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Department ofBotany



No. 324
December 2011


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In This Issue


Marquesas Islands Yield New Threatened Species


New findings by researchers from the National Tropical Botanical Garden (David H. Lorence) and Smithsonian Institution (Warren L. Wagner), in collaboration with French IRD and French Polynesian researchers, have brought to light 18 new species and one new variety of ferns and flowering plants from the rugged Marquesas Islands. Since 1988, 62 new species have been described in conjunction with the Vascular Flora of the Marquesas Islands and the Flore de la Polynésie Française projects, representing a 20 percent increase in the known native flora. Ten precursor papers by the authors and collaborators describing the new species were published in an issue of the open access journal PhytoKeys.

According to Lorence, "Intensive field work has revealed that most of these new species are extremely rare and localized endemics, often confined to a single island. Many are known only from one or two localities harboring intact native vegetation that have so far escaped pressures from invasive plant species and feral animals. Consequently we assigned preliminary IUCN Red List ratings of Critically Endangered (13), Endangered (5), or Vulnerable (1) to these new species." Over 6,000 herbarium specimens collected by field botanists were pressed, dried, and distributed to collaborating institutions for study by botanical specialists. Ferns comprise an important element of the Marquesas flora, and 11 of the 18 new species are ferns. In addition, the botanists collected numerous new island records for native species and documented non-native, potentially weedy species that comprise about half of the islands' flora.

As this project clearly shows, the biodiversity of many tropical islands is still poorly documented and explored. Field work and biological inventories of this type are essential to enhance our knowledge of insular biodiversity and provide critical information for conservation of these organisms and their habitats. However, staffing and funding for this type of work are scarce. Results of this project are available on the Flora of the Marquesas Islands website <botany.si.edu/pacificislandbiodiversity/marquesasflora/index.htm>, which provides access to a database with species descriptions, photos, distribution, literature, specimens lists, and other information.


Current Literature


Adams, M., Wedderburn, S.D., Unmack, P.J., Hammer, M.P., and Johnson, J.B. 2011. Use of congeneric assessment to reveal the linked genetic histories of two threatened fishes in the Murray-Darling Basin, Australia. Conserv. Biol. 25(4):767-776.

Airoldi, L., and Bulleri, F. 2011. Anthropogenic disturbance can determine the magnitude of opportunistic species responses on marine urban infrastructures. PLoS ONE 6(8):e22985.

Andanje, S.A., Bowkett, A.E., Agwanda, B.R., Ngaruiya, G.W., Plowman, A.B., Wacher, T., and Amin, R. 2011. A new population of the Critically Endangered Aders' duiker Cephalophus adersi confirmed from northern coastal Kenya. Oryx 45(3):444-447.

Andersen, A.N., and Hoffmann, B.D. 2011. Conservation value of low fire frequency in tropical savannas: ants in monsoonal northern Australia. Austral Ecol. 36(5):497-503.

Arlettaz, R., Ligon, A., Sierro, A., Werner, P., Kéry, M., and Oggier, P.A. 2011. River bed restoration boosts habitat mosaics and the demography of two rare non-aquatic vertebrates. Biol. Conserv. 144(8):2126-2132.

Aslan, A., Kaska, Y., and Erdoǧan, A. 2011. The ornithological importance of Dalaman (Muǧla, Turkey) wetlands and threats to the bird population. Turk. J. Zool. 35(4):481-489.

Atickem, A., Loe, L.E., Langangen, Ø., Rueness, E.K., Bekele, A., and Stenseth, N.C. 2011. Estimating population size and habitat suitability for mountain nyala in areas with different protection status. Anim. Conserv. 14(4):409-418.

Auffret, A.G. 2011. Can seed dispersal by human activity play a useful role for the conservation of European grasslands? Appl. Veg. Sci. 14(3):291-303.

Austin, J.D., Jelks, H.L., Tate, B., Johnson, A.R., and Jordan, F. 2011. Population genetic structure and conservation genetics of threatened Okaloosa darters (Etheostoma okaloosae). Conserv. Genet. 12(4):981-989.

Baǧci, Y., Savran, A., Düşen, O.D., and Tutar, L. 2011. Ornithogalum beyazoglui (Hyacinthaceae), a new species from west Anatolia, Turkey. Bangladesh J. Plant Taxon. 18(1):51-55.

Balaguer, L., Arroyo-García, R., Jiménez, P., Jiménez, M.D., Villegas, L., Cordero, I., de Casas, R.R., Fernández-Delgado, R., Ron, M.E., Manrique, E., Vargas, P., Cano, E., Pueyo, J.J., and Aronson, J. 2011. Forest restoration in a fog oasis: evidence indicates need for cultural awareness in constructing the reference. PLoS ONE 6(8):e23004.

Bancroft, B.A., Han, B.A., Searle, C.L., Biga, L.M., Olson, D.H., Kats, L.B., Lawler, J.J., and Blaustein, A.R. 2011. Species-level correlates of susceptibility to the pathogenic amphibian fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis in the United States. Biodivers. Conserv. 20(9):1911-1920.

Barrabé, L., Mouly, A., and Munzinger, J. 2011. Two new species of Thiollierea (Rubiaceae) restricted to hypermagnesian soils of Boulinda massif (New Caledonia). Adansonia 33(1):135-148.

Bates, A.J., Sadler, J.P., Fairbrass, A.J., Falk, S.J., Hale, J.D., and Matthews, T.J. 2011. Changing bee and hoverfly pollinator assemblages along an urban-rural gradient. PLoS ONE 6(8):e23459.

Beasley, R.R., and McCarthy, B.C. 2011. Effects of Microstegium vimineum (Trin.) A. Camus (Japanese stiltgrass) on native hardwood survival and growth: implications for restoration. Nat. Areas J. 31(3):246-255.

Beck, J., Schwanghart, W., Khen, C.V., and Holloway, J.D. 2011. Predicting geometrid moth diversity in the Heart of Borneo. Insect Conserv. Divers. 4(3):173-183.

Bell, K.C., and Matocq, M.D. 2011. Regional genetic subdivision in the Mohave ground squirrel: evidence of historic isolation and ongoing connectivity in a Mojave Desert endemic. Anim. Conserv. 14(4):371-381.

Benavides, M.T., Feldheim, K.A., Duffy, C.A., Wintner, S., Braccini, J.M., Boomer, J., Huveneers, C., Rogers, P., Mangel, J.C., Alfaro-Shigueto, J., Cartamil, D.P., and Chapman, D.D. 2011. Phylogeography of the copper shark (Carcharhinus brachyurus) in the southern hemisphere: implications for the conservation of a coastal apex predator. Mar. Freshwater Res. 62(7):861-869.

Bergstrom, B.J. 2011. Endangered wolves fall prey to politics. Science 333(6046):1092.

Besaw, L.M., Thelen, G.C., Sutherland, S., Metlen, K., and Callaway, R.M. 2011. Disturbance, resource pulses and invasion: short-term shifts in competitive effects, not growth responses, favour exotic annuals. J. Appl. Ecol. 48(4):998-1006.

Bhuta, A.A.R., Hart, J.L., and Schneider, R.M. 2011. Forest vegetation and development patterns in secondary stands on the Alabama Highland Rim: an examination of the largest landholding in the region. Nat. Areas J. 31(3):256-269.

Bildstein, K.L. 2011. Counting the 'lost generation:' improving the accuracy of population assessments in birds. Anim. Conserv. 14(4):336-337.

Bittner, T., Jaeschke, A., Reineking, B., and Beierkuhnlein, C. 2011. Comparing modelling approaches at two levels of biological organisation - climate change impacts on selected Natura 2000 habitats. J. Veg. Sci. 22(4):699-710.

Boucher, Y., St-Laurent, M.H., and Grondin, P. 2011. Logging-induced edge and configuration of old-growth forest remnants in the eastern North American boreal forests. Nat. Areas J. 31(3):300-306.

Branch, T.A., Jensen, O.P., Ricard, D., Ye, Y.M., and Hilborn, R. 2011. Contrasting global trends in marine fishery status obtained from catches and from stock assessments. Conserv. Biol. 25(4):777-786.

Brauns, M., Gücker, B., Wagner, C., Garcia, X.F., Walz, N., and Pusch, M.T. 2011. Human lakeshore development alters the structure and trophic basis of littoral food webs. J. Appl. Ecol. 48(4):916-925.

Bried, J.T., and Hecht, J.A. 2011. Comparison of herbicide treatments to control native aspen encroachment in pine barrens. Nat. Areas J. 31(3):288-293.

Brodie, J.F., Muntifering, J., Hearn, M., Loutit, B., Loutit, R., Brell, B., Uri-Khob, S., Leader-Williams, N., and du Preez, P. 2011. Population recovery of black rhinoceros in north-west Namibia following poaching. Anim. Conserv. 14(4):354-362.

Broggi, M.F. 2011. The semi-aquatic herpetofauna of Serifos (Cyclades, Greece) including conservation aspects. Herpetozoa 24(1-2):13-22.

Brown, V.A., Brooke, A., Fordyce, J.A., and McCracken, G.F. 2011. Genetic analysis of populations of the threatened bat Pteropus mariannus. Conserv. Genet. 12(4):933-941.

Buerki, S., Phillipson, P.B., and Callmander, M.W. 2011. A taxonomic revision of Gouania (Rhamnaceae) in Madagascar and the other islands of the western Indian Ocean (the Comoro and Mascarene islands, and the Seychelles). Ann. Mo. Bot. Garden 98(2):157-195.

Burns, J.H., Ashman, T.L., Steets, J.A., Harmon-Threatt, A., and Knight, T.M. 2011. A phylogenetically controlled analysis of the roles of reproductive traits in plant invasions. Oecologia 166(4):1009-1017.

Callmander, M.W., Phillipson, P.B., Razanajatovo, M., and Nusbaumer, L. 2011. The genus Ophiocolea H. Perrier in northern Madagascar with description of four new species and two lectotypifications. Candollea 66(1):133-145.

Cardador, L., Carrete, M., and Mañosa, S. 2011. Can intensive agricultural landscapes favour some raptor species? The Marsh harrier in north-eastern Spain. Anim. Conserv. 14(4):382-390.

Carlsson, N.O.L., Bustamante, H., Strayer, D.L., and Pace, M.L. 2011. Biotic resistance on the increase: native predators structure invasive zebra mussel populations. Freshwater Biol. 56(8):1630-1637.

Chaparro, D.M., and Ticktin, T. 2011. Demographic effects of harvesting epiphytic bromeliads and an alternative approach to collection. Conserv. Biol. 25(4):797-807.

Chiarucci, A., Bacaro, G., and Scheiner, S.M. 2011. Old and new challenges in using species diversity for assessing biodiversity. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London. [Biol.] 366(1576):2426-2437.

Cianfrani, C., Le Lay, G., Maiorano, L., Satizábal, H.F., Loy, A., and Guisan, A. 2011. Adapting global conservation strategies to climate change at the European scale: the otter as a flagship species. Biol. Conserv. 144(8):2068-2080.

Cole, V.J., McQuaid, C.D., and Nakin, M.D.V. 2011. Marine protected areas export larvae of infauna, but not of bioengineering mussels to adjacent areas. Biol. Conserv. 144(8):2088-2096.

Collier, K.J. 2011. The rapid rise of streams and rivers in conservation assessment. Aquat. Conserv. 21(5):397-400.

Cordes, L.S., Duck, C.D., Mackey, B.L., Hall, A.J., and Thompson, P.M. 2011. Long-term patterns in harbour seal site-use and the consequences for managing protected areas. Anim. Conserv. 14(4):430-438.

Coudrat, C.N.Z., Rogers, L.D., and Nekaris, K.A.I. 2011. Abundance of primates reveals Samkos Wildlife Sanctuary, Cardamom Mountains, Cambodia as a priority area for conservation. Oryx 45(3):427-434.

Crawford, L.A., Desjardins, S., and Keyghobadi, N. 2011. Fine-scale genetic structure of an endangered population of the Mormon metalmark butterfly (Apodemia mormo) revealed using AFLPs. Conserv. Genet. 12(4):991-1001.

Crossman, N.D., Bryan, B.A., and Summers, D.M. 2011. Carbon payments and low-cost conservation. Conserv. Biol. 25(4):835-845.

Cubero-Pardo, P., Donovan, C., and Urbán-Ramírez, J. 2011. A proposal to define vulnerability of cetacean areas to human development: variables and analysis procedures applied to the Gulf of California. Aquat. Conserv. 21(5):433-447.

Cuthbert, R.J., Dave, R., Chakraborty, S.S., Kumar, S., Prakash, S., Ranade, S.P., and Prakash, V. 2011. Assessing the ongoing threat from veterinary non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs to Critically Endangered Gyps vultures in India. Oryx 45(3):420-426.

D'Antonio, C.M., Hughes, R.F., and Tunison, J.T. 2011. Long-term impacts of invasive grasses and subsequent fire in seasonally dry Hawaiian woodlands. Ecol. Appl. 21(5):1617-1628.

Dalle, S.P., Pulido, M.T., and de Blois, S. 2011. Balancing shifting cultivation and forest conservation: lessons from a "sustainable landscape" in southeastern Mexico. Ecol. Appl. 21(5):1557-1572.

Danko, Š., Chavko, J., Demeter, G., Mihok, J., Izakovič, J., Latková, H., Siryová, S., Noga, M., and Nemcek, V. 2011. Conservation of Eastern Imperial Eagle in the Slovak part of the Carpathian Basin - results of the EU LIFE-Nature Project (2003-2007). Acta Zool. Bulgar. Suppl. 3:71-78.

Davies, T.J., and Buckley, L.B. 2011. Phylogenetic diversity as a window into the evolutionary and biogeographic histories of present-day richness gradients for mammals. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London. [Biol.] 366(1576):2414-2425.

Demerdzhiev, D.A., Gradev, G.Z., Stoychev, S.A., Ivanov, I., Petrov, T.H., and Marin, S.A. 2011. Increase of the population of the Eastern Imperial Eagle (Aquila heliaca) in Bulgaria. Acta Zool. Bulgar. Suppl. 3:41-54.

Desroy, N., Dubois, S.F., Fournier, J., Ricquiers, L., Le Mao, P., Guerin, L., Gerla, D., Rougerie, M., and Legendre, A. 2011. The conservation status of Sabellaria alveolata (L.) (Polychaeta: Sabellariidae) reefs in the Bay of Mont-Saint-Michel. Aquat. Conserv. 21(5):462-471.

Donnelly, R.E., Katzner, T., Gordon, I.J., Gompper, M.E., Redpath, S., Garner, T.W.J., Altwegg, R., Reed, D.H., Acevedo-Whitehouse, K., and Pettorelli, N. 2011. Putting the eco back in ecotourism. Anim. Conserv. 14(4):325-327.

Downsborough, L., Shackleton, C.M., and Knight, A.T. 2011. The potential for voluntary instruments to achieve conservation planning goals: the case of conservancies in South Africa. Oryx 45(3):357-364.

Easton, J., Chao, N., Mulindahabi, F., Ntare, N., Rugyerinyange, L., and Ndikubwimana, I. 2011. Status and conservation of the only population of the Vulnerable owl-faced monkey Cercopithecus hamlyni in Rwanda. Oryx 45(3):435-438.

Echt, C.S., Demeer, D., and Gustafson, D. 2011. Patterns of differentiation among endangered pondberry populations. Conserv. Genet. 12(4):1015-1026.

Eichhorn, M.P., Ratliffe, L.C., and Pollard, K.M. 2011. Attraction of ants by an invasive Acacia. Insect Conserv. Divers. 4(3):235-238.

Ernst, R., Massemin, D., and Kowarik, I. 2011. Non-invasive invaders from the Caribbean: the status of Johnstone's Whistling frog (Eleutherodactylus johnstonei) ten years after its introduction to Western French Guiana. Biol. Invasions 13(8):1767-1777.

Fabiani, A., Trucchi, E., Rosa, S., Marquez, C., Snell, H.L., Snell, H.M., Aguilera, W.T., and Gentile, G. 2011. Conservation of Galapagos land iguanas: genetic monitoring and predictions of a long-term program on the island of Santa Cruz. Anim. Conserv. 14(4):419-429.

Farmer, J.R., Knapp, D., Meretsky, V.J., Chancellor, C., and Fischer, B.C. 2011. Motivations influencing the adoption of conservation easements. Conserv. Biol. 25(4):827-834.

Fenderson, L.E., Kovach, A.I., Litvaitis, J.A., and Litvaitis, M.K. 2011. Population genetic structure and history of fragmented remnant populations of the New England cottontail (Sylvilagus transitionalis). Conserv. Genet. 12(4):943-958.

Ferreira, P.M.A., and Boldrini, I. 2011. Potential reflection of distinct ecological units in plant endemism categories. Conserv. Biol. 25(4):672-679.

Fisher, B., Edwards, D.P., Giam, X.L., and Wilcove, D.S. 2011. The high costs of conserving Southeast Asia's lowland rainforests. Front. Ecol. Environ. 9(6):329-334.

Floren, A., Müller, T., Deeleman-Reinhold, C., and Linsenmair, K.E. 2011. Effects of forest fragmentation on canopy spider communities in SE-Asian rain forests. Ecotropica 17(1):15-26.

Foerster, S., Wilkie, D.S., Morelli, G.A., Demmer, J., Starkey, M., Telfer, P., and Stei, M. 2011. Human livelihoods and protected areas in Gabon: a cross-sectional comparison of welfare and consumption patterns. Oryx 45(3):347-356.

Foggi, B., Lastrucci, L., Viciani, D., Brunialti, G., and Benesperi, R. 2011. Long-term monitoring of an invasion process: the case of an isolated small wetland on a Mediterranean Island. Biologia 66(4):638-644.

Fournier, A. 2011. Consequences of wooded shrine rituals on vegetation conservation in West Africa: a case study from the Bwaba cultural area (West Burkina Faso). Biodivers. Conserv. 20(9):1895-1910.

Fox, R., Warren, M.S., Brereton, T.M., Roy, D.B., and Robinson, A. 2011. A new Red List of British butterflies. Insect Conserv. Divers. 4(3):159-172.

Freeman, E.W., Meyer, J.M., Putman, S., Schulte, B.A., and Brown, J.L. 2011. Using a simplified field progestagen method to assess ovarian activity in female African elephants. Biol. Conserv. 144(8):2105-2111.

Gabel, F., Pusch, M.T., Breyer, P., Burmester, V., Walz, N., and Garcia, X.F. 2011. Differential effect of wave stress on the physiology and behaviour of native versus non-native benthic invertebrates. Biol. Invasions 13(8):1843-1853.

Gaigher, R., Samways, M.J., Henwood, J., and Jolliffe, K. 2011. Impact of a mutualism between an invasive ant and honeydew-producing insects on a functionally important tree on a tropical island. Biol. Invasions 13(8):1717-1721.

Gardner, C.J. 2011. IUCN management categories fail to represent new, multiple-use protected areas in Madagascar. Oryx 45(3):336-346.

Georges, A., Fouillet, P., and Pétillon, J. 2011. Changes in salt-marsh carabid assemblages after an invasion by the native grass Elymus athericus (Link) Kerguélen. Zookeys 100:407-419.

Geyer, J., Kiefer, I., Kreft, S., Chavez, V., Salafsky, N., Jeltsch, F., and Ibisch, P.L. 2011. Classification of climate-change-induced stresses on biological diversity. Conserv. Biol. 25(4):708-715.

Gibson, L. 2011. Possible shift in macaque trophic level following a century of biodiversity loss in Singapore. Primates 52(3):217-220.

Giudice, G.E., Giacosa, J.P.R., Luna, M.L., Macluf, C., Ponce, M., Marquez, G., and De La Sota, E.R. 2011. Preliminary appraisal of threat degree of Ferns and Lycophyta from Argentina. Bol. Soc. Argent. Bot. 46(1-2):151-161.

González-Elizondo, M., González-Elizondo, M.S., Ruacho-González, L., and Molina-Olvera, M. 2011. Pinus maximartinezii Rzed. (Pinaceae), first record for Durango, second locality for the species. Acta Bot. Mex. 96:33-48.

Gordon, D.R., and Gantz, C.A. 2011. Risk assessment for invasiveness differs for aquatic and terrestrial plant species. Biol. Invasions 13(8):1829-1842.

Gore, M.L. 2011. The science of conservation crime. Conserv. Biol. 25(4):659-661.

Gorski, P., and Vana, J. 2011. Gymnomitrion adustum - a liverwort new to Slovakia and Poland found in the Tatra Mts (Western Carpathians). Cryptogamie Bryol. 32(3):279-284.

Goulson, D., Kaden, J.C., Lepais, O., Lye, G.C., and Darvill, B. 2011. Population structure, dispersal and colonization history of the garden bumblebee Bombus hortorum in the Western Isles of Scotland. Conserv. Genet. 12(4):867-879.

Green, S.J., Akins, J.L., and Côté, I.M. 2011. Foraging behaviour and prey consumption in the Indo-Pacific lionfish on Bahamian coral reefs. Mar. Ecol. Progr. Ser. 433:159-167.

Greenlaw, M.E., Roff, J.C., Redden, A.M., and Allard, K.A. 2011. Coastal zone planning: a geophysical classification of inlets to define ecological representation. Aquat. Conserv. 21(5):448-461.

Grubač, B., and Stojnič, N. 2011. Present status and conservation of Eastern Imperial Eagle (Aquila heliaca) in Serbia. Acta Zool. Bulgar. Suppl. 3:79-86.

Guixé, D., and Arroyo, B. 2011. Appropriateness of Special Protection Areas for wide-ranging species: the importance of scale and protecting foraging, not just nesting habitats. Anim. Conserv. 14(4):391-399.

Harvey, M.S., Rix, M.G., Framenau, V.W., Hamilton, Z.R., Johnson, M.S., Teale, R.J., Humphreys, G., and Humphreys, W.F. 2011. Protecting the innocent: studying short-range endemic taxa enhances conservation outcomes. Invertebr. Syst. 25(1):1-10.

Hautier, L., Martin, G.S., Callier, P., de Biseau, J.C., and Grégoire, J.C. 2011. Alkaloids provide evidence of intraguild predation on native coccinellids by Harmonia axyridis in the field. Biol. Invasions 13(8):1805-1814.

Heidel, B., Tronstad, L., and Handley, J. 2011. Flea beetle (Altica spp.) herbivory on a threatened plant, F.E. Warren Air Force Base, Wyoming. Nat. Areas J. 31(3):283-287.

Hickey, V., and Pimm, S.L. 2011. How the World Bank funds protected areas. Conserv. Lett. 4(4):269-277.

Hoang, V.S., Baas, P., Keßler, P.J.A., Slik, J.W.F., Ter Steege, H., and Raes, N. 2011. Human and environmental influences on plant diversity and composition in Ben En National Park, Vietnam. J. Trop. For. Sci. 23(3):328-337.

Höglund, J., Larsson, J.K., Corrales, C., Santafé, G., Baines, D., and Segelbacher, G. 2011. Genetic structure among black grouse in Britain: implications for designing conservation units. Anim. Conserv. 14(4):400-408.

Holland-Clift, S., O'Dowd, D.J., and Mac Nally, R. 2011. Impacts of an invasive willow (Salix x rubens) on riparian bird assemblages in south-eastern Australia. Austral Ecol. 36(5):511-520.

Hu, J.H., and Jiang, Z.G. 2011. Climate change hastens the conservation urgency of an endangered ungulate. PLoS ONE 6(8):e22873.

Huber, P.R., Thorne, J.H., Roth, N.E., and McCoy, M.M. 2011. Assessing ecological condition, vulnerability, and restorability of a conservation network under alternative urban growth policies. Nat. Areas J. 31(3):234-245.

Hudina, S., Galić, N., Roessink, I., and Hock, K. 2011. Competitive interactions between co-occurring invaders: identifying asymmetries between two invasive crayfish species. Biol. Invasions 13(8):1791-1803.

Hwang, A.S., Northrup, S.L., Alexander, J.K., Vo, K.T., and Edmands, S. 2011. Long-term experimental hybrid swarms between moderately incompatible Tigriopus californicus populations: hybrid inferiority in early generations yields to hybrid superiority in later generations. Conserv. Genet. 12(4):895-909.

Igoe, J. 2011. Rereading conservation critique: a response to Redford. Oryx 45(3):333-334.

Innis, A.F., Forseth, I.N., Whigham, D.F., and McCormick, M.K. 2011. Genetic diversity in the invasive Rubus phoenicolasius as compared to the native Rubus argutus using inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers. Biol. Invasions 13(8):1735-1738.

Irfanullah, H.M. 2011. Conserving threatened plants of Bangladesh: miles to go before we start? Bangladesh J. Plant Taxon. 18(1):81-91.

Işik, K. 2011. Rare and endemic species: why are they prone to extinction? Turk. J. Bot. 35(4):411-417.

Jachowski, D.S., Millspaugh, J.J., Biggins, D.E., Livieri, T.M., Matchett, M.R., and Rittenhouse, C.D. 2011. Resource selection by black-footed ferrets in South Dakota and Montana. Nat. Areas J. 31(3):218-225.

Johnson, J.A. 2011. More than meets the eye: importance of recognizing life history and population structure in monitoring populations. Anim. Conserv. 14(4):333-335.

Jolly, M.T., Maitland, P.S., and Genner, M.J. 2011. Genetic monitoring of two decades of hybridization between allis shad (Alosa alosa) and twaite shad (Alosa fallax). Conserv. Genet. 12(4):1087-1100.

Jones, J.M., and Gibson, J.P. 2011. Population genetic diversity and structure within and among disjunct populations of Alnus maritima (seaside alder) using microsatellites. Conserv. Genet. 12(4):1003-1013.

Joppa, L.N., Roberts, D.L., Myers, N., and Pimm, S.L. 2011. Biodiversity hotspots house most undiscovered plant species. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 108(32):13171-13176.

Jordaan, L.A., Johnson, S.D., and Downs, C.T. 2011. The role of avian frugivores in germination of seeds of fleshy-fruited invasive alien plants. Biol. Invasions 13(8):1917-1930.

Kanapaux, W., and Child, B. 2011. Livelihood activities in a Namibian wildlife conservancy: a case study of variation within a CBNRM programme. Oryx 45(3):365-372.

Karlson, A.M.L., Näslund, J., Rydén, S.B., and Elmgren, R. 2011. Polychaete invader enhances resource utilization in a species-poor system. Oecologia 166(4):1055-1065.

Karsten, M., van Vuuren, B.J., Goodman, P., and Barnaud, A. 2011. The history and management of black rhino in KwaZulu-Natal: a population genetic approach to assess the past and guide the future. Anim. Conserv. 14(4):363-370.

Katzner, T.E., Ivy, J.A.R., Bragin, E.A., Milner-Gulland, E.J., and DeWoody, J.A. 2011. Conservation implications of inaccurate estimation of cryptic population size. Anim. Conserv. 14(4):328-332.

Katzner, T.E., Ivy, J.A.R., Bragin, E.A., Milner-Gulland, E.J., and DeWoody, J.A. 2011. Cryptic population size and conservation: consequences of making the unknown known. Anim. Conserv. 14(4):340-341.

Kaufman, L.V., and Wright, M.G. 2011. Ecological correlates of the non-indigenous parasitoid assemblage associated with a Hawaiian endemic moth. Oecologia 166(4):1087-1098.

Knapp, L., Mincarone, M.M., Harwell, H., Polidoro, B., Sanciangco, J., and Carpenter, K. 2011. Conservation status of the world's hagfish species and the loss of phylogenetic diversity and ecosystem function. Aquat. Conserv. 21(5):401-411.

Koivula, M.J. 2011. Useful model organisms, indicators, or both? Ground beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae) reflecting environmental conditions. Zookeys 100:287-317.

Koopman, M.M. 2011. A synopsis of the Malagasy endemic genus Megistostegium Hochr. (Hibisceae, Malvaceae). Adansonia 33(1):101-113.

Kotze, D.J., Brandmayr, P., Casale, A., Dauffy-Richard, E., Dekoninck, W., Koivula, M.J., Lövei, G.L., Mossakowski, D., Noordijk, J., Paarmann, W., Pizzolotto, R., Saska, P., Schwerk, A., Serrano, J., Szyszko, J., Taboada, A., Turin, H., Venn, S., Vermeulen, R., and Zetto, T. 2011. Forty years of carabid beetle research in Europe - from taxonomy, biology, ecology and population studies to bioindication, habitat assessment and conservation. Zookeys 100:55-148.

Koutika, L.S., Rainey, H.J., and Dassonville, N. 2011. Impacts of Solidago gigantea, Prunus serotina, Heracleum mantegazzianum and Fallopia japonica invasions on the ecosystems. Appl. Ecol. Env. Res. 9(1):73-83.

Kumar, R., Radhakrishna, S., and Sinha, A. 2011. Of least concern? Range extension by rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) threatens long-term survival of bonnet macaques (M. radiata) in peninsular India. Int. J. Primatol. 32(4):945-959.

Lavoie, M., Kobziar, L., Long, A., and Hainds, M. 2011. Problems and needs for restorationists of longleaf pine ecosystems: a survey. Nat. Areas J. 31(3):294-299.

Lees, D.C., Lack, H.W., Rougerie, R., Hernandez-Lopez, A., Raus, T., Avtzis, N.D., Augustin, S., and Lopez-Vaamonde, C. 2011. Tracking origins of invasive herbivores through herbaria and archival DNA: the case of the horse-chestnut leaf miner. Front. Ecol. Environ. 9(6):322-328.

Leidner, A.K., and Neel, M.C. 2011. Taxonomic and geographic patterns of decline for threatened and endangered species in the United States. Conserv. Biol. 25(4):716-725.

Leidy, R.A., Cervantes-Yoshida, K., and Carlson, S.M. 2011. Persistence of native fishes in small streams of the urbanized San Francisco Estuary, California: acknowledging the role of urban streams in native fish conservation. Aquat. Conserv. 21(5):472-483.

Lele, S. 2011. Rereading the interdisciplinary mindscape: a response to Redford. Oryx 45(3):331-332.

Lesser, M.P., and Slattery, M. 2011. Phase shift to algal dominated communities at mesophotic depths associated with lionfish (Pterois volitans) invasion on a Bahamian coral reef. Biol. Invasions 13(8):1855-1868.

Lloyd, J.D., and Slater, G.L. 2011. Influence of fire and water regimes on pineland bird assemblages. Nat. Areas J. 31(3):270-282.

Lorence, D., and Butaud, J.-F. 2011. A reassessment of Marquesan Ochrosia and Rauvolfia (Apocynaceae) with two new combinations. PhytoKeys 4:95-107.

Lorence, D., and Wagner, W. 2011. Oxalis simplicifolia (Oxalidaceae), an unusual new unifoliolate species from the Marquesas Islands (French Polynesia). PhytoKeys 4:53-60.

Lorence, D., and Wagner, W. 2011. Revision of Kadua (Rubiaceae) in the Marquesas Islands, French Polynesia, with description of the new species K. lichtlei. PhytoKeys 4:125-138.

Lorence, D., and Wagner, W. 2011. Weinmannia marquesana var. angustifolia (Cunoniaceae), a new variety from the Marquesas Islands. PhytoKeys 4:61-66.

Lorence, D., Wagner, W., Wood, K., and Smith, A. 2011. New pteridophyte species and combinations from the Marquesas Islands, French Polynesia. PhytoKeys 4:5-51.

Loxterman, J.L. 2011. Fine scale population genetic structure of pumas in the Intermountain West. Conserv. Genet. 12(4):1049-1059.

Luck, G.W., Davidson, P., Boxall, D., and Smallbone, L. 2011. Relations between urban bird and plant communities and human well-being and connection to nature. Conserv. Biol. 25(4):816-826.

Luikart, G., Amish, S.J., Winnie, J., Beja-Pereira, A., Godinho, R., Allendorf, F.W., and Harris, R.B. 2011. High connectivity among argali sheep from Afghanistan and adjacent countries: inferences from neutral and candidate gene microsatellites. Conserv. Genet. 12(4):921-931.

Luquet, E., Vorburger, C., Hervant, F., Joly, P., Kaufmann, B., Schmeller, D.S., Léna, J.P., Grolet, O., Konecny, L., and Plénet, S. 2011. Invasiveness of an introduced species: the role of hybridization and ecological constraints. Biol. Invasions 13(8):1901-1915.

Mallet, J., Wynne, I.R., and Thomas, C.D. 2011. Hybridisation and climate change: brown argus butterflies in Britain (Polyommatus subgenus Aricia). Insect Conserv. Divers. 4(3):192-199.

Mandle, L., Bufford, J.L., Schmidt, I.B., and Daehler, C.C. 2011. Woody exotic plant invasions and fire: reciprocal impacts and consequences for native ecosystems. Biol. Invasions 13(8):1815-1827.

Manning, J.C., Mannheimer, C., and Goldblatt, P. 2011. Back from the brink: Gladiolus halophila (Iridaceae: Crocoideae), a remarkable new species from southern Namibia escapes imminent extinction. S. Afr. J. Bot. 77(3):790-794.

Maranto, C.J., Parrish, J.K., Herman, D.P., Punt, A.E., Olden, J.D., Brett, M.T., and Roby, D.D. 2011. Use of fatty acid analysis to determine dispersal of Caspian Terns in the Columbia River Basin, U.S.A. Conserv. Biol. 25(4):736-746.

Martínez-Abraín, A., Regan, H.M., Viedma, C., Villuendas, E., Bartolomé, M.A., Gómez, J.A., and Oro, D. 2011. Cost-effectiveness of translocation options for a threatened waterbird. Conserv. Biol. 25(4):726-735.

Matern, A., Drees, C., Härdtle, W., von Oheimb, G., and Assmann, T. 2011. Historical ecology meets conservation and evolutionary genetics: a secondary contact zone between Carabus violaceus (Coleoptera, Carabidae) populations inhabiting ancient and recent woodlands in north-western Germany. Zookeys 100:545-563.

Mateus, C.S., Almeida, P.R., Quintella, B.R., and Alves, M.J. 2011. MtDNA markers reveal the existence of allopatric evolutionary lineages in the threatened lampreys Lampetra fluviatilis (L.) and Lampetra planeri (Bloch) in the Iberian glacial refugium. Conserv. Genet. 12(4):1061-1074.

Matlack, G.R., and Schaub, J.R. 2011. Long-term persistence and spatial assortment of nonnative plant species in second-growth forests. Ecography 34(4):649-658.

Matsuzaki, S.S., Terui, A., Kodama, K., Tada, M., Yoshida, T., and Washitani, I. 2011. Influence of connectivity, habitat quality and invasive species on egg and larval distributions and local abundance of crucian carp in Japanese agricultural landscapes. Biol. Conserv. 144(8):2081-2087.

Meeus, I., Brown, M.J.F., De Graaf, D.C., and Smagghe, G. 2011. Effects of invasive parasites on bumble bee declines. Conserv. Biol. 25(4):662-671.

Milder, J.C., and Clark, S. 2011. Conservation development practices, extent, and land-use effects in the United States. Conserv. Biol. 25(4):697-707.

Mirimin, L., Miller, R., Dillane, E., Berrow, S.D., Ingram, S., Cross, T.F., and Rogan, E. 2011. Fine-scale population genetic structuring of bottlenose dolphins in Irish coastal waters. Anim. Conserv. 14(4):342-353.

Mittelhauser, J.R., Barnes, P.W., and Barnes, T.G. 2011. The effect of herbicide on the re-establishment of native grasses in the Blackland Prairie. Nat. Areas J. 31(3):226-233.

Mockrin, M.H., and Redford, K.H. 2011. Potential for spatial management of hunted mammal populations in tropical forests. Conserv. Lett. 4(4):255-263.

Moilanen, A., Anderson, B.J., Eigenbrod, F., Heinemeyer, A., Roy, D.B., Gillings, S., Armsworth, P.R., Gaston, K.J., and Thomas, C.D. 2011. Balancing alternative land uses in conservation prioritization. Ecol. Appl. 21(5):1419-1426.

Moir, M.L., Vesk, P.A., Brennan, K.E.C., Keith, D.A., McCarthy, M.A., and Hughes, L. 2011. Identifying and managing threatened invertebrates through assessment of coextinction risk. Conserv. Biol. 25(4):787-796.

Moreno-Opo, R., Fernández-Olalla, M., Guil, F., Arredondo, Á., Higuero, R., Martín, M., Soria, C., and Guzmán, J. 2011. The role of ponds as feeding habitat for an umbrella species: best management practices for the black stork Ciconia nigra in Spain. Oryx 45(3):448-455.

Muths, E., Scherer, R.D., and Pilliod, D.S. 2011. Compensatory effects of recruitment and survival when amphibian populations are perturbed by disease. J. Appl. Ecol. 48(4):873-879.

Naim, D.M., Telfer, S., Sanderson, S., Kemp, S.J., and Watts, P.C. 2011. Prevalence of multiple mating by female common dormice, Muscardinus avellanarius. Conserv. Genet. 12(4):971-979.

Negro, J.J. 2011. The ghost fraction of populations: a taxon-dependent problem. Anim. Conserv. 14(4):338-339.

Neiff, J.J., Casco, S.L., Cózar, A., de Neiff, A.S.G.P., and Ubeda, B. 2011. Vegetation diversity in a large Neotropical wetland during two different climatic scenarios. Biodivers. Conserv. 20(9):2007-2025.

Newton, A.C. 2011. Implications of Goodhart's Law for monitoring global biodiversity loss. Conserv. Lett. 4(4):264-268.

Nourisson, C., Morales-Vela, B., Padilla-Saldívar, J., Tucker, K.P., Clark, A., Olivera-Gómez, L.D., Bonde, R., and McGuire, P. 2011. Evidence of two genetic clusters of manatees with low genetic diversity in Mexico and implications for their conservation. Genetica 139(7):833-842.

Olson, K.A., Mueller, T., Kerby, J.T., Bolortsetseg, S., Leimgruber, P., Nicolson, C.R., and Fuller, T.K. 2011. Death by a thousand huts? Effects of household presence on density and distribution of Mongolian gazelles. Conserv. Lett. 4(4):304-312.

Osti, M., Coad, L., Fisher, J.B., Bomhard, B., and Hutton, J.M. 2011. Oil and gas development in the World Heritage and wider protected area network in sub-Saharan Africa. Biodivers. Conserv. 20(9):1863-1877.

Pakanen, V.M., Luukkonen, A., and Koivula, K. 2011. Nest predation and trampling as management risks in grazed coastal meadows. Biodivers. Conserv. 20(9):2057-2073.

Pasquini, L., Fitzsimons, J.A., Cowell, S., Brandon, K., and Wescott, G. 2011. The establishment of large private nature reserves by conservation NGOs: key factors for successful implementation. Oryx 45(3):373-380.

Peral, A.T., García-Barrios, L., and Casalduero, A.G. 2011. Agriculture and conservation in Latin America in the 21st century: shall we celebrate the 'forest transition' or actively build the 'nature matrix'. Interciencia 36(7):500-507.

Peters, V.E., and Nibbelink, N. 2011. The value of fruit security for the conservation of a neotropical frugivore in human-dominated landscapes. Biodivers. Conserv. 20(9):2041-2055.

Pickering, C.M., Mount, A., Wichmann, M.C., and Bullock, J.M. 2011. Estimating human-mediated dispersal of seeds within an Australian protected area. Biol. Invasions 13(8):1869-1880.

Pilgrim, J.D., Eberhardt, K., Eames, J.C., Vorsak, B., and Anh, P.T. 2011. A review of lessons learned from a Local Conservation Group approach in Indochina. Oryx 45(3):381-390.

Pompa, S., Ehrlich, P.R., and Ceballos, G. 2011. Global distribution and conservation of marine mammals. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 108(33):13600-13605.

Printes, R.C., Rylands, A.B., and Bicca-Marques, J.C. 2011. Distribution and status of the Critically Endangered blond titi monkey Callicebus barbarabrownae of north-east Brazil. Oryx 45(3):439-443.

Radhakrishnan, K.V., Lan, Z.J., Zhao, J., Qing, N., and Huang, X.L. 2011. Invasion of the African sharp-tooth catfish Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822) in South China. Biol. Invasions 13(8):1723-1727.

Rahman, M.L., Tarrant, S., McCollin, D., and Ollerton, J. 2011. The conservation value of restored landfill sites in the East Midlands, UK for supporting bird communities. Biodivers. Conserv. 20(9):1879-1893.

Ranius, T., Johansson, V., and Fahrig, L. 2011. Predicting spatial occurrence of beetles and pseudoscorpions in hollow oaks in southeastern Sweden. Biodivers. Conserv. 20(9):2027-2040.

Redford, K.H. 2011. Crabs and kairos: a reply to Lele and Igoe. Oryx 45(3):335-335.

Redford, K.H. 2011. Misreading the conservation landscape. Oryx 45(3):324-330.

Říčanová, Š., Bryja, J., Cosson, J.F., Csongor, G., Choleva, L., Ambros, M., and Sedláček, F. 2011. Depleted genetic variation of the European ground squirrel in Central Europe in both microsatellites and the major histocompatibility complex gene: implications for conservation. Conserv. Genet. 12(4):1115-1129.

Rivera-Ingraham, G.A., Espinosa, F., and García-Gómez, J.C. 2011. Conservation status and updated census of Patella ferruginea (Gastropoda, Patellidae) in Ceuta: distribution patterns and new evidence of the effects of environmental parameters on population structure. Anim. Biodivers. Conserv. 34(1):83-99.

Roberts, D.G., Baker, J., and Perrin, C. 2011. Population genetic structure of the endangered Eastern Bristlebird, Dasyornis brachypterus; implications for conservation. Conserv. Genet. 12(4):1075-1085.

Robinson, J.G. 2011. Corporate greening: is it significant for biodiversity conservation? Oryx 45(3):309-310.

Rogers, D.S., Leite, R.N., and Reed, R.J. 2011. Molecular phylogenetics of an endangered species: the Tamaulipan woodrat (Neotoma angustapalata). Conserv. Genet. 12(4):1035-1048.

Rosa, I.L., Oliveira, T.P.R., Osório, F.M., Moraes, L.E., Castro, A.L.C., Barros, G.M.L., and Alves, R.R.N. 2011. Fisheries and trade of seahorses in Brazil: historical perspective, current trends, and future directions. Biodivers. Conserv. 20(9):1951-1971.

Rupprecht, F., Oldeland, J., and Finckh, M. 2011. Modelling potential distribution of the threatened tree species Juniperus oxycedrus: how to evaluate the predictions of different modelling approaches? J. Veg. Sci. 22(4):647-659.

Ryabtsev, V.V. 2011. Easternmost Eastern Imperial Eagle population in crisis. Acta Zool. Bulgar. Suppl. 3:29-36.

Saiter, F.Z., Guilherme, F.A.G., Thomaz, L.D., and Wendt, T. 2011. Tree changes in a mature rainforest with high diversity and endemism on the Brazilian coast. Biodivers. Conserv. 20(9):1921-1949.

Saltonstall, K. 2011. Remnant native Phragmites australis maintains genetic diversity despite multiple threats. Conserv. Genet. 12(4):1027-1033.

Sarker, A.H.M.R., and Røskaft, E. 2011. Human attitudes towards the conservation of protected areas: a case study from four protected areas in Bangladesh. Oryx 45(3):391-400.

Schierding, M., Vahder, S., Dau, L., and Irmler, U. 2011. Impacts on biodiversity at Baltic Sea beaches. Biodivers. Conserv. 20(9):1973-1985.

Schneider, R.R., Hauer, G., Farr, D., Adamowicz, W.L., and Boutin, S. 2011. Achieving conservation when opportunity costs are high: optimizing reserve design in Alberta's oil sands region. PLoS ONE 6(8):e23254.

Scholte, P., Al-Okaishi, A., and Suleyman, A.S. 2011. When conservation precedes development: a case study of the opening up of the Socotra archipelago, Yemen. Oryx 45(3):401-410.

Schwalb, A.N., Cottenie, K., Poos, M.S., and Ackerman, J.D. 2011. Dispersal limitation of unionid mussels and implications for their conservation. Freshwater Biol. 56(8):1509-1518.

Serrouya, R., McLellan, B.N., Boutin, S., Seip, D.R., and Nielsen, S.E. 2011. Developing a population target for an overabundant ungulate for ecosystem restoration. J. Appl. Ecol. 48(4):935-942.

Severns, P.M. 2011. Habitat restoration facilitates an ecological trap for a locally rare, wetland-restricted butterfly. Insect Conserv. Divers. 4(3):184-191.

Severns, P.M., Liston, A., and Wilson, M.V. 2011. Habitat fragmentation, genetic diversity, and inbreeding depression in a threatened grassland legume: is genetic rescue necessary? Conserv. Genet. 12(4):881-893.

Sewall, B.J., Freestone, A.L., Moutui, M.F.E., Toilibou, N., Saïd, I., Toumani, S.M., Attoumane, D., and Iboura, C.M. 2011. Reorienting systematic conservation assessment for effective conservation planning. Conserv. Biol. 25(4):688-696.

Shanee, S., and Shanee, N. 2011. Population density estimates of the critically endangered yellow-tailed woolly monkeys (Oreonax flavicauda) at La Esperanza, Northeastern Peru. Int. J. Primatol. 32(4):878-888.

Sharp, R.L., Larson, L.R., and Green, G.T. 2011. Factors influencing public preferences for invasive alien species management. Biol. Conserv. 144(8):2097-2104.

Sievanen, L., Leslie, H.M., Wondolleck, J.M., Yaffee, S.L., McLeod, K.L., and Campbell, L.M. 2011. Linking top-down and bottom-up processes through the new U.S. National Ocean Policy. Conserv. Lett. 4(4):298-303.

Silva-Rodríguez, E.A., and Sieving, K.E. 2011. Influence of care of domestic carnivores on their predation on vertebrates. Conserv. Biol. 25(4):808-815.

Simonetti, J.A. 2011. Conservation biology in Chile: are we fulfilling our social contract? Rev. Chil. Hist. Nat. 84(2):161-170.

Snow, N. 2011. Studies of Malagasy Eugenia (Myrtaceae) - II: four new species, including one eaten by black lemurs on Nosy Be. Syst. Bot. 36(3):677-689.

Sparks, T.H., Butchart, S.H.M., Balmford, A., Bennun, L., Stanwell-Smith, D., Walpole, M., Bates, N.R., Bomhard, B., Buchanan, G.M., Chenery, A.M., Collen, B., Csirke, J., Diaz, R.J., Dulvy, N.K., Fitzgerald, C., Kapos, V., Mayaux, P., Tierney, M., Waycott, M., Wood, L., and Green, R.E. 2011. Linked indicator sets for addressing biodiversity loss. Oryx 45(3):411-419.

Spellman, B.T., and Wurtz, T.L. 2011. Invasive sweetclover (Melilotus alba) impacts native seedling recruitment along floodplains of interior Alaska. Biol. Invasions 13(8):1779-1790.

Stanković, V.M., Koren, T., and Stanković, I. 2011. The Harlequin ladybird continues to invade southeastern Europe. Biol. Invasions 13(8):1711-1716.

Stewart, K.R., and Dutton, P.H. 2011. Paternal genotype reconstruction reveals multiple paternity and sex ratios in a breeding population of leatherback turtles (Dermochelys coriacea). Conserv. Genet. 12(4):1101-1113.

Stiegel, S., Kessler, M., Getto, D., Thonhofer, J., and Siebert, S.F. 2011. Elevational patterns of species richness and density of rattan palms (Arecaceae: Calamoideae) in Central Sulawesi, Indonesia. Biodivers. Conserv. 20(9):1987-2005.

Strubbe, D., Shwartz, A., and Chiron, F. 2011. Concerns regarding the scientific evidence informing impact risk assessment and management recommendations for invasive birds. Biol. Conserv. 144(8):2112-2118.

Suzana, M., Lutfi, A.M., Hadi, A.A., Devakie, M.N., and Azizah, M.N.S. 2011. Genetic variation in Malaysian oysters: taxonomic ambiguities and evidence of biological invasion. Biol. Invasions 13(8):1893-1900.

Swaty, R., Blankenship, K., Hagen, S., Fargione, J., Smith, J., and Patton, J. 2011. Accounting for ecosystem alteration doubles estimates of conservation risk in the conterminous United States. PLoS ONE 6(8):e23002.

Szabó, P., and Hédl, R. 2011. Advancing the integration of history and ecology for conservation. Conserv. Biol. 25(4):680-687.

Szövényi, G., and Jelić, D. 2011. Distribution and conservation status of snake eyed skink (Ablepharus kitaibelii Bibron & Bory, 1833) in Croatia. North-West. J. Zool. 7(1):20-25.

Teale, C.L. 2011. A revised account of initial mute swan (Cygnus olor) introductions to the northeastern United States. Biol. Invasions 13(8):1729-1733.

Terauds, A., Chown, S.L., and Bergstrom, D.M. 2011. Spatial scale and species identity influence the indigenous-alien diversity relationship in springtails. Ecology 92(7):1436-1447.

Thomaz, S.M., and Michelan, T.S. 2011. Associations between a highly invasive species and native macrophytes differ across spatial scales. Biol. Invasions 13(8):1881-1891.

Timonen, J., Gustafsson, L., Kotiaho, J.S., and Mönkkönen, M. 2011. Hotspots in cold climate: conservation value of woodland key habitats in boreal forests. Biol. Conserv. 144(8):2061-2067.

Tracy, L.N., Wallis, G.P., Efford, M.G., and Jamieson, I.G. 2011. Preserving genetic diversity in threatened species reintroductions: how many individuals should be released? Anim. Conserv. 14(4):439-446.

Treves, A., and Bruskotter, J.T. 2011. Gray wolf conservation at a crossroads. BioScience 61(8):584-585.

Tronchet, F., and Lowry II, P. 2011. A new species of Meryta (Araliaceae) from the Marquesas Archipelago, French Polynesia. PhytoKeys 4:149-156.

Trovó, M., and Sano, P.T. 2011. Five new and narrowly distributed species of Paepalanthus section Diphyomene (Eriocaulaceae) from central Brazil. Syst. Bot. 36(3):610-620.

Tuft, K.D., Crowther, M.S., Connell, K., Müller, S., and McArthur, C. 2011. Predation risk and competitive interactions affect foraging of an endangered refuge-dependent herbivore. Anim. Conserv. 14(4):447-457.

Tuomainen, U., and Candolin, U. 2011. Behavioural responses to human-induced environmental change. Biol. Rev. 86(3):640-657.

van der Ploeg, J., Cauilan-Cureg, M., van Weerd, M., and De Groot, W.T. 2011. Assessing the effectiveness of environmental education: mobilizing public support for Philippine crocodile conservation. Conserv. Lett. 4(4):313-323.

Vance-Borland, K., and Holley, J. 2011. Conservation stakeholder network mapping, analysis, and weaving. Conserv. Lett. 4(4):278-288.

Wagner, W., and Lorence, D. 2011. Revision of Coprosma (Rubiaceae, tribe Anthospermeae) in the Marquesas Islands. PhytoKeys 4:109-124.

Wagner, W., and Lorence, D. 2011. Two new Marquesan species of the southeastern Polynesian genus Oparanthus (Asteraceae, Coreopsidinae). PhytoKeys 4:139-148.

Wang, I.J., Johnson, J.R., Johnson, B.B., and Shaffer, H.B. 2011. Effective population size is strongly correlated with breeding pond size in the endangered California tiger salamander, Ambystoma californiense. Conserv. Genet. 12(4):911-920.

Wang, R., Wang, J.F., Qiu, Z.J., Meng, B., Wan, F.H., and Wang, Y.Z. 2011. Multiple mechanisms underlie rapid expansion of an invasive alien plant. New Phytol. 191(3):828-839.

White, L.F., and Shurin, J.B. 2011. Density dependent effects of an exotic marine macroalga on native community diversity. J. Exp. Marine Biol. Ecol. 405(1-2):111-119.

Wiens, J.A., Seavy, N.E., and Jongsomjit, D. 2011. Protected areas in climate space: what will the future bring? Biol. Conserv. 144(8):2119-2125.

Wilson, H.B., Kendall, B.E., Fuller, R.A., Milton, D.A., and Possingham, H.P. 2011. Analyzing variability and the rate of decline of migratory shorebirds in Moreton Bay, Australia. Conserv. Biol. 25(4):758-766.

Wilson, H.B., Kendall, B.E., and Possingham, H.P. 2011. Variability in population abundance and the classification of extinction risk. Conserv. Biol. 25(4):747-757.

Winder, M., Jassby, A.D., and Mac Nally, R. 2011. Synergies between climate anomalies and hydrological modifications facilitate estuarine biotic invasions. Ecol. Lett. 14(8):749-757.

Witzenberger, K.A., and Hochkirch, A. 2011. Ex situ conservation genetics: a review of molecular studies on the genetic consequences of captive breeding programmes for endangered animal species. Biodivers. Conserv. 20(9):1843-1861.

Woodford, D.J., Cochrane, T.A., McHugh, P.A., and McIntosh, A.R. 2011. Modelling spatial exclusion of a vulnerable native fish by introduced trout in rivers using landscape features: a new tool for conservation management. Aquat. Conserv. 21(5):484-493.

Zaiko, A., Lehtiniemi, M., Narščius, A., and Olenin, S. 2011. Assessment of bioinvasion impacts on a regional scale: a comparative approach. Biol. Invasions 13(8):1739-1765.

Zhan, Q.Q., Wang, J.F., Gong, X., and Peng, H. 2011. Patterns of chloroplast DNA variation in Cycas debaoensis (Cycadaceae): conservation implications. Conserv. Genet. 12(4):959-970.

Ziegler, A.D., Fox, J.M., Webb, E.L., Padoch, C., Leisz, S.J., Cramb, R.A., Mertz, O., Bruun, T.B., and Vien, T.D. 2011. Recognizing contemporary roles of swidden agriculture in transforming landscapes of Southeast Asia. Conserv. Biol. 25(4):846-848.


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