

Batley, M., and Hogendoorn, K. 2009. Diversity and conservation status of native Australian bees. Apidologie 40(3):347-354.

Bauerfeind, S.S., Theisen, A., and Fischer, K. 2009. Patch occupancy in the endangered butterfly Lycaena helle in a fragmented landscape: effects of habitat quality, patch size and isolation. J. Insect Conserv. 13(3):271-277.

Bax, N.J., and Thresher, R.E. 2009. Ecological, behavioral, and genetic factors influencing the recombinant control of invasive pests. Ecol. Appl. 19(4):873-888.

Beard, K.H., Price, E.A., and Pitt, W.C. 2009. Biology and impacts of Pacific island invasive species. 5. Eleutherodactylus coqui, the Coqui frog (Anura: Leptodactylidae). Pacific Sci. 63(3):297-316.

Beck, J.L., Connelly, J.W., and Reese, K.P. 2009. Recovery of greater sage-grouse habitat features in Wyoming big sagebrush following prescribed fire. Restor. Ecol. 17(3):393-403.

Bell, D.M., Parysow, P.F., and Moore, M.M. 2009. Assessing the representativeness of the oldest permanent inventory plots in northern Arizona ponderosa pine forests. Restor. Ecol. 17(3):369-377.

Bennett, V.J., Beard, M., Zollner, P.A., Fernández-Juricic, E., Westphal, L., and LeBlanc, C.L. 2009. Understanding wildlife responses to human disturbance through simulation modelling: a management tool. Ecol. Complex. 6(2):113-134.

Berglund, H., Järemo, J., and Bengtsson, G. 2009. Endemism predicts intrinsic vulnerability to nonindigenous species on islands. Am. Nat. 174(1):94-101.

Bertolino, S. 2009. Animal trade and non-indigenous species introduction: the world-wide spread of squirrels. Divers. Distrib. 15(4):701-708.

Blanchett, S., Leprieur, F., Beauchard, O., Staes, J., Oberdorff, T., and Brosse, S. 2009. Broad-scale determinants of non-native fish species richness are context-dependent. Proc. Roy. Soc. B 276(1666):2385-2394.

Blanco, S., and Ector, L. 2009. Distribution, ecology and nuisance effects of the freshwater invasive diatom Didymosphenia geminata (Lyngbye) M. Schmidt: a literature review. Nova Hedwigia 88(3-4):347-422.

Bleisch, W.V., Buzzard, P.J., Zhang, H., Xü, D., Liu, Z., Li, W., and Wong, H. 2009. Surveys at a Tibetan antelope Pantholops hodgsonii calving ground adjacent to the Arjinshan Nature Reserve, Xinjiang, China: decline and recovery of a population. Oryx 43(2):191-196.

Blumenthal, D., Mitchell, C.E., Pyšek, P., and Jarošík, V. 2009. Synergy between pathogen release and resource availability in plant invasion. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 106(19):7899-7904.

Blumenthal, D.M. 2009. Carbon addition interacts with water availability to reduce invasive forb establishment in a semi-arid grassland. Biol. Invasions 11(6):1281-1290.

Bo, D., Dowell, S.D., Garson, P.J., and Fen-Qi, H. 2009. Habitat utilisation by the threatened Sichuan Partridge Arborophila rufipectus: consequences for managing newly protected areas in southern China. Bird Conserv. Int. 19(2):187-198.

Bode, M., Hawkins, C., Rout, T., and Wintle, B. 2009. Efficiently locating conservation boundaries: searching for the Tasmanian devil facial tumour disease front. Biol. Conserv. 142(7):1333-1339.

Bodini, A., Bellingeri, M., Allesina, S., and Bondavalli, C. 2009. Using food web dominator trees to catch secondary extinctions in action. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London. [Biol.] 364(1524):1725-1731.

Bonnet, X., Brischoux, F., Pearson, D., and Rivalan, P. 2009. Beach rock as a keystone habitat for amphibious sea snakes. Environ. Conserv. 36(1):62-70.

Borer, E.T., Adams, V.T., Engler, G.A., Adams, A.L., Schumann, C.B., and Seabloom, E.W. 2009. Aphid fecundity and grassland invasion: invader life history is the key. Ecol. Appl. 19(5):1187-1196.

Bowkett, A.E. 2009. Recent captive-breeding proposals and the return of the ark concept to global species conservation. Conserv. Biol. 23(3):773-776.

Bradley, B.A., Oppenheimer, M., and Wilcove, D.S. 2009. Climate change and plant invasions: restoration opportunities ahead? Global Change Biol. 15(6):1511-1521.

Bredenhand, E., and Samways, M.J. 2009. Impact of a dam on benthic macroinvertebrates in a small river in a biodiversity hotspot: Cape Floristic Region, South Africa. J. Insect Conserv. 13(3):297-307.

Britton, J.R., Jackson, M.C., Muchiri, M., Tarras-Wahlberg, H., Harper, D.M., and Grey, J. 2009. Status, ecology and conservation of an endemic fish, Oreochromis niloticus baringoensis, in Lake Baringo, Kenya. Aquat. Conserv. 19(5):487-496.

Brochet, A.L., Gauthier-Clerc, M., Mathevet, R., Béchet, A., Mondain-Monval, J.Y., and Tamisier, A. 2009. Marsh management, reserve creation, hunting periods and carrying capacity for wintering ducks and coots. Biodivers. Conserv. 18(7):1879-1894.

Brodie, J.F., Helmy, O.E., Brockelman, W.Y., and Maron, J.L. 2009. Bushmeat poaching reduces the seed dispersal and population growth rate of a mammal-dispersed tree. Ecol. Appl. 19(4):854-863.

Brodin, Y., and Andersson, M.H. 2009. The marine splash midge Telmatogon japonicus (Diptera; Chironomidae)-extreme and alien? Biol. Invasions 11(6):1311-1317.

Brown, M.J.F., and Paxton, R.J. 2009. The conservation of bees: a global perspective. Apidologie 40(3):410-416.

Brudvig, L.A., Damschen, E.I., Tewksbury, J.J., Haddad, N.M., and Levey, D.J. 2009. Landscape connectivity promotes plant biodiversity spillover into non-target habitats. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 106(23):9328-9332.

Bruna, E.M., Fiske, I.J., and Trager, M.D. 2009. Habitat fragmentation and plant populations: is what we know demographically irrelevant? J. Veg. Sci. 20(3):569-576.

Bubb, D.H., O'Malley, O.J., Gooderham, A.C., and Lucas, M.C. 2009. Relative impacts of native and non-native crayfish on shelter use by an indigenous benthic fish. Aquat. Conserv. 19(4):448-455.

Buchanan, K.L. 2009. Wetland conservation in the Murray-Darling Basin - is it going down the drain? Emu 109(2):i-iv.

Buckland, P.C., Panagiotakopulu, E., and Sveinbjarnardóttir, G. 2009. A failed invader in the North Atlantic, the case of Aglenus brunneus Gyll. (Col., Colydiidae), a blind flightless beetle from Iceland. Biol. Invasions 11(6):1239-1245.

Buisson, L., and Grenouillet, G. 2009. Contrasted impacts of climate change on stream fish assemblages along an environmental gradient. Divers. Distrib. 15(4):613-626.

Bullock, J.M. 2009. A long-term study of the roles of competition and facilitation in the establishment of an invasive pine following heathland fires. J. Ecology 97(4):646-656.

Burlakova, L.E., Karatayev, A.Y., Padilla, D.K., Cartwright, L.D., and Hollas, D.N. 2009. Wetland restoration and invasive species: apple snail (Pomacea insularum) feeding on native and invasive aquatic plants. Restor. Ecol. 17(3):433-440.

Bußler, H., and Müller, J. 2009. Vacuum cleaning for conservationists: a new method for inventory of Osmoderma eremita (Scop., 1763) (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) and other inhabitants of hollow trees in Natura 2000 areas. J. Insect Conserv. 13(3):355-359.

Byrne, A., and Fitzpatrick, U. 2009. Bee conservation policy at the global, regional and national levels. Apidologie 40(3):194-210.

Carcaillet, C., Fauvart, N., Roiron, P., Terral, J.F., and Ali, A.A. 2009. A new, isolated and endangered relict population of dwarf pine (Pinus mugo Turra) in the northwestern Alps. C.R. Biologies 332(5):456-463.

Carranza, A., Deffeo, O., and Beck, M. 2009. Diversity, conservation status and threats to native oysters (Ostreidae) around the Atlantic and Caribbean coasts of South America. Aquat. Conserv. 19(3):344-353.

Carrascal, L.M., and Seoane, J. 2009. Linking density, productivity and trends of an endangered species: the Bonelli's eagle in Spain. Acta Oecol. 35(3):341-348.

Carrete, M., Serrano, D., Illera, J.C., López, G., Vögeli, M., Delgado, A., and Tella, J.L. 2009. Goats, birds, and emergent diseases: apparent and hidden effects of exotic species in an island environment. Ecol. Appl. 19(4):840-853.

Carvalho, F.M.V., De Marco, P., and Ferreira, L.G. 2009. The Cerrado into-pieces: habitat fragmentation as a function of landscape use in the savannas of central Brazil. Biol. Conserv. 142(7):1392-1403.

Castelblanco-Martínez, D.N., Bermúdez-Romero, A.L., Gómez-Camelo, I.V., Rosas, F.C.W., Trujillo, F., and Zerda-Ordoñez, E. 2009. Seasonality of habitat use, mortality and reproduction of the Vulnerable Antillean manatee Trichechus manatus manatus in the Orinoco River, Colombia: implications for conservation. Oryx 43(2):235-242.

Castillo, J.M., and Figueroa, E. 2009. Restoring salt marshes using small cordgrass, Spartina maritima. Restor. Ecol. 17(3):324-326.

Catry, T., Ramos, J.A., Monticelli, D., Bowler, J., Jupiter, T., and Le Corre, M. 2009. Demography and conservation of the White-tailed Tropicbird Phaethon lepturus on Aride Island, Western Indian Ocean. J. Ornithol. 150(3):661-669.

Cecala, K.K., Gibbons, J.W., and Dorcas, M.E. 2009. Ecological effects of major injuries in diamondback terrapins: implications for conservation and management. Aquat. Conserv. 19(4):421-427.

Chapman, D.S., Oxford, G.S., and Dytham, C. 2009. Process from pattern in the distribution of an endangered leaf beetle. Ecography 32(2):259-268.

Chavez-Leon, G., and Rivera, S.Z. 2009. Mammal richness from Barranca del Cupatitzio National Park, Michoacan, Mexico. Rev. Mex. Biodivers. 80(1):95-104.

Chen, B.M., Peng, S.L., and Ni, G.Y. 2009. Effects of the invasive plant Mikania micrantha H.B.K. on soil nitrogen availability through allelopathy in South China. Biol. Invasions 11(6):1291-1299.

Chen, S.H., Chang, S.H., Liu, Y., Chan, S.B., Fan, Z.Y., Chen, C.S., Yen, C.W., and Guo, D.S. 2009. A small population and severe threats: status of the Critically Endangered Chinese crested tern Sterna bernsteini. Oryx 43(2):209-212.

Chen, T.H., Chang, H.C., and Lue, K.Y. 2009. Unregulated trade in turtle shells for Chinese traditional medicine in East and Southeast Asia: the case of Taiwan. Chelonian Conserv. Biol. 8(1):11-18.

Chen, Y.H. 2009. Combining the species-area-habitat relationship and environmental cluster analysis to set conservation priorities: a study in the Zhoushan Archipelago, China. Conserv. Biol. 23(3):537-545.

Choosai, C., Mathieu, J., Hanboonsong, Y., and Jouquet, P. 2009. Termite mounds and dykes are biodiversity refuges in paddy fields in north-eastern Thailand. Environ. Conserv. 36(1):71-79.

Christensen, M., and Heilmann-Clausen, J. 2009. Forest biodiversity gradients and the human impact in Annapurna Conservation Area, Nepal. Biodivers. Conserv. 18(8):2205-2221.

Christian, K., Isabelle, L., Frédéric, J., and Vincent, D. 2009. More species, fewer specialists: 100 years of changes in community composition in an island biogeographical study. Divers. Distrib. 15(4):641-648.

Chu, H.J., and Jiang, Z.G. 2009. Distribution and conservation of the Sino-Mongolian beaver Castor fiber birulai in China. Oryx 43(2):197-202.

Chun, Y.J., Nason, J.D., and Moloney, K.A. 2009. Comparison of quantitative and molecular genetic variation of native vs. invasive populations of purple loosestrife (Lythrum salicaria L., Lythraceae). Mol. Ecol. 18(14):3020-3035.

Chung, J.M., Park, K.W., Park, C.S., Lee, S.H., Chung, M.G., and Chung, M.Y. 2009. Contrasting levels of genetic diversity between the historically rare orchid Cypripedium japonicum and the historically common orchid Cypripedium macranthos in South Korea. Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 160(2):119-129.

Ciarleglio, M., Barnes, J.W., and Sarkar, S. 2009. ConsNet: new software for the selection of conservation area networks with spatial and multi-criteria analyses. Ecography 32(2):205-209.

Cleaveland, S. 2009. Viral threats and vaccination: disease management of endangered species. Anim. Conserv. 12(3):187-189.

Clements, R., Foo, R., Othman, S., Rahman, U., Mustafa, S.R.S., and Zulkifli, R. 2009. Islam, turtle conservation, and coastal communities. Conserv. Biol. 23(3):516-517.

Colautti, R.I., and Richardson, D.M. 2009. Subjectivity and flexibility in invasion terminology: too much of a good thing? Biol. Invasions 11(6):1225-1229.

Compagnoni, A., and Halpern, C.B. 2009. Properties of native plant communities do not determine exotic success during early forest succession. Ecography 32(3):449-458.

Corlatti, L., Hackländer, K., and Frey-Roos, F. 2009. Ability of wildlife overpasses to provide connectivity and prevent genetic isolation. Conserv. Biol. 23(3):548-556.

Courtney, R., Mullen, G., and Harrington, T. 2009. An evaluation of revegetation success on bauxite residue. Restor. Ecol. 17(3):350-358.

Couvreur, T.L.P., van der Ham, R., Mbele, Y.M., Mbago, F.M., and Johnson, D.M. 2009. Molecular and morphological characterization of a new monotypic genus of Annonaceae, Mwasumbia, from Tanzania. Syst. Bot. 34(2):266-276.

Covaciu-Marcov, S.D., Sas, I., Cicort-Lucaciu, A.S., Kovacs, E.H., and Pintea, C. 2009. Herpetofauna of the natural reserves from Carei Plain: zoogeographical significance, ecology, statute and conservation. Carpath. J. Earth Env. 4(1):69-80.

Cron, G.V., Balkwill, K., and Knox, E.B. 2009. Biogeography, rarity and endemism in Cineraria (Asteraceae-Senecioneae). Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 160(2):130-148.

Cuneo, P., Jacobson, C.R., and Leishman, M.R. 2009. Landscape-scale detection and mapping of invasive African Olive (Olea europaea L. ssp. cuspidata Wall ex G. Don Ciferri) in SW Sydney, Australia using satellite remote sensing. Appl. Veg. Sci. 12(2):145-154.

Cunha, A.A., Grelle, C.E.V., and Boubli, J.P. 2009. Distribution, population size and conservation of the endemic muriquis (Brachyteles spp.) of the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. Oryx 43(2):254-257.

Cunningham, L., Baxter, J.M., Boyd, I.L., Duck, C.D., Lonergan, M., Moss, S.E., and McConnell, B. 2009. Harbour seal movements and haul-out patterns: implications for monitoring and management. Aquat. Conserv. 19(4):398-407.

Dahal, B.R., McGowan, P.J.K., and Browne, S.J. 2009. An assessment of census techniques, habitat use and threats to Swamp Francolin Francolinus gularis in Koshi Tappu Wildlife Reserve, Nepal. Bird Conserv. Int. 19(2):137-147.

Daleo, P., Alberti, J., and Iribarne, O. 2009. Biological invasions and the neutral theory. Divers. Distrib. 15(4):547-553.

Dallimer, M., King, T., and Atkinson, R.J. 2009. Pervasive threats within a protected area: conserving the endemic birds of São Tomé, West Africa. Anim. Conserv. 12(3):209-219.

D'Amore, A., Kirby, E., and McNicholas, M. 2009. Invasive species shifts ontogenetic resource partitioning and microhabitat use of a threatened native amphibian. Aquat. Conserv. 19(5):534-541.

Dan, T., Ikeda, H., Mitsui, Y., Isagi, Y., and Setoguchi, H. 2009. Genetic structure of refugial populations of the temperate plant Shortia rotundifolia (Diapensiaceae) on a subtropical island. Conserv. Genet. 10(4):859-867.

Daneshgar, P., and Jose, S. 2009. Role of species identity in plant invasions: experimental test using Imperata cylindrica. Biol. Invasions 11(6):1431-1440.

Daskin, R., Yilmaz, Ö., and Kaynak, G. 2009. Stachys ketenoglui sp. nov. (sect. Infrarosularis) (Labiatae/Lamiaceae) from south Anatolia, Turkey. Nord. J. Bot. 27(3):238-242.

Davidson, A.D., Hamilton, M.J., Boyer, A.G., Brown, J.H., and Ceballos, G. 2009. Multiple ecological pathways to extinction in mammals. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 106(26):10702-10705.

Davies, B., Biggs, J., Williams, P., and Thompson, S. 2009. Making agricultural landscapes more sustainable for freshwater biodiversity: a case study from southern England. Aquat. Conserv. 19(4):439-447.

Dawe, K.L., Shafer, A.B.A., Herman, T.B., and Stewart, D.T. 2009. Diffusion of nuclear and mitochondrial genes across a zone of secondary contact in the maritime shrew, Sorex maritimensis: implications for the conservation of a Canadian endemic mammal. Conserv. Genet. 10(4):851-857.

Dawson, W., Burslem, D., and Hulme, P.E. 2009. Factors explaining alien plant invasion success in a tropical ecosystem differ at each stage of invasion. J. Ecology 97(4):657-665.

de Jong, Y.A., Butynski, T.M., Isbell, L.A., and Lewis, C. 2009. Decline in the geographical range of the southern patas monkey Erythrocebus patas baumstarki in Tanzania. Oryx 43(2):267-274.

De la Rúa, P., Jaffé, R., Dall'Olio, R., Muñoz, I., and Serrano, J. 2009. Biodiversity, conservation and current threats to European honeybees. Apidologie 40(3):263-284.

De Mas, E., Chust, G., Pretus, J.L., and Ribera, C. 2009. Spatial modelling of spider biodiversity: matters of scale. Biodivers. Conserv. 18(7):1945-1962.

de Oliveira, T.G. 2009. Distribution, habitat utilization and conservation of the Vulnerable bush dog Speothos venaticus in northern Brazil. Oryx 43(2):247-253.

del Castillo, R.F., Argueta, S.T., and Sáenz-Romero, C. 2009. Pinus chiapensis, a keystone species: genetics, ecology, and conservation. Forest Ecol. Manag. 257(11):2201-2208.

Dempster, T., Uglem, I., Sanchez-Jerez, P., Fernandez-Jover, D., Bayle-Sempere, J., Nilsen, R., and Bjørn, P.A. 2009. Coastal salmon farms attract large and persistent aggregations of wild fish: an ecosystem effect. Mar. Ecol. Progr. Ser. 385:1-14.

Devineau, J.L., Fournier, A., and Nignan, S. 2009. "Ordinary biodiversity" in western Burkina Faso (West Africa): what vegetation do the state forests conserve? Biodivers. Conserv. 18(8):2075-2099.

Dewhirst, S., and Lutscher, F. 2009. Dispersal in heterogeneous habitats: thresholds, spatial scales, and approximate rates of spread. Ecology 90(5):1338-1345.

Di Franco, A., Milazzo, M., Baiata, P., Tomasello, A., and Chemello, R. 2009. Scuba diver behaviour and its effects on the biota of a Mediterranean marine protected area. Environ. Conserv. 36(1):32-40.

Didier, K.A., Wilkie, D., Douglas-Hamilton, I., Frank, L., Georgiadis, N., Graham, M., Ihwagi, F., King, A., Cotterill, A., Rubenstein, D., and Woodroffe, R. 2009. Conservation planning on a budget: a "resource light" method for mapping priorities at a landscape scale? Biodivers. Conserv. 18(7):1979-2000.

Dietemann, V., Pirk, C.W.W., and Crewe, R. 2009. Is there a need for conservation of honeybees in Africa? Apidologie 40(3):285-295.

Dillemuth, F.P., Rietschier, E.A., and Cronin, J.T. 2009. Patch dynamics of a native grass in relation to the spread of invasive smooth brome (Bromus inermis). Biol. Invasions 11(6):1381-1391.

Dinç, M., and Bagci, Y. 2009. Taxonomical and chorological notes on the Turkish endemic Scorzonera amasiana Hausskn. & Bornm. (Asteraceae). Turk. J. Bot. 33(2):127-130.

Dionne, M., Caron, F., Dodson, J.J., and Bernatchez, L. 2009. Comparative survey of within-river genetic structure in Atlantic salmon; relevance for management and conservation. Conserv. Genet. 10(4):869-879.

Dittel, A.I., and Epifanio, C.E. 2009. Invasion biology of the Chinese mitten crab Eriochier sinensis: a brief review. J. Exp. Marine Biol. Ecol. 374(2):79-92.

Dogu, S., and Bagci, Y. 2009. Muscari vuralii sp. nov. (Liliaceae/Hyacinthaceae) from south Anatolia, Turkey. Nord. J. Bot. 27(3):243-246.

Donnellan, S.C., Armstrong, J., Pickett, M., Milne, T., Baulderstone, J., Hollfelder, T., and Bertozzi, T. 2009. Systematic and conservation implications of mitochondrial DNA diversity in emu-wrens, Stipiturus (Aves: Maluridae). Emu 109(2):143-152.

Dudley, N., Higgins-Zogib, L., and Mansourian, S. 2009. The links between protected areas, faiths, and sacred natural sites. Conserv. Biol. 23(3):568-577.

Duran, A., Çetin, Ö., and Öztürk, M. 2009. Globularia anatolica sp. nov. (Globulariaceae) from the Honaz Mountain National Park, southwest Turkey. Nord. J. Bot. 27(3):232-237.

Eardley, C.D., Gikungu, M., and Schwarz, M.P. 2009. Bee conservation in Sub-Saharan Africa and Madagascar: diversity, status and threats. Apidologie 40(3):355-366.

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Ferrari, J.R., and Lookingbill, T.R. 2009. Initial conditions and their effect on invasion velocity across heterogeneous landscapes. Biol. Invasions 11(6):1247-1258.

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Finger, A., Schmitt, T., Zachos, F.E., Meyer, M., Assmann, T., and Habel, J.C. 2009. The genetic status of the violet copper Lycaena helle - a relict of the cold past in times of global warming. Ecography 32(3):382-390.

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Flaquer, C., Puig-Montserrat, X., Goiti, U., Vidal, F., Curcó, A., and Russo, D. 2009. Habitat selection in Nathusius' pipistrelle (Pipistrellus nathusii): the importance of wetlands. Acta Chiropterol. 11(1):149-155.

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Fox, J.C., Buckley, Y.M., Panetta, F.D., Bourgoin, J., and Pullar, D. 2009. Surveillance protocols for management of invasive plants: modelling Chilean needle grass (Nassella neesiana) in Australia. Divers. Distrib. 15(4):577-589.

Fox, J.L., Dhondup, K., and Dorji, T. 2009. Tibetan antelope Pantholops hodgsonii conservation and new rangeland management policies in the western Chang Tang Nature Reserve, Tibet: is fencing creating an impasse? Oryx 43(2):183-190.

Frankowski, J., Jennerich, S., Schaarschmidt, T., Ubl, C., Jürss, K., and Bastrop, R. 2009. Validation of the occurrence of the American eel Anguilla rostrata (Le Sueur, 1817) in free-draining European inland waters. Biol. Invasions 11(6):1301-1309.

Frazer, L.N. 2009. Sea-cage aquaculture, sea lice, and declines of wild fish. Conserv. Biol. 23(3):599-607.

Free, G., Bowman, J., McGarrigle, M., Caroni, R., Donnelly, K., Tierney, D., Trodd, W., and Little, R. 2009. The identification, characterization and conservation value of isoetid lakes in Ireland. Aquat. Conserv. 19(3):264-273.

Freitas, B.M., Imperatriz-Fonseca, V.L., Medina, L.M., Kleinert, A.D.P., Galetto, L., Nates-Parra, G., and Quezada-Euán, J.J.G. 2009. Diversity, threats and conservation of native bees in the Neotropics. Apidologie 40(3):332-346.

Fritz, S.A., Bininda-Emonds, O.R.P., and Purvis, A. 2009. Geographical variation in predictors of mammalian extinction risk: big is bad, but only in the tropics. Ecol. Lett. 12(6):538-549.

Fritz, U., Ayaz, D., Hundsdörfer, A.K., Kotenko, T., Guicking, D., Wink, M., Tok, C.V., Çiçek, K., and Buschbom, J. 2009. Mitochondrial diversity of European pond turtles (Emys orbicularis) in Anatolia and the Ponto-Caspian Region: multiple old refuges, hotspot of extant diversification and critically endangered endemics. Org. Divers. Evol. 9(2):100-114.

Fuhlendorf, S.D., Engle, D.M., Kerby, J., and Hamilton, R. 2009. Pyric herbivory: rewilding landscapes through the recoupling of fire and grazing. Conserv. Biol. 23(3):588-598.

Galetti, M., Bovendorp, R.S., Fadini, R.F., Gussoni, C.O.A., Rodrigues, M., Alvarez, A.D., Guimarães, P.R., and Alves, K. 2009. Hyper abundant mesopredators and bird extinction in an Atlantic forest island. Zoologia 26(2):288-298.

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Game, E.T., Grantham, H.S., Hobday, A.J., Pressey, R.L., Lombard, A.T., Beckley, L.E., Gjerde, K., Bustamante, R., Possingham, H.P., and Richardson, A.J. 2009. Pelagic protected areas: the missing dimension in ocean conservation. Trends Ecol. Evol. 24(7):360-369.

Gan, X.J., Cai, Y.T., Choi, C.Y., Ma, Z.J., Chen, J.K., and Li, B. 2009. Potential impacts of invasive Spartina alterniflora on spring bird communities at Chongming Dongtan, a Chinese wetland of international importance. Estuarine Coast. Shelf Sci. 83(2):211-218.

Gao, Q.Z., Li, Y., Wan, Y.F., Jiangcun, W.Z., Qin, X.B., and Wang, B.S. 2009. Significant achievements in protection and restoration of alpine grassland ecosystem in northern Tibet, China. Restor. Ecol. 17(3):320-323.

Gao, X., Wang, J.W., and Brosse, S. 2009. Threatened fishes of the world: Acipenser dabryanus Duméril, 1869. Environ. Biol. Fish. 85(2):117-118.

Garcia-Del-Rey, E. 2009. The status of the Fuerteventura Stonechat Saxicola dacotiae: a new evaluation using distance sampling and GIS. Bird Conserv. Int. 19(2):165-173.

Garcia-Serrano, H., Caño, L., Escarré, J., Fleck, I., and Sans, F.X. 2009. Physiological comparison of alien Senecio inaequidens and S. pterophorus and native S. malacitanus: implications for invasion. Flora 204(6):445-455.

Gardner, T.A., Barlow, J., Chazdon, R., Ewers, R.M., Harvey, C.A., Peres, C.A., and Sodhi, N.S. 2009. Prospects for tropical forest biodiversity in a human-modified world. Ecol. Lett. 12(6):561-582.

Gargano, D., Bellusci, F., Pellegrino, G., Palermo, A.M., Bernardo, L., and Musacchio, A. 2009. The conservation perspectives and value of small and isolated plant populations: preliminary clues for Gentianella crispata (Gentianaceae) at the western boundary of its range. Ann. Bot. Fenn. 46(2):115-124.

Gergs, R., Rinke, K., and Rothhaupt, K.O. 2009. Zebra mussels mediate benthic-pelagic coupling by biodeposition and changing detrital stoichiometry. Freshwater Biol. 54(7):1379-1391.

Geselbracht, L., Torres, R., Cumming, G.S., Dorfman, D., Beck, M., and Shaw, D. 2009. Identification of a spatially efficient portfolio of priority conservation sites in marine and estuarine areas of Florida. Aquat. Conserv. 19(4):408-420.

Ghate, R., Mehra, D., and Nagendra, H. 2009. Local institutions as mediators of the impact of markets on non-timber forest product extraction in central India. Environ. Conserv. 36(1):51-61.

Gioria, M., and Osborne, B. 2009. Assessing the impact of plant invasions on soil seed bank communities: use of univariate and multivariate statistical approaches. J. Veg. Sci. 20(3):547-556.

Gold, J.R., Saillant, E., Ebelt, N.D., and Lem, S. 2009. Conservation genetics of gray snapper (Lutjanus griseus) in U.S. waters of the northern Gulf of Mexico and western Atlantic Ocean. Copeia (2):277-286.

Gong, S.P., Chow, A.T., Fong, J.J., and Shi, H.T. 2009. The chelonian trade in the largest pet market in China: scale, scope and impact on turtle conservation. Oryx 43(2):213-216.

Gong, S.P., Shi, H.T., Mo, Y.M., Auer, M., Vargas-Ramirez, M., Hundsdorfer, A.K., and Fritz, U. 2009. Phylogeography of the endangered black-breasted leaf turtle (Geoemyda spengleri) and conservation implications for other chelonians. Amphibia-Reptilia 30(1):57-62.

González, J.A., Gayubo, S.F., Asis, J.D., and Tormos, J. 2009. Diversity and biogeographical significance of solitary wasps (Chrysididae, Eumeninae, and Spheciformes) at the Arribes del Duero Natural Park, Spain: their importance for insect diversity conservation in the Mediterranean region. Environ. Entomol. 38(3):608-626.

González-García, A., Belliure, J., Gómez-Sal, A., and Dávila, P. 2009. The role of urban greenspaces in fauna conservation: the case of the iguana Ctenosaura similis in the 'patios' of León city, Nicaragua. Biodivers. Conserv. 18(7):1909-1920.

González-Pérez, M.A., Sosa, P.A., and Batista, F.J. 2009. Genetic variation and conservation of the endangered endemic Anagyris latifolia Brouss. ex Willd. (Leguminosae) from the Canary Islands. Plant Syst. Evol. 279(1-4):59-68.

Goodsell, P.J. 2009. Diversity in fragments of artificial and natural marine habitats. Mar. Ecol. Progr. Ser. 384:23-31.

Gren, I.M., Isacs, L., and Carlsson, M. 2009. Costs of alien invasive species in Sweden. Ambio 38(3):135-140.

Grumbine, R.E., and Xu, J.C. 2009. China shakes the world-and then what ? Conserv. Biol. 23(3):513-515.

Guan, T.L., Zeng, B., Peng, Q.K., Yue, B.S., and Zou, F.D. 2009. Microsatellite analysis of the genetic structure of captive forest musk deer populations and its implication for conservation. Biochem. Syst. & Ecol. 37(3):166-173.

Gula, R., Hausknecht, R., and Kuehn, R. 2009. Evidence of wolf dispersal in anthropogenic habitats of the Polish Carpathian Mountains. Biodivers. Conserv. 18(8):2173-2184.

Habel, J.C., Meyer, M., and Schmitt, T. 2009. The genetic consequence of differing ecological demands of a generalist and a specialist butterfly species. Biodivers. Conserv. 18(7):1895-1908.

Hanson, T., Brooks, T.M., Da Fonseca, G.A.B., Hoffmann, M., Lamoreux, J.F., Machlis, G., Mittermeier, C.G., Mittermeier, R.A., and John, D.P. 2009. Warfare in biodiversity hotspots. Conserv. Biol. 23(3):578-587.

Harner, M.J., Crenshaw, C.L., Abelho, M., Stursova, M., Shah, J.J.F., and Sinsabaugh, R.L. 2009. Decomposition of leaf litter from a native tree and an actinorhizal invasive across riparian habitats. Ecol. Appl. 19(5):1135-1146.

Haro-Carrion, X., Lozada, T., Navarrete, H., and de Koning, G.H.J. 2009. Conservation of vascular epiphyte diversity in shade cacao plantations in the Chocó region of Ecuador. Biotropica 41(4):520-529.

Harrington, L.A., Harrington, A.L., Yamaguchi, N., Thom, M.D., Ferreras, P., Windham, T.R., and Macdonald, D.W. 2009. The impact of native competitors on an alien invasive: temporal niche shifts to avoid interspecific aggression? Ecology 90(5):1207-1216.

Hastie, L.C., Pierce, G.J., Wang, J., Bruno, I., Moreno, A., Piatkowski, U., and Robin, J.P. 2009. Cephalopods in the north-eastern Atlantic: species, biogeography, ecology, exploitation and conservation, pp. 111-190. In Gibson, R.N., Gordon, J.D.M., and Atkinson, R.J.A. (eds.). Oceanography and Marine Biology: An Annual Review. Volume 47. Boca Raton. CRC Press-Taylor & Francis Group.

Hauser, C.E., and McCarthy, M.A. 2009. Streamlining 'search and destroy': cost-effective surveillance for invasive species management. Ecol. Lett. 12(7):683-692.

Hedrick, P.W. 2009. Conservation genetics and North American bison (Bison bison). J. Heredity 100(4):411-420.

Helgen, K.M., Helgen, L.E., and Wilson, D.E. 2009. Pacific flying foxes (Mammalia: Chiroptera): two new species of Pteropus from Samoa, probably extinct. Am. Mus. Novit. 3646:1-37.

Henry, P., Le Lay, G., Goudet, J., Guisan, A., Jahodová, Š., and Besnard, G. 2009. Reduced genetic diversity, increased isolation and multiple introductions of invasive giant hogweed in the western Swiss Alps. Mol. Ecol. 18(13):2819-2831.

Herben, T. 2009. Invasibility of neutral communities. Basic Appl. Ecol. 10(3):197-207.

Herbst, D.B., Silldorff, E.L., and Cooper, S.D. 2009. The influence of introduced trout on the benthic communities of paired headwater streams in the Sierra Nevada of California. Freshwater Biol. 54(6):1324-1342.

Herrando, S., Brotons, L., Guallar, S., Sales, S., and Pons, P. 2009. Postfire forest management and Mediterranean birds: the importance of the logging remnants. Biodivers. Conserv. 18(8):2153-2164.

Hoffmann, B.D., and Kay, A. 2009. Pisonia grandis monocultures limit the spread of an invasive ant - a case of carbohydrate quality? Biol. Invasions 11(6):1403-1410.

Holdredge, C., Bertness, M.D., and Altieri, A.H. 2009. Role of crab herbivory in die-off of New England salt marshes. Conserv. Biol. 23(3):672-679.

Holmes, G.D., James, E.A., and Hoffmann, A.A. 2009. Divergent levels of genetic variation and ploidy among populations of the rare shrub, Grevillea repens (Proteaceae). Conserv. Genet. 10(4):827-837.

Horne, J.S., Haines, A.M., Tewes, M.E., and Laack, L.L. 2009. Habitat partitioning by sympatric ocelots and bobcats: implications for recovery of ocelots in southern Texas. Southwest. Nat. 54(2):119-126.

How, R.A., Spencer, P.B.S., and Schmitt, L.H. 2009. Island populations have high conservation value for northern Australia's top marsupial predator ahead of a threatening process. J. Zool. 278(3):206-217.

Howard, E., and Davis, A.K. 2009. The fall migration flyways of monarch butterflies in eastern North America revealed by citizen scientists. J. Insect Conserv. 13(3):279-286.

Hutchens, S., and DePerno, C. 2009. Measuring species diversity to determine land-use effects on reptile and amphibian assemblages. Amphibia-Reptilia 30(1):81-88.

Iguchi, Y. 2009. The ecological impact of an introduced population on a native population in the firefly Luciola cruciata (Coleoptera: Lampyridae). Biodivers. Conserv. 18(8):2119-2126.

Irvine, K. 2009. Harmonizing assessment of conservation with that of ecological quality: fitting a square peg into a round hole? Aquat. Conserv. 19(4):365-369.

Irwin, M.T., Raharison, J.L., and Wright, P.C. 2009. Spatial and temporal variability in predation on rainforest primates: do forest fragmentation and predation act synergistically? Anim. Conserv. 12(3):220-230.

Isselin-Nondedeu, F., and Bédécarrats, A. 2009. Assessing the dominance of Phleum pratense cv. climax, a species commonly used for ski trail restoration. Appl. Veg. Sci. 12(2):155-165.

Jackson, S.F., Evans, K.L., and Gaston, K.J. 2009. Statutory protected areas and avian species richness in Britain. Biodivers. Conserv. 18(8):2143-2151.

Jackson, S.F., Walker, K., and Gaston, K.J. 2009. Relationship between distributions of threatened plants and protected areas in Britain. Biol. Conserv. 142(7):1515-1522.

Jacques, E.D., and Kollmann, L.J.C. 2009. Begonia caparaoensis (Begoniaceae), a new endemic species from the Atlantic Forest in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Novon 19(2):172-174.

Jacquet, J. 2009. What can conservationists learn from investor behavior ? Conserv. Biol. 23(3):518-519.

James, J.J., Mangold, J.M., Sheley, R.L., and Svejcar, T. 2009. Root plasticity of native and invasive Great Basin species in response to soil nitrogen heterogeneity. Plant Ecol. 202(2):211-220.

Jarnevich, C.S., and Stohlgren, T.J. 2009. Near term climate projections for invasive species distributions. Biol. Invasions 11(6):1373-1379.

Jiao, Y., Lapointe, N.W.R., Angermeier, P.L., and Murphy, B.R. 2009. Hierarchical demographic approaches for assessing invasion dynamics of non-indigenous species: An example using northern snakehead (Channa argus). Ecol. Model. 220(13-14):1681-1689.

Jones, J.P.G., Rasamy, J.R., Harvey, A., Toon, A., Oidtmann, B., Randrianarison, M.H., Raminosoa, N., and Ravoahangimalala, O.R. 2009. The perfect invader: a parthenogenic crayfish poses a new threat to Madagascar's freshwater biodiversity. Biol. Invasions 11(6):1475-1482.

Jordán, F. 2009. Keystone species and food webs. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London. [Biol.] 364(1524):1733-1741.

Juárez, H.S.D., Contreras-Medina, R., and Luna-Vega, I. 2009. Biogeographic analysis of endemic cacti of the Sierra Madre Oriental, Mexico. Biol. J. Linn. Soc. 97(2):373-389.

Kaiser-Bunbury, C., and Müller, C. 2009. Indirect interactions between invasive and native plants via pollinators. Naturwissenschaften 96(3):339-346.

Kamp, J., Koshkin, M.A., and Sheldon, R.D. 2009. Population size, breeding performance and habitat use of the Black-winged Pratincole Glareola nordmanni. Bird Conserv. Int. 19(2):149-163.

Kandemir, A. 2009. The rediscovery of some taxa thought to have been extinct in Turkey. Turk. J. Bot. 33(2):113-122.

Karalius, V., and Blazyte-Cereskiene, L. 2009. Distribution of Boros schneideri (Panzer, 1796) (Coleoptera, Boridae) in Lithuania. J. Insect Conserv. 13(3):347-353.

Kaya, Z., and Bancheva, S. 2009. A new species of Cyanus (Centaurea p.p.) sect. Napuliferi (Asteraceae) from Turkey. Novon 19(2):175-177.

Keddy, P.A. 2009. Thinking big: a conservation vision for the southeastern coastal plain of North America. Southeast. Nat. 8(2):213-226.

Keith, D.A., Orscheg, C., Simpson, C.C., Clarke, P.J., Hughes, L., Kennelly, S.J., Major, R.E., Soderquist, T.R., Wilson, A.L., and Bedward, M. 2009. A new approach and case study for estimating extent and rates of habitat loss for ecological communities. Biol. Conserv. 142(7):1469-1479.

Kelle, L., Gratiot, N., and de Thoisy, B. 2009. Olive ridley turtle Lepidochelys olivacea in French Guiana: back from the brink of regional extirpation? Oryx 43(2):243-246.

Keller, S.R., Sowell, D.R., Neiman, M., Wolfe, L.M., and Taylor, D.R. 2009. Adaptation and colonization history affect the evolution of clines in two introduced species. New Phytol. 183(3):678-690.

Kerwath, S.E., Thorstad, E.B., Næsje, T.F., Cowley, P.D., Økland, F., Wilke, C., and Attwood, C.G. 2009. Crossing invisible boundaries: the effectiveness of the Langebaan Lagoon marine protected area as a harvest refuge for a migratory fish species in South Africa. Conserv. Biol. 23(3):653-661.

Keuroghlian, A., and Eaton, D.P. 2009. Removal of palm fruits and ecosystem engineering in palm stands by white-lipped peccaries (Tayassu pecari) and other frugivores in an isolated Atlantic Forest fragment. Biodivers. Conserv. 18(7):1733-1750.

Kier, G., Kreft, H., Lee, T.M., Jetz, W., Ibisch, P.L., Nowicki, C., Mutke, J., and Barthlott, W. 2009. A global assessment of endemism and species richness across island and mainland regions. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 106(23):9322-9327.

Kilian, J.V., Stranko, S.A., Raesly, R.L., Becker, A.J., and Ciccotto, P. 2009. Enneacanthus chaetodon (blackbanded sunfish): an imperiled element of Maryland's coastal plain ichthyofauna. Southeast. Nat. 8(2):267-276.

Kimbro, D.L., Grosholz, E.D., Baukus, A.J., Nesbitt, N.J., Travis, N.M., Attoe, S., and Coleman-Hulbert, C. 2009. Invasive species cause large-scale loss of native California oyster habitat by disrupting trophic cascades. Oecologia 160(3):563-575.

Kitamura, K., Yoshimura, J., Tainaka, K., and Yokojima, S. 2009. Potential impacts of flooding events and stream modification on an endangered endemic plant, Schoenoplectus gemmifer (Cyperaceae). Ecol. Res. 24(3):533-546.

Klein, C.J., Wilson, K.A., Watts, M., Stein, J., Carwardine, J., Mackey, B., and Possingham, H.P. 2009. Spatial conservation prioritization inclusive of wilderness quality: a case study of Australia's biodiversity. Biol. Conserv. 142(7):1282-1290.

Klok, C., Roodbergen, M., and Hemerik, L. 2009. Diagnosing declining grassland wader populations using simple matrix models. Anim. Biol. 59(1):127-144.

Knapp, S., and Nee, M. 2009. Solanum anomalostemon (Solanaceae), an endangered new species from southern Peru with unusual anther morphology. Novon 19(2):178-181.

Knight, A.T. 2009. Is conservation biology ready to fail ? Conserv. Biol. 23(3):517.

Ko, C.Y., Lin, R.S., Ding, T.S., Hsieh, C.H., and Lee, P.F. 2009. Identifying biodiversity hotspots by predictive models: a case study using Taiwan's endemic bird species. Zool. Stud. 48(3):418-431.

Kong, L.F., and Li, Q. 2009. Genetic evidence for the existence of cryptic species in an endangered clam Coelomactra antiquata. Mar. Biol. 156(7):1507-1515.

Kuehl, H.S., Nzeingui, C., Yeno, S.L.D., Huijbregts, B., Boesch, C., and Walsh, P.D. 2009. Discriminating between village and commercial hunting of apes. Biol. Conserv. 142(7):1500-1506.

Kühl, A., Balinova, N., Bykova, E., Arylov, Y.N., Esipov, A., Lushchekina, A.A., and Milner-Gulland, E.J. 2009. The role of saiga poaching in rural communities: linkages between attitudes, socio-economic circumstances and behaviour. Biol. Conserv. 142(7):1442-1449.

Kumara, H.N., and Sinha, A. 2009. Decline of the Endangered lion-tailed macaque Macaca silenus in the Western Ghats, India. Oryx 43(2):292-298.

Lafferty, K.D., and Kuris, A.M. 2009. Parasites reduce food web robustness because they are sensitive to secondary extinction as illustrated by an invasive estuarine snail. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London. [Biol.] 364(1524):1659-1663.

Lagabrielle, E., Rouget, M., Payet, K., Wistebaar, N., Durieux, L., Baret, S., Lombard, A., and Strasberg, D. 2009. Identifying and mapping biodiversity processes for conservation planning in islands: a case study in Réunion Island (Western Indian Ocean). Biol. Conserv. 142(7):1523-1535.

Lambertucci, S.A., Speziale, K.L., Rogers, T.E., and Morales, J.M. 2009. How do roads affect the habitat use of an assemblage of scavenging raptors? Biodivers. Conserv. 18(8):2063-2074.

Larraín, J., Herrera, F., Budke, J.M., and Goffinet, B. 2009. Phylogenetic affinities and conservation status of the Chilean endemic Costesia spongiosa (Gigaspermaceae). Bryologist 112(2):278-286.

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Ledesma, K.J., Werner, F.A., Spotorno, A.E., and Albuja, L.H. 2009. A new species of Mountain Viscacha (Chinchillidae: Lagidium Meyen) from the Ecuadorean Andes. Zootaxa 2126:41-57.

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Namgail, T., Fox, J.L., and Bhatnagar, Y.V. 2009. Status and distribution of the Near Threatened Tibetan argali Ovis ammon hodgsoni in Ladakh, India: effect of a hunting ban. Oryx 43(2):288-291.

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Nyahongo, J.W., Holmern, T., Kaltenborn, B.P., and Roskaft, E. 2009. Spatial and temporal variation in meat and fish consumption among people in the western Serengeti, Tanzania: the importance of migratory herbivores. Oryx 43(2):258-266.

Nyeko, P. 2009. Dung beetle assemblages and seasonality in primary forest and forest fragments on agricultural landscapes in Budongo, Uganda. Biotropica 41(4):476-484.

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Olea, P.P., Sánchez-Barbudo, I.S., Viñuela, J., Barja, I., Mateo-Tomás, P., Piñeiro, A., Mateo, R., and Purroy, F.J. 2009. Lack of scientific evidence and precautionary principle in massive release of rodenticides threatens biodiversity: old lessons need new reflections. Environ. Conserv. 36(1):1-4.

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Paquette, S.R., Ferguson, B.H., Lapointe, F.J., and Louis, E.E. 2009. Conservation genetics of the radiated tortoise (Astrochelys radiata) population from Andohahela National Park, southeast Madagascar, with a discussion on the conservation of this declining species. Chelonian Conserv. Biol. 8(1):84-93.

Pardini, R., Faria, D., Accacio, G.M., Laps, R.R., Mariano-Neto, E., Paciencia, M.L.B., Dixo, M., and Baumgarten, J. 2009. The challenge of maintaining Atlantic forest biodiversity: a multi-taxa conservation assessment of specialist and generalist species in an agro-forestry mosaic in southern Bahia. Biol. Conserv. 142(6):1178-1190.

Pautasso, M., and Dinetti, M. 2009. Avian species richness, human population and protected areas across Italy's regions. Environ. Conserv. 36(1):22-31.

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Peng-Fei, F., Xue-Long, J., and Chang-Cheng, T. 2009. The Critically Endangered black crested gibbon Nomascus concolor on Wuliang Mountain, Yunnan, China: the role of forest types in the species' conservation. Oryx 43(2):203-208.

Penman, T.D., Binns, D.L., and Kavanagh, R.P. 2009. Patch-occupancy modeling as a method for monitoring changes in forest floristics: a case study in southeastern Australia. Conserv. Biol. 23(3):740-749.

Pérez-Losada, M., Bond-Buckup, G., Jara, C.G., and Crandall, K.A. 2009. Conservation assessment of southern South American freshwater ecoregions on the basis of the distribution and genetic diversity of crabs from the genus Aegla. Conserv. Biol. 23(3):692-702.

Pharo, E.J., and Lindenmayer, D.B. 2009. Biological legacies soften pine plantation effects for bryophytes. Biodivers. Conserv. 18(7):1751-1764.

Pinsky, M.L., Springmeyer, D.B., Goslin, M.N., and Augerot, X. 2009. Range-wide selection of catchments for Pacific salmon conservation. Conserv. Biol. 23(3):680-691.

Pirie, M.D., Klitgaard, B.B., and Pennington, R.T. 2009. Revision and biogeography of Centrolobium (Leguminosae - Papilionoideae). Syst. Bot. 34(2):345-359.

Pitt, J.P.W., Worner, S.P., and Suarez, A.V. 2009. Predicting Argentine ant spread over the heterogeneous landscape using a spatially explicit stochastic model. Ecol. Appl. 19(5):1176-1186.

Plassmann, K., Brown, N., Jones, M.L.M., and Edwards-Jones, G. 2009. Can soil seed banks contribute to the restoration of dune slacks under conservation management? Appl. Veg. Sci. 12(2):199-210.

Poplar-Jeffers, I.O., Petty, J.T., Anderson, J.T., Kite, S.J., Strager, M.P., and Fortney, R.H. 2009. Culvert replacement and stream habitat restoration: implications from brook trout management in an Appalachian watershed, USA. Restor. Ecol. 17(3):404-413.

Porst, G., and Irvine, K. 2009. Distinctiveness of macroinvertebrate communities in turloughs (temporary ponds) and their response to environmental variables. Aquat. Conserv. 19(4):456-465.

Praveen, J., and Nameer, P.O. 2009. Monitoring bird diversity in Western Ghats of Kerala. Curr. Sci. 96(10):1390-1395.

Priddis, E., Rader, R., Belk, M., Schaalje, B., and Merkley, S. 2009. Can separation along the temperature niche axis promote coexistence between native and invasive species? Divers. Distrib. 15(4):682-691.

Psyllakis, J.M., and Gillingham, M.P. 2009. Using forest structure and composition to predict the occurrence of vertebrate species in Douglas-Fir forests of British Columbia. Biol. Conserv. 142(7):1427-1441.

Puddu, G., Maiorano, L., Falcucci, A., Corsi, F., and Boitani, L. 2009. Spatial-explicit assessment of current and future conservation options for the endangered Corsican Red Deer (Cervus elaphus corsicanus) in Sardinia. Biodivers. Conserv. 18(8):2001-2016.

Pyenson, N.D. 2009. Requiem for Lipotes: an evolutionary perspective on marine mammal extinction. Mar. Mammal Sci. 25(3):714-724.

Qi, D.W., Hu, Y.B., Gu, X.D., Li, M., and Wei, F.W. 2009. Ecological niche modeling of the sympatric giant and red pandas on a mountain-range scale. Biodivers. Conserv. 18(8):2127-2141.

Quartau, J.A. 2009. Preventative fire procedures in Mediterranean woods are destroying their insect biodiversity: a plea to the EU governments. J. Insect Conserv. 13(3):267-270.

Rabehevitra, D., and Lowry, P.P. 2009. Endemic families of Madagascar. XI. A new critically endangered species of Schizolaena (Sarcolaenaceae) from Tapia woodland in south-central Madagascar. Adansonia 31(1):149-155.

Ran, J.H., Du, B.B., and Yue, B.S. 2009. Conservation of the Endangered giant panda Ailuropoda melanoleuca in China: successes and challenges. Oryx 43(2):176-178.

Randrianasolo, A., and Lowry, P.P. 2009. Four new species and one new combination in the Malagasy endemic genus Micronychia Oliv. (Anacardiaceae). Adansonia 31(1):157-168.

Ranjbar, M., Karamian, R., and Hajmoradi, F. 2009. Taxonomic notes on Onobrychis sect. Hymenobrychis (Fabaceae, Hedysareae) in Iran. Novon 19(2):215-218.

Rannap, R., Lõhmus, A., and Briggs, L. 2009. Niche position, but not niche breadth, differs in two coexisting amphibians having contrasting trends in Europe. Divers. Distrib. 15(4):692-700.

Rawat, D.S. 2009. A presumed extinct endemic alpine herb Gentiana tetrasepala rediscovered after 123 years: will it survive? Natl. Acad. Sci. Lett. 32(5-6):169-172.

Reino, L., Moya-Laraño, J., and Heitor, A.C. 2009. Using survival regression to study patterns of expansion of invasive species: will the common waxbill expand with global warming? Ecography 32(2):237-246.

Reynolds, S.J. 2009. Impact of the introduced poeciliid Gambusia holbrooki on amphibians in southwestern Australia. Copeia (2):296-302.

Ribeiro, M.C., Metzger, J.P., Martensen, A.C., Ponzoni, F.J., and Hirota, M.M. 2009. The Brazilian Atlantic Forest: how much is left, and how is the remaining forest distributed? Implications for conservation. Biol. Conserv. 142(6):1141-1153.

Richardson, D.M., Hellmann, J.J., McLachlan, J.S., Sax, D.F., Schwartz, M.W., Gonzalez, P., Brennan, E.J., Camacho, A., Root, T.L., Sala, O.E., Schneider, S.H., Ashe, D.M., Clark, J.R., Early, R., Etterson, J.R., Fielder, E.D., Gill, J.L., Minteer, B.A., Polasky, S., Safford, H.D., Thompson, A.R., and Vellend, M. 2009. Multidimensional evaluation of managed relocation. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 106(24):9721-9724.

Robertson, H.A., and Fraser, J.R. 2009. Use of trained dogs to determine the age structure and conservation status of kiwi Apteryx spp. populations. Bird Conserv. Int. 19(2):121-129.

Roche, J.R., Mitchell, F.J.G., and Waldren, S. 2009. Plant community ecology of Pinus sylvestris, an extirpated species reintroduced to Ireland. Biodivers. Conserv. 18(8):2185-2203.

Rödder, D. 2009. 'Sleepless in Hawaii' - does anthropogenic climate change enhance ecological and socioeconomic impacts of the alien invasive Eleutherodactylus coqui Thomas 1966 (Anura: Eleutherodactylidae)? North-West. J. Zool. 5(1):16-25.

Rodrigues, A.S.L., Ewers, R.M., Parry, L., Souza, C., Verissimo, A., and Balmford, A. 2009. Boom-and-bust development patterns across the Amazon deforestation frontier. Science 324(5933):1435-1437.

Rodrigues, R.R., Lima, R.A.F., Gandolfi, S., and Nave, A.G. 2009. On the restoration of high diversity forests: 30 years of experience in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. Biol. Conserv. 142(6):1242-1251.

Rodríguez, J.M., Gómez, P.V., Carine, M., and Jury, S. 2009. Iris rutherfordii Mart. Rodr., R Vargas, Carine & Jury (Iridaceae, Iris subgen. Xiphium (Mill.) Spach), a new species from Morocco. Candollea 64(1):127-132.

Roe, J.H., Brinton, A.C., and Georges, A. 2009. Temporal and spatial variation in landscape connectivity for a freshwater turtle in a temporally dynamic wetland system. Ecol. Appl. 19(5):1288-1299.

Roff, J.C. 2009. Conservation of marine biodiversity - how much is enough? Aquat. Conserv. 19(3):249-251.

Rogers, Z.S. 2009. A revision of Malagasy Gnidia (Thymelaeaceae, Thymelaeoideae). Ann. Mo. Bot. Garden 96(2):324-368.

Romani, M., Pecetti, L., Tosca, A., Della Marianna, G., Gusmeroli, F., Paoletti, R., and Piano, E. 2009. Evaluation of morphology and seed production of Alpine cat's tail [Phleum rhaeticum (Humph.) Rauschert] germplasm in view of its use for ecological restoration at high altitude. Restor. Ecol. 17(3):386-392.

Romanuk, T.N., Zhou, Y., Brose, U., Berlow, E.L., Williams, R.J., and Martinez, N.D. 2009. Predicting invasion success in complex ecological networks. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London. [Biol.] 364(1524):1743-1754.

Russell, J.C., Mackay, J.W.B., and Abdelkrim, J. 2009. Insular pest control within a metapopulation context. Biol. Conserv. 142(7):1404-1410.

Ryan, M.E., Johnson, J.R., and Fitzpatrick, B.M. 2009. Invasive hybrid tiger salamander genotypes impact native amphibians. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 106(27):11166-11171.

Sage, R.B., Woodburn, M.I.A., Draycott, R.A.H., Hoodless, A.N., and Clarke, S. 2009. The flora and structure of farmland hedges and hedgebanks near to pheasant release pens compared with other hedges. Biol. Conserv. 142(7):1362-1369.

Salifu, K.F., Jacobs, D.F., and Birge, Z.K.D. 2009. Nursery nitrogen loading improves field performance of bareroot oak seedlings planted on abandoned mine lands. Restor. Ecol. 17(3):339-349.

Sánchez-de León, Y., and Johnson-Maynard, J. 2009. Dominance of an invasive earthworm in native and non-native grassland ecosystems. Biol. Invasions 11(6):1393-1401.

Sandmeier, F.C., Tracy, C.R., duPré, S., and Hunter, K. 2009. Upper respiratory tract disease (URTD) as a threat to desert tortoise populations: a reevaluation. Biol. Conserv. 142(7):1255-1268.

Sanz-Elorza, M., Mateo, R.G., and Bernardo, F. 2009. The historical role of agriculture and gardening in the introduction of alien plants in the western Mediterranean. Plant Ecol. 202(2):247-256.

Sarkar, S., Sánchez-Cordero, V., Londoño, M.C., and Fuller, T. 2009. Systematic conservation assessment for the Mesoamerica, Chocó, and Tropical Andes biodiversity hotspots: a preliminary analysis. Biodivers. Conserv. 18(7):1793-1828.

Sastre, N., Francino, O., Lampreave, G., Bologov, V.V., López-Martín, J.M., Sánchez, A., and Ramírez, O. 2009. Sex identification of wolf (Canis lupus) using non-invasive samples. Conserv. Genet. 10(3):555-558.

Scarano, F.R. 2009. Plant communities at the periphery of the Atlantic rain forest: rare-species bias and its risks for conservation. Biol. Conserv. 142(6):1201-1208.

Schabetsberger, R., Luger, M.S., Drozdowski, G., and Jagsch, A. 2009. Only the small survive: monitoring long-term changes in the zooplankton community of an Alpine lake after fish introduction. Biol. Invasions 11(6):1335-1345.

Schloegel, L.M., Picco, A.M., Kilpatrick, A.M., Davies, A.J., Hyatt, A.D., and Daszak, P. 2009. Magnitude of the US trade in amphibians and presence of Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis and ranavirus infection in imported North American bullfrogs (Rana catesbeiana). Biol. Conserv. 142(7):1420-1426.

Schlosser, J.A., Dubach, J.M., Garner, T.W.J., Araya, B., Bernal, M., Simeone, A., Smith, K.A., and Wallace, R.S. 2009. Evidence for gene flow differs from observed dispersal patterns in the Humboldt penguin, Spheniscus humboldti. Conserv. Genet. 10(4):839-849.

Schooler, S.S., McEvoy, P.B., Hammond, P., and Coombs, E.M. 2009. Negative per capita effects of two invasive plants, Lythrum salicaria and Phalaris arundinacea, on the moth diversity of wetland communities. Bull. Entomol. Res. 99(3):229-243.

Schultz, C.B., Dzurisin, J.D., and Russell, C. 2009. Captive rearing of Puget blue butterflies (Icaricia icarioides blackmorei) and implications for conservation. J. Insect Conserv. 13(3):309-315.

Schüttler, E., Klenke, R., McGehee, S., Rozzi, R., and Jax, K. 2009. Vulnerability of ground-nesting waterbirds to predation by invasive American mink in the Cape Horn Biosphere Reserve, Chile. Biol. Conserv. 142(7):1450-1460.

Schwindt, E., Bortolus, A., Idaszkin, Y.L., Savoya, V., and Méndez, M.M. 2009. Salt marsh colonization by a rocky shore invader: Balanus glandula Darwin (1854) spreads along the Patagonian coast. Biol. Invasions 11(6):1259-1265.

Segelbacher, G., and Höglund, J. 2009. Ecological genomics and conservation: where do we stand? Genetica 136(3):387-390.

Sethi, P., and Howe, H.F. 2009. Recruitment of hornbill-dispersed trees in hunted and logged forests of the Indian Eastern Himalaya. Conserv. Biol. 23(3):710-718.

Settele, J., and Kühn, E. 2009. Insect conservation. Science 325(5936):41-42.

Sharma, R., Stuckas, H., Bhaskar, R., Rajput, S., Khan, I., Goyal, S.P., and Tiedemann, R. 2009. mtDNA indicates profound population structure in Indian tiger (Panthera tigris tigris). Conserv. Genet. 10(4):909-914.

Sharma, S., Jackson, D.A., and Minns, C.K. 2009. Quantifying the potential effects of climate change and the invasion of smallmouth bass on native lake trout populations across Canadian lakes. Ecography 32(3):517-525.

Shinen, J.S., and Morgan, S.G. 2009. Mechanisms of invasion resistance: competition among intertidal mussels promotes establishment of invasive species and displacement of native species. Mar. Ecol. Progr. Ser. 383:187-197.

Shokri, M.R., Gladstone, W., and Jelbart, J. 2009. The effectiveness of seahorses and pipefish (Pisces: Syngnathidae) as a flagship group to evaluate the conservation value of estuarine seagrass beds. Aquat. Conserv. 19(5):588-595.

Shustack, D.P., Rodewald, A.D., and Waite, T.A. 2009. Springtime in the city: exotic shrubs promote earlier greenup in urban forests. Biol. Invasions 11(6):1357-1371.

Sigala-Rodriguez, J.J., and Greene, H.W. 2009. Landscape change and conservation priorities: Mexican herpetofaunal perspectives at local and regional scales. Rev. Mex. Biodivers. 80(1):231-240.

Sitas, N., Baillie, J.E.M., and Isaac, N.J.B. 2009. What are we saving? Developing a standardized approach for conservation action. Anim. Conserv. 12(3):231-237.

Snow, N. 2009. Kanakomyrtus (Myrtaceae): a new endemic genus from New Caledonia with linear stigma lobes and baccate fruits. Syst. Bot. 34(2):330-344.

Sobek, S., Steffan-Dewenter, I., Scherber, C., and Tscharntke, T. 2009. Spatiotemporal changes of beetle communities across a tree diversity gradient. Divers. Distrib. 15(4):660-670.

Soland-Reckeweg, G., Heckel, G., Neumann, P., Fluri, P., and Excoffier, L. 2009. Gene flow in admixed populations and implications for the conservation of the Western honeybee, Apis mellifera. J. Insect Conserv. 13(3):317-328.

Solorzano, S., Garcia-Juarez, M., and Oyama, K. 2009. Genetic diversity and conservation of the Resplendent Quetzal Pharomachrus mocinno in Mesoamerica. Rev. Mex. Biodivers. 80(1):241-248.

Sopsop, L.B., and Buot, I.E. 2009. The endangered plants of Palawan Island, Philippines. Asia Life Sci. 18(2):251-279.

Spitzer, L., Benes, J., Dandova, J., Jaskova, V., and Konvicka, M. 2009. The Large Blue butterfly, Phengaris [Maculinea] arion, as a conservation umbrella on a landscape scale: the case of the Czech Carpathians. Ecol. Indic. 9(6):1056-1063.

Spottiswoode, C.N., Wondafrash, M., Gabremichael, M.N., Abebe, Y.D., Mwangi, M.A.K., Collar, N.J., and Dolman, P.M. 2009. Rangeland degradation is poised to cause Africa's first recorded avian extinction. Anim. Conserv. 12(3):249-257.

Stanton, D.W.G., Hobbs, G.I., Chadwick, E.A., Slater, F.M., and Bruford, M.W. 2009. Mitochondrial genetic diversity and structure of the European otter (Lutra lutra) in Britain. Conserv. Genet. 10(3):733-737.

Stokes, V.L., Banks, P.B., Pech, R.P., and Williams, R.L. 2009. Invasion by Rattus rattus into native coastal forests of south-eastern Australia: are native small mammals at risk? Austral Ecol. 34(4):395-408.

Storfer, A., Eastman, J.M., and Spear, S.F. 2009. Modern molecular methods for amphibian conservation. BioScience 59(7):559-571.

Stout, J.C., and Morales, C.L. 2009. Ecological impacts of invasive alien species on bees. Apidologie 40(3):388-409.

Straube, D., Johnson, E.A., Parkinson, D., Scheu, S., and Eisenhauer, N. 2009. Nonlinearity of effects of invasive ecosystem engineers on abiotic soil properties and soil biota. Oikos 118(6):885-896.

Stromberg, J.C., Rychener, T.J., and Dixon, M.D. 2009. Return of fire to a free-flowing desert river: effects on vegetation. Restor. Ecol. 17(3):327-338.

Suárez-García, C., de Paz, J.P., Febles, R., and Caujapé-Castells, J. 2009. Genetic diversity and floral dimorphism in Limonium dendroides (Plumbaginaceae), a woody Canarian species on the way of extinction. Plant Syst. Evol. 280(1-2):105-117.

Suarez-Rubio, M., and Thomlinson, J.R. 2009. Landscape and patch-level factors influence bird communities in an urbanized tropical island. Biol. Conserv. 142(7):1311-1321.

Subalusky, A.L., Fitzgerald, L.A., and Smith, L.L. 2009. Ontogenetic niche shifts in the American Alligator establish functional connectivity between aquatic systems. Biol. Conserv. 142(7):1507-1514.

Sugiura, S., Yamaura, Y., Tsuru, T., Goto, H., Hasegawa, M., Makihara, H., and Makino, S. 2009. Beetle responses to artificial gaps in an oceanic island forest: implications for invasive tree management to conserve endemic species diversity. Biodivers. Conserv. 18(8):2101-2118.

Sutherland, W.J., Adams, W.M., Aronson, R.B., Aveling, R., Blackburn, T.M., Broad, S., Ceballos, G., Côté, I.M., Cowling, R.M., Da Fonseca, G.A.B., Dinerstein, E., Ferraro, P.J., Fleishman, E., Gascon, C., Hunter, M., Hutton, J., Kareiva, P., Kuria, A., MacDonald, D.W., MacKinnon, K., Madgwick, F.J., Mascia, M.B., McNeely, J., Milner-Gulland, E.J., Moon, S., Morley, C.G., Nelson, S., Osborn, D., Pai, M., Parsons, E.C.M., Peck, L.S., Possingham, H., Prior, S.V., Pullin, A.S., Rands, M.R.W., Ranganathan, J., Redford, K.H., Rodriguez, J.P., Seymour, F., Sobel, J., Sodhi, N.S., Stott, A., Vance-Borland, K., and Watkinson, A.R. 2009. One hundred questions of importance to the conservation of global biological diversity. Conserv. Biol. 23(3):557-567.

Sutherst, R.W., and Bourne, A.S. 2009. Modelling non-equilibrium distributions of invasive species: a tale of two modelling paradigms. Biol. Invasions 11(6):1231-1237.

Svancara, L.K., Scott, J.M., Loveland, T.R., and Pidgorna, A.B. 2009. Assessing the landscape context and conversion risk of protected areas using satellite data products. Remote Sens. Environ. 113(7):1357-1369.

Syphard, A.D., Radeloff, V.C., Hawbaker, T.J., and Stewart, S.I. 2009. Conservation threats due to human-caused increases in fire frequency in Mediterranean-climate ecosystems. Conserv. Biol. 23(3):758-769.

Tam, T.W., and Ang, P.O. 2009. Structures, dynamics and stability of reef fish assemblages in non-reefal coral communities in Hong Kong, China. Aquat. Conserv. 19(3):301-321.

Tapia, L., Domínguez, J., and Rodríguez, L. 2009. Using probability of occurrence to assess potential interaction between wind farms and a residual population of golden eagle Aquila chrysaetos in NW Spain. Biodivers. Conserv. 18(8):2033-2041.

Tellería, J.L. 2009. Potential impacts of wind farms on migratory birds crossing Spain. Bird Conserv. Int. 19(2):131-136.

Tellería, J.L. 2009. Wind power plants and the conservation of birds and bats in Spain: a geographical assessment. Biodivers. Conserv. 18(7):1781-1791.

Thieltges, D.W., Reise, K., Prinz, K., and Jensen, K.T. 2009. Invaders interfere with native parasite-host interactions. Biol. Invasions 11(6):1421-1429.

Thomas, E. 2009. New light on the floristic composition and diversity of indigenous territory and national park Isiboro-Sécure, Bolivia. Biodivers. Conserv. 18(7):1847-1878.

Thomas, J.A., Simcox, D.J., and Clarke, R.T. 2009. Successful conservation of a threatened Maculinea butterfly. Science 325(5936):80-83.

Thomson, J.R., Moilanen, A.J., Vesk, P.A., Bennett, A.F., and Mac Nally, R. 2009. Where and when to revegetate: a quantitative method for scheduling landscape reconstruction. Ecol. Appl. 19(4):817-828.

Thorpe, A.S., Thelen, G.C., Diaconu, A., and Callaway, R.M. 2009. Root exudate is allelopathic in invaded community but not in native community: field evidence for the novel weapons hypothesis. J. Ecology 97(4):641-645.

Tlig-Zouari, S., Rabaoui, L., Irathni, I., and Ben Hassine, O.K. 2009. Distribution, habitat and population densities of the invasive species Pinctada radiatia (Molluca: Bivalvia) along the Northern and Eastern coasts of Tunisia. Cah. Biol. Mar. 50(2):131-142.

Treier, U.A., Broennimann, O., Normand, S., Guisan, A., Schaffner, U., Steinger, T., and Müller-Schärer, H. 2009. Shift in cytotype frequency and niche space in the invasive plant Centaurea maculosa. Ecology 90(5):1366-1377.

Tsiftsis, S., Tsiripidis, I., and Karagiannakidou, V. 2009. Identifying areas of high importance for orchid conservation in east Macedonia (NE Greece). Biodivers. Conserv. 18(7):1765-1780.

Tsuda, Y., Kimura, M., Kato, S., Katsuki, T., Mukai, Y., and Tsumura, Y. 2009. Genetic structure of Cerasus jamasakura, a Japanese flowering cherry, revealed by nuclear SSRs: implications for conservation. J. Plant Res. 122(4):367-375.

Turlure, C., Van Dyck, H., Schtickzelle, N., and Baguette, M. 2009. Resource-based habitat definition, niche overlap and conservation of two sympatric glacial relict butterflies. Oikos 118(6):950-960.

Uehara-Prado, M., Fernandes, J.D., Bello, A.D., Machado, G., Santos, A.J., Vaz-de-Mello, F.Z., and Freitas, A.V.L. 2009. Selecting terrestrial arthropods as indicators of small-scale disturbance: a first approach in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. Biol. Conserv. 142(6):1220-1228.

Uhrin, A.V., Hall, M.O., Merello, M.F., and Fonseca, M.S. 2009. Survival and expansion of mechanically transplanted seagrass sods. Restor. Ecol. 17(3):359-368.

Urgenson, L.S., Reichard, S.H., and Halpern, C.B. 2009. Community and ecosystem consequences of giant knotweed (Polygonum sachalinense) invasion into riparian forests of western Washington, USA. Biol. Conserv. 142(7):1536-1541.

Usio, N., Kamiyama, R., Saji, A., and Takamura, N. 2009. Size-dependent impacts of invasive alien crayfish on a littoral marsh community. Biol. Conserv. 142(7):1480-1490.

Valdecantos, A., Baeza, M.J., and Vallejo, V.R. 2009. Vegetation management for promoting ecosystem resilience in fire-prone Mediterranean shrublands. Restor. Ecol. 17(3):414-421.

Valverde, P.L., Zavala-Hurtado, J.A., Jimenez-Sierra, C., Rendon-Aguilar, B., Cornejo-Romero, A., Rivas-Arancibia, S., Lopez-Ortega, G., and Perez-Hernandez, M.A. 2009. Assessment of extinction risk of Mammillaria pectinifera, an endemic cactus of the Tehuacan-Cuicatlan region. Rev. Mex. Biodivers. 80(1):219-230.

Van Aarde, R.J., and Ferreira, S.M. 2009. Elephant populations and CITES trade resolutions. Environ. Conserv. 36(1):8-10.

Vance-Borland, K., Burnett, K., and Clarke, S. 2009. Influence of mapping resolution on assessments of stream and streamside conditions: lessons from coastal Oregon, USA. Aquat. Conserv. 19(3):252-263.

Vandergast, A.G., Lewallen, E.A., Deas, J., Bohonak, A.J., Weissman, D.B., and Fisher, R.N. 2009. Loss of genetic connectivity and diversity in urban microreserves in a southern California endemic Jerusalem cricket (Orthoptera: Stenopelmatidae: Stenopelmatus n. sp. "santa monica"). J. Insect Conserv. 13(3):329-345.

Vanhellemont, M., Verheyen, K., De Keersmaeker, L., Vandekerkhove, K., and Hermy, M. 2009. Does Prunus serotina act as an aggressive invader in areas with a low propagule pressure? Biol. Invasions 11(6):1451-1462.

Vazquez, L.B., and Valenzuela-Galvan, D. 2009. How well represented are Mexican mammals in the natural protected area network? Rev. Mex. Biodivers. 80(1):249-258.

Vázquez-Luis, M., Guerra-García, J.M., Sanchez-Jerez, P., and Bayle-Sempere, J.T. 2009. Caprellid assemblages (Crustacea: Amphipoda) in shallow waters invaded by Caulerpa racemosa var. cylindracea from southeastern Spain. Helgoland Mar. Res. 63(2):107-117.

Vellak, A., Tuvi, E.L., Reier, Ü., Kalamees, R., Roosaluste, E., Zobel, M., and Pärtel, M. 2009. Past and present effectiveness of protected areas for conservation of naturally and anthropogenically rare plant species. Conserv. Biol. 23(3):750-757.

Venarsky, M.P., Anderson, F.E., and Wilhelm, F.M. 2009. Population genetic study of the U.S. federally listed Illinois cave amphipod, Gammarus acherondytes. Conserv. Genet. 10(4):915-921.

Vermeij, M.J.A., Smith, T.B., Dailer, M.L., and Smith, C.M. 2009. Release from native herbivores facilitates the persistence of invasive marine algae: a biogeographical comparison of the relative contribution of nutrients and herbivory to invasion success. Biol. Invasions 11(6):1463-1474.

Vieira, M.V., Olifiers, N., Delciellos, A.C., Antunes, V.Z., Bernardo, L.R., Grelle, C.E.V., and Cerqueira, R. 2009. Land use vs. fragment size and isolation as determinants of small mammal composition and richness in Atlantic Forest remnants. Biol. Conserv. 142(6):1191-1200.

Vieites, D.R., Wollenberg, K.C., Andreone, F., Köhler, J., Glaw, F., and Vences, M. 2009. Vast underestimation of Madagascar's biodiversity evidenced by an integrative amphibian inventory. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 106(20):8267-8272.

Visconti, P., and Elkin, C. 2009. Using connectivity metrics in conservation planning - when does habitat quality matter? Divers. Distrib. 15(4):602-612.

Walker, E., Byrne, M., Macdonald, B., Nicolle, D., and McComb, J. 2009. Clonality and hybrid origin of the rare Eucalyptus bennettiae (Myrtaceae) in Western Australia. Aust. J. Bot. 57(3):180-188.

Walker, R., Moore, N.J., Arima, E., Perz, S., Simmons, C., Caldas, M., Vergara, D., and Bohrer, C. 2009. Protecting the Amazon with protected areas. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 106(26):10582-10586.

Wallach, A.D., and O'Neill, A.J. 2009. Artificial water points: hotspots of extinction or biodiversity? Biol. Conserv. 142(7):1253-1254.

Ward-Fear, G., Brown, G.P., Greenlees, M.J., and Shine, R. 2009. Maladaptive traits in invasive species: in Australia, cane toads are more vulnerable to predatory ants than are native frogs. Funct. Ecol. 23(3):559-568.

Watson, J.T., Essington, T.E., Lennert-Cody, C.E., and Hall, M.A. 2009. Trade-offs in the design of fishery closures: management of silky shark bycatch in the eastern Pacific Ocean tuna fishery. Conserv. Biol. 23(3):626-635.

Watts, C., and Thornburrow, D. 2009. Where have all the weta gone? Results after two decades of transferring a threatened New Zealand giant weta, Deinacrida mahoenui. J. Insect Conserv. 13(3):287-295.

Whitehurst, A.S., Sexton, J.O., and Dollar, L. 2009. Land cover change in western Madagascar's dry deciduous forests: a comparison of forest changes in and around Kirindy Mite National Park. Oryx 43(2):275-283.

Wiens, J., Sutter, R., Anderson, M., Blanchard, J., Barnett, A., Aguilar-Amuchastegui, N., Avery, C., and Laine, S. 2009. Selecting and conserving lands for biodiversity: the role of remote sensing. Remote Sens. Environ. 113(7):1370-1381.

Wilcox, C., and Donlan, C.J. 2009. Need for a clear and fair evaluation of biodiversity offsets for fisheries bycatch. Conserv. Biol. 23(3):770-772.

Williams, A.J., Petersen, S.L., Goren, M., and Watkins, B.P. 2009. Sightings of killer whales Orcinus orca from longline vessels in South African waters, and consideration of the regional conservation status. Afr. J. Mar. Sci. 31(1):81-86.

Williams, P.H., and Osborne, J.L. 2009. Bumblebee vulnerability and conservation world-wide. Apidologie 40(3):367-387.

Williams, R., and Thomas, L. 2009. Cost-effective abundance estimation of rare animals: testing performance of small-boat surveys for killer whales in British Columbia. Biol. Conserv. 142(7):1542-1547.

Wilson, J.S., Messinger, O.J., and Griswold, T. 2009. Variation between bee communities on a sand dune complex in the Great Basin Desert, North America: implications for sand dune conservation. J. Arid Environ. 73(6-7):666-671.

Xu, J.C., Grumbine, R.E., Shrestha, A., Eriksson, M., Yang, X.F., Wang, Y., and Wilkes, A. 2009. The melting Himalayas: cascading effects of climate change on water, biodiversity, and livelihoods. Conserv. Biol. 23(3):520-530.

Yang, C.C.S., Shoemaker, D.D., Wu, J.C., Lin, Y.K., Lin, C.C., Wu, W.J., and Shih, C.J. 2009. Successful establishment of the invasive fire ant Solenopsis invicta in Taiwan: insights into interactions of alternate social forms. Divers. Distrib. 15(4):709-719.

Yatskievych, G., and Jiménez, J.L.C. 2009. A new genus of holoparasitic Orobanchaceae from Mexico. Novon 19(2):266-276.

Yonekura, R., Yamanaka, H., Ushimaru, A., Matsui, K., Uchii, K., and Maruyama, A. 2009. Allochthonous prey subsidies provide an asymmetric growth benefit to invasive bluegills over native cyprinids under the competitive conditions in a pond. Biol. Invasions 11(6):1347-1355.

Zaborsky, J.G. 2009. Hildegardia dauphinensis (Malvaceae, Sterculioideae): a new species from southeastern Madagascar. Adansonia 31(1):143-148.

Zavalaga, C.B., Hardesty, J., Mori, G.P., Chávez-Villavicencio, C., and Tello, A. 2009. Current status of Peruvian Terns Sternula lorata in Perú: threats, conservation and research priorities. Bird Conserv. Int. 19(2):175-186.

Zayed, A. 2009. Bee genetics and conservation. Apidologie 40(3):237-262.

Zhang, L.B., Zhu, G.J., Jones, G., and Zhang, S.Y. 2009. Conservation of bats in China: problems and recommendations. Oryx 43(2):179-182.

Zhang, X.M., Gao, L.M., Moller, M., and Li, D.Z. 2009. Molecular evidence for fragmentation among populations of Taxus wallichiana var. mairei, a highly endangered conifer in China. Can. J. Forest Res. 39(4):755-764.

Zhao, X.F., and Sun, W.B. 2009. Abnormalities in sexual development and pollinator limitation in Michelia coriacea (Magnoliaceae), a critically endangered endemic to Southeast Yunnan, China. Flora 204(6):463-470.

Zharikov, Y., and Milton, D.A. 2009. Valuing coastal habitats: predicting high-tide roosts of non-breeding migratory shorebirds from landscape composition. Emu 109(2):107-120.

Žydelis, R., Bellebaum, J., Österblom, H., Vetemaa, M., Schirmeister, B., Stipniece, A., Dagys, M., van Eerden, M., and Garthe, S. 2009. Bycatch in gillnet fisheries - an overlooked threat to waterbird populations. Biol. Conserv. 142(7):1269-1281.

Žydelis, R., Wallace, B.P., Gilman, E.L., and Werner, T.B. 2009. Conservation of marine megafauna through minimization of fisheries bycatch. Conserv. Biol. 23(3):608-616.


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