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Department ofBotany



No. 351
March 2014


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In This Issue


Partnership Highlights Progress on Global Plant Conservation Strategy


In 2002, the Global Strategy for Plant Conservation (GSPC) was adopted at the 6th Conference of the Parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity. The most innovative element of the GSPC is the inclusion of 16 outcome-oriented targets aimed at achieving a series of measurable goals by the year 2010. Even though many of the targets were not achieved, the GSPC was successful in bringing together international collaboration and at organizing action from a variety of sectors. One outcome was the organization of the Global Partnership for Plant Conservation (GPPC), a group that counts the Smithsonian's National Museum of Natural History as a member. The GPPC supports the worldwide implementation of the GSPC.

In 2010, the 10th Conference of the Parties to the CBD adopted the Updated GSPC 2011-2020. The Strategy was revised by strengthening the language and making the goals even more ambitious. The GPPC had their second conference in July 2011, in St. Louis, Missouri. The meeting was designed to showcase examples of GSPC implementation during the period 2002-2010, and to provide support for national and regional GSPC implementation as it enters the new phase. Proceedings from the GPPC conference were recently published by the Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden (Volume 99, Number 2; 2013).

Staff from the Smithsonian Institution contributed to two of the 14 articles of the published proceedings. Conservation concerns related to the native orchids of the United States and Canada are addressed in "The status and future of orchid conservation in North America" (Ann. Mo. Bot. Gard. 99: 180-198), written by Gary Krupnick (National Museum of Natural History), Melissa McCormick (Smithsonian Environmental Research Center), Tom Mirenda (Smithsonian Gardens), and Dennis Whigham (SERC). The paper focuses on nine of the 16 targets of the GSPC, detailing how three targets have been adequately achieved and noting the limited progress on the other six targets. Three case studies of efforts to conserve native threatened orchids are presented. The paper also describes the efforts in establishing the North American Orchid Conservation Center, an international program to conserve all native orchids in the U.S. and Canada.

The plant Isotria meleoloides is one of three case studies on endangered orchid species in a recent paper addressing progress on the Global Strategy for Plant Conservation. (photo by Melissa McCormick) The plant Isotria meleoloides is one of three case studies on endangered orchid species in a recent paper addressing progress on the Global Strategy for Plant Conservation. (photo by Melissa McCormick)

In another paper, Krupnick and Pedro Acevedo (NMNH), lead author James Miller (New York Botanical Garden), and eight additional co-authors from the New York Botanical Garden, the University of Puerto Rico, and the International Institute of Tropical Forestry discuss the efficient use of herbarium specimen data in the conservation evaluation of the native seed plant species of Puerto Rico. The paper, "Toward Target 2 of the Global Strategy for Plant Conservation: an expert analysis of the Puerto Rican flora to validate new streamlined methods for assessing conservation status" (Ann. Mo. Bot. Gard. 99: 199-205), demonstrates two systems that both efficiently identifies species at risk, which is a step toward both the GSPC Target 2 and a more comprehensive IUCN Red List for plants.


Current Literature


Adekunle, V.A.J., Olagoke, A.O., and Ogundare, L.F. 2013. Logging impacts in tropical lowland humid forest on tree species diversity and environmental conservation. Appl. Ecol. Env. Res. 11(3):491-511.

Alba-Mejia, L., Caillaud, D., Montenegro, O.L., Sánchez-Palomino, P., and Crofoot, M.C. 2013. Spatiotemporal interactions among three neighboring groups of free-ranging white-footed tamarins (Saguinus leucopus) in Colombia. Int. J. Primatol. 34(6):1281-1297.

Alonso-Redondo, R., De Paz, E., Alonso-Herrero, E., García-González, M.E., and Alfaro-Saiz, E. 2013. A new method for calculating Risk Tolerance in the assessment of threatened flora. J. Nature Conserv. 21(6):414-422.

Ansong, M., and Pickering, C. 2013. Are weeds hitchhiking a ride on your car? A systematic review of seed dispersal on cars. PLoS ONE 8(11):e80275.

Ardura, A., Gomes, V., Linde, A.R., Moreira, J.C., Horreo, J.L., and Garcia-Vazquez, E. 2013. The Meeting of Waters, a possible shelter of evolutionary significant units for Amazonian fish. Conserv. Genet. 14(6):1185-1192.

Åström, M., Pettersson, L.B., Öckinger, E., and Hedin, J. 2013. Habitat preferences and conservation of the marbled jewel beetle Poecilonota variolosa (Buprestidae). J. Insect Conserv. 17(6):1145-1154.

Atalah, J., Hopkins, G.A., and Forrest, B.M. 2013. Augmentative biocontrol in natural marine habitats: persistence, spread and non-target effects of the sea urchin Evechinus chloroticus. PLoS ONE 8(11):e80365.

Attum, O., Cutshall, C.D., Eberly, K., Day, H., and Tietjen, B. 2013. Is there really no place like home? Movement, site fidelity, and survival probability of translocated and resident turtles. Biodivers. Conserv. 22(13-14):3185-3195.

Augustyn, W.J., Anderson, B., Stiller, M., and Ellis, A.G. 2013. Specialised host-use and phenophase tracking in restio leafhoppers (Cicadellidae: Cephalelini) in the Cape Floristic Region. J. Insect Conserv. 17(6):1267-1274.

Austin, J.J., Joseph, L., Pedler, L.P., and Black, A.B. 2013. Uncovering cryptic evolutionary diversity in extant and extinct populations of the southern Australian arid zone Western and Thick-billed Grasswrens (Passeriformes: Maluridae: Amytornis). Conserv. Genet. 14(6):1173-1184.

Autio, O., Salmela, J., and Suhonen, J. 2013. Species richness and rarity of crane flies (Diptera, Tipuloidea) in a boreal mire. J. Insect Conserv. 17(6):1125-1136.

Ávila, V., Vilas, A., Fernández, J., and Caballero, A. 2013. An experimental assessment of artificial within-family selection for fitness in conservation programs. Conserv. Genet. 14(6):1149-1159.

Baird, T.D., and Leslie, P.W. 2013. Conservation as disturbance: Upheaval and livelihood diversification near Tarangire National Park, northern Tanzania. Global Environ. Change 23(5):1131-1141.

Baker, C.S., Hutt, A., Thompson, K., Dalebout, M.L., Robins, J., Brownell, R.L., and Stone, G.S. 2013. Species identity and human consumption of beaked whales in the Gilbert Islands, Republic of Kiribati. Anim. Conserv. 16(6):641-647.

Ballantyne, M., and Pickering, C.M. 2013. Tourism and recreation: a common threat to IUCN red-listed vascular plants in Europe. Biodivers. Conserv. 22(13-14):3027-3044.

Bancheva, S., and Raimondo, F.M. 2013. A new Centaurea species (Asteraceae) from Mt Sakar, South-eastern Bulgaria. Plant Biosyst. 147(3):800-805.

Barry, S.J., and Fellers, G.M. 2013. History and status of the California red-legged frog (Rana draytonii) in the Sierra Nevada, California, USA. Herpetol. Conserv. Biol. 8(2):456-502.

Bart, J., Platte, R.M., Andres, B., Brown, S., Johnson, J.A., and Larned, W. 2013. Importance of the National Petroleum Reserve-Alaska for aquatic birds. Conserv. Biol. 27(6):1304-1312.

Barton, P.S., Colloff, M.J., Pullen, K.R., and Cunningham, S.A. 2013. Grassland area determines beetle assemblage dissimilarity from surrounding floodplain forest. J. Insect Conserv. 17(6):1209-1219.

Bellebaum, J., Korner-Nievergelt, F., Dürr, T., and Mammen, U. 2013. Wind turbine fatalities approach a level of concern in a raptor population. J. Nature Conserv. 21(6):394-400.

Benevides, C.R., Evans, D.M., and Gaglianone, M.C. 2013. Comparing the structure and robustness of Passifloraceae - floral visitor and true pollinator networks in a lowland Atlantic forest. Sociobiology 60(3):295-305.

Benson, J.F., Mills, K.J., Loveless, K.M., and Patterson, B.R. 2013. Genetic and environmental influences on pup mortality risk for wolves and coyotes within a Canis hybrid zone. Biol. Conserv. 166:133-141.

Bere, T., Phiri, C., Kadye, W.T., and Utete, B. 2013. Benthic diatom assemblages in mountain streams: community structure in relation to environmental and human pressures. Afr. J. Ecol. 51(4):625-634.

Bergman, C.M., Pattison, J., and Price, E. 2013. The Black Oystercatcher as a sentinel species in the recovery of the Northern Abalone: contemporary diet of Black Oystercatchers on Haida Gwaii includes an endangered prey species. Condor 115(4):800-807.

Berkström, C., Lindborg, R., Thyresson, M., and Gullström, M. 2013. Assessing connectivity in a tropical embayment: fish migrations and seascape ecology. Biol. Conserv. 166:43-53.

Bernal, V., and Espadaler, X. 2013. Invasive and socially parasitic ants are good bioindicators of habitat quality in Mediterranean forest remnants in northeast Spain. Ecol. Res. 28(6):1011-1017.

Bertelsmeier, C., Luque, G.M., and Courchamp, F. 2013. Increase in quantity and quality of suitable areas for invasive species as climate changes. Conserv. Biol. 27(6):1458-1467.

Beumer, C., and Martens, P. 2013. IUCN and perspectives on biodiversity conservation in a changing world. Biodivers. Conserv. 22(13-14):3105-3120.

Bilski, D.R., Pie, M.R., and Passos, F.C. 2013. Variable inbreeding effects across life-history stages in a captive carnivorous mammal population. Anim. Conserv. 16(6):633-640.

Birkinshaw, C., Lowry, P.P., Raharimampionona, J., and Aronson, J. 2013. Supporting Target 4 of the Global Strategy for Plant Conservation by integrating ecological restoration into the Missouri Botanical Garden's conservation program in Madagascar. Ann. Mo. Bot. Garden 99(2):139-146.

Birnbaum, C., and Leishman, M.R. 2013. Plant-soil feedbacks do not explain invasion success of Acacia species in introduced range populations in Australia. Biol. Invasions 15(12):2609-2625.

Blanco, V., and Waltert, M. 2013. Does the tropical agricultural matrix bear potential for primate conservation? A baseline study from Western Uganda. J. Nature Conserv. 21(6):383-393.

Bojková, J., and Soldán, T. 2013. Stoneflies (Plecoptera) of the Czech Republic: species checklist, distribution and protection status. Acta Entomol. Mus. Nat. Pragae 53(2):443-484.

Bosu, P.P., Apetorgbor, M.M., Nkrumah, E.E., and Bandoh, K.P. 2013. The impact of Broussonetia papyrifera (L.) vent. on community characteristics in the forest and forest-savannah transition ecosystems of Ghana. Afr. J. Ecol. 51(4):528-535.

Boughton, D.A., and Pike, A.S. 2013. Floodplain rehabilitation as a hedge against hydroclimatic uncertainty in a migration corridor of threatened steelhead. Conserv. Biol. 27(6):1158-1168.

Bracebridge, C.E., Davenport, T.R.B., Mbofu, V.F., and Marsden, S.J. 2013. Is there a role for human-dominated landscapes in the long-term conservation management of the critically endangered kipunji (Rungwecebus kipunji)? Int. J. Primatol. 34(6):1122-1136.

Brachert, T.C., Reuter, M., Krüger, S., Böcker, A., Lohmann, H., Mertz-Kraus, R., and Fassoulas, C. 2013. Density banding in corals: barcodes of past and current climate change. Coral Reefs 32(4):1013-1023.

Brainard, R.E., Weijerman, M., Eakin, C.M., McElhany, P., Miller, M.W., Patterson, M., Piniak, G.A., Dunlap, M.J., and Birkeland, C. 2013. Incorporating climate and ocean change into extinction risk assessments for 82 coral species. Conserv. Biol. 27(6):1169-1178.

Brandt, J.S., Wood, E.M., Pidgeon, A.M., Han, L.X., Fang, Z.D., and Radeloff, V.C. 2013. Sacred forests are keystone structures for forest bird conservation in southwest China's Himalayan Mountains. Biol. Conserv. 166:34-42.

Breece, M.W., Oliver, M.J., Cimino, M.A., and Fox, D.A. 2013. Shifting distributions of adult Atlantic sturgeon amidst post-industrialization and future impacts in the Delaware River: a maximum entropy approach. PLoS ONE 8(11):e81321.

Britton, J.R., and Gozlan, R.E. 2013. How many founders for a biological invasion? Predicting introduction outcomes from propagule pressure. Ecology 94(11):2558-2566.

Brunet, J., Zalapa, J.E., Pecori, F., and Santini, A. 2013. Hybridization and introgression between the exotic Siberian elm, Ulmus pumila, and the native Field elm, U. minor, in Italy. Biol. Invasions 15(12):2717-2730.

Bruni, I., Gentili, R., De Mattia, F., Cortis, P., Rossi, G., and Labra, M. 2013. A multi-level analysis to evaluate the extinction risk of and conservation strategy for the aquatic fern Marsilea quadrifolia L. in Europe. Aquat. Bot. 111:35-42.

Buchholz, S., Hannig, K., and Schirmel, J. 2013. Losing uniqueness - shifts in carabid species composition during dry grassland and heathland succession. Anim. Conserv. 16(6):661-670.

Buij, R., Croes, B.M., Gort, G., and Komdeur, J. 2013. The role of breeding range, diet, mobility and body size in associations of raptor communities and land-use in a West African savanna. Biol. Conserv. 166:231-246.

Buldrini, F., Conte, L., Dallai, D., and Ferrari, C. 2013. Genetic diversity of the rare and endangered meadow violet (Viola pumila Chaix) at the southern margin of its range. Plant Biosyst. 147(3):563-572.

Bunnefeld, N., Edwards, C.T.T., Atickem, A., Hailu, F., and Milner-Gulland, E.J. 2013. Incentivizing monitoring and compliance in trophy hunting. Conserv. Biol. 27(6):1344-1354.

Burgos-Hernández, M., Hernández, D., and Castillo-Campos, G. 2013. Genetic diversity and population genetic structure of wild banana Musa ornata (Musaceae) in Mexico. Plant Syst. Evol. 299(10):1899-1910.

Busch, D.S., Greene, C.M., and Good, T.P. 2013. Estimating effects of tidal power projects and climate change on threatened and endangered marine species and their food web. Conserv. Biol. 27(6):1190-1200.

Cabrera-Guzmán, E., Crossland, M.R., González-Bernal, E., and Shine, R. 2013. The interacting effects of ungulate hoofprints and predatory native ants on metamorph cane toads in tropical Australia. PLoS ONE 8(11):e79496.

Calvo-Gutiérrez, C.M., Bonilla-Murillo, F., and Sasa, M. 2013. Use and conservation of palm swamps Raphia taedigera (Arecaceae) in the Area de Conservación Tortuguero, Costa Rica. Rev. Biol. Trop. 61:163-178.

Campos-Arceiz, A., Koh, L.P., and Primack, R.B. 2013. Are conservation biologists working too hard? Biol. Conserv. 166:186-190.

Cao, Y., Huang, J., Cummings, K.S., and Holtrop, A. 2013. Modeling changes in freshwater mussel diversity in an agriculturally dominated landscape. Freshwater Sci. 32(4):1205-1218.

Catlin, J., Campbell, R., Hughes, M., Jones, T., and Jones, R. 2013. Keeping perspective on using tourism values for conservation - reply to Vianna. Biol. Conserv. 166:303.

Cavin, J.S. 2013. Beyond prejudice: conservation in the city. A case study from Switzerland. Biol. Conserv. 166:84-89.

Chauvenet, A.L.M., Ewen, J.G., Armstrong, D., and Pettorelli, N. 2013. Saving the hihi under climate change: a case for assisted colonization. J. Appl. Ecol. 50(6):1330-1340.

Chen, F.Q., Wang, C.H., and Jia, G.M. 2013. Ecology of Salix variegata seed germination: implications for species distribution and conservation in the Three Gorges region. S. Afr. J. Bot. 88:243-246.

Chester, E.T., and Robson, B.J. 2013. Anthropogenic refuges for freshwater biodiversity: their ecological characteristics and management. Biol. Conserv. 166:64-75.

Chiari, S., Bardiani, M., Zauli, A., Hardersen, S., Mason, F., Spada, L., and Campanaro, A. 2013. Monitoring of the saproxylic beetle Morimus asper (Sulzer, 1776) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) with freshly cut log piles. J. Insect Conserv. 17(6):1255-1265.

Ciach, M., and Fröhlich, A. 2013. Habitat preferences of the Syrian Woodpecker Dendrocopos syriacus in urban environments: an ambiguous effect of pollution. Bird Study 60(4):491-499.

Cimon-Morin, J., Darveau, M., and Poulin, M. 2013. Fostering synergies between ecosystem services and biodiversity in conservation planning: A review. Biol. Conserv. 166:144-154.

Clear, J.L., Seppä, H., Kuosmanen, N., and Bradshaw, R.H.W. 2013. Holocene fire frequency variability in Vesijako, Strict Nature Reserve, Finland, and its application to conservation and management. Biol. Conserv. 166:90-97.

Clemente, M.A., Lange, D., Dattilo, W., Del-Claro, K., and Prezoto, F. 2013. Social wasp-flower visiting guild interactions in less structurally complex habitats are more susceptible to local extinction. Sociobiology 60(3):337-344.

Clubbe, C. 2013. Building capacity for the achievement of the Global Strategy for Plant Conservation in the Caribbean region. Ann. Mo. Bot. Garden 99(2):147-152.

Combs, J.K., Lambert, A.M., and Reichard, S.H. 2013. Predispersal seed predation is higher in a rare species than in its widespread sympatric congeners (Astragalus, Fabaceae). Am. J. Bot. 100(11):2149-2157.

Connette, G.M., and Semlitsch, R.D. 2013. Life history as a predictor of salamander recovery rate from timber harvest in southern Appalachian forests, U.S.A. Conserv. Biol. 27(6):1399-1409.

Cook, N., Hubbard, S.F., Karley, A.J., and Russell, J.R. 2013. Genetic diversity and complementary sex determination (CSD) in Dolerus aeneus (Hymenoptera, Symphyta): implications for the conservation of an ecologically-important sawfly. Conserv. Genet. 14(6):1125-1133.

Çoraman, E., Furman, A., Karataş, A., and Bilgin, R. 2013. Phylogeographic analysis of Anatolian bats highlights the importance of the region for preserving the Chiropteran mitochondrial genetic diversity in the Western Palaearctic. Conserv. Genet. 14(6):1205-1216.

Cornelisse, T. 2013. Conserving extirpated sites: using habitat quality to manage unoccupied patches for metapopulation persistence. Biodivers. Conserv. 22(13-14):3171-3184.

Cornelisse, T.M., and Duane, T.P. 2013. Effects of knowledge of an endangered species on recreationists' attitudes and stated behaviors and the significance of management compliance for Ohlone tiger beetle conservation. Conserv. Biol. 27(6):1449-1457.

Coscia, I., McDevitt, A.D., King, J.J., Roche, W.K., McLoughlin, C., and Mariani, S. 2013. A species-to-be? The genetic status and colonization history of the critically endangered Killarney shad. Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. 69(3):1190-1195.

Costion, C.M., Hillmann-Kitalong, A., Perlman, S., and Edwards, W. 2013. Palau's rare and threatened palm Ponapea palauensis (Arecaceae): population density, distribution, and threat assessment. Pacific Sci. 67(4):599-607.

Cowan, D.A., Rybicki, E.P., Tuffin, M.I., Valverde, A., and Wingfield, M.J. 2013. Biodiversity: so much more than legs and leaves. S. Afr. J. Sci. 109(11-12):a0037.

Crespo, L.C., Bosmans, R., Cardoso, P., and Borges, P.A.V. 2013. On the endemic spider species of the genus Savigniorrhipis Wunderlich, 1992 (Araneae: Linyphiidae) in the Azores (Portugal), with description of a new species. Zootaxa 3745(3):330-342.

Cristescu, R.H., Banks, P.B., Carrick, F.N., and Frère, C. 2013. Potential 'ecological traps' of restored landscapes: koalas Phascolarctos cinereus re-occupy a rehabilitated mine site. PLoS ONE 8(11):e80469.

Crosmary, W.G., Loveridge, A.J., Ndaimani, H., Lebel, S., Booth, V., Côté, S.D., and Fritz, H. 2013. Trophy hunting in Africa: long-term trends in antelope horn size. Anim. Conserv. 16(6):648-660.

Crouch, N.R., Smith, G.F., and Figueiredo, E. 2013. From checklists to an e-flora for southern Africa: past experiences and future prospects for meeting Target 1 of the 2020 Global Strategy for Plant Conservation. Ann. Mo. Bot. Garden 99(2):153-160.

Cullingham, C.I., and Moehrenschlager, A. 2013. Temporal analysis of genetic structure to assess population dynamics of reintroduced swift foxes. Conserv. Biol. 27(6):1389-1398.

Cunningham, H.R., and Rissler, L.J. 2013. Investigating behavioral shifts in aggression between a naturalized and native salamander species of the genus Plethodon. Herpetol. Conserv. Biol. 8(2):276-287.

Curry, P.A., and Yeung, N.W. 2013. Predation on endemic Hawaiian land snails by the invasive snail Oxychilus alliarius. Biodivers. Conserv. 22(13-14):3165-3169.

De Groot, R.S., Blignaut, J., van der Ploeg, S., Aronson, J., Elmqvist, T., and Farley, J. 2013. Benefits of investing in ecosystem restoration. Conserv. Biol. 27(6):1286-1293.

de Jong, C., Field, H., Tagtag, A., Hughes, T., Dechmann, D., Jayme, S., Epstein, J., Smith, C., Santos, I., Catbagan, D., Lim, M., Benigno, C., Daszak, P., and Newman, S. 2013. Foraging behaviour and landscape utilisation by the endangered golden-crowned flying fox (Acerodon jubatus), the Philippines. PLoS ONE 8(11):e79665.

De Knijf, G., Vanappelghem, C., and Demolder, H. 2013. Odonata from Montenegro, with notes on taxonomy, regional diversity and conservation. Odonatologica 42(1):1-29.

Devey, D.S., Forest, F., Rakotonasolo, F., Ma, P., Dentinger, B.T.M., and Buerki, S. 2013. A snapshot of extinction in action: the decline and imminent demise of the endemic Eligmocarpus Capuron (Caesalpinioideae, Leguminosae) serves as an example of the fragility of Madagascan ecosystems. S. Afr. J. Bot. 89:273-280.

Di Stefano, J., McCarthy, M.A., York, A., Duff, T.J., Slingo, J., and Christie, F. 2013. Defining vegetation age class distributions for multispecies conservation in fire-prone landscapes. Biol. Conserv. 166:111-117.

Dietz, M., Pir, J.B., and Hillen, J. 2013. Does the survival of greater horseshoe bats and Geoffroy's bats in Western Europe depend on traditional cultural landscapes? Biodivers. Conserv. 22(13-14):3007-3025.

Dincă, V., Runquist, M., Nilsson, M., and Vila, R. 2013. Dispersal, fragmentation, and isolation shape the phylogeography of the European lineages of Polyommatus (Agrodiaetus) ripartii (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae). Biol. J. Linn. Soc. 109(4):817-829.

Do, Y., and Joo, G.J. 2013. The effect of fragmentation and intensive management on carabid beetles in coniferous forest. Appl. Ecol. Env. Res. 11(3):451-461.

Dooley, F.D., Wyllie-Echeverria, S., and Van Volkenburgh, E. 2013. Long-term seed storage and viability of Zostera marina. Aquat. Bot. 111:130-134.

Dornbush, M.E., and Hahn, P.G. 2013. Consumers and establishment limitations contribute more than competitive interactions in sustaining dominance of the exotic herb garlic mustard in a Wisconsin, USA forest. Biol. Invasions 15(12):2691-2706.

Doxa, A., Besnard, A., Bechet, A., Pin, C., Lebreton, J.D., and Sadoul, N. 2013. Inferring dispersal dynamics from local population demographic modelling: the case of the slender-billed gull in France. Anim. Conserv. 16(6):684-693.

Durães, R., Carrasco, L., Smith, T.B., and Karubian, J. 2013. Effects of forest disturbance and habitat loss on avian communities in a Neotropical biodiversity hotspot. Biol. Conserv. 166:203-211.

Durkan, T.H., Yeung, N.W., Meyer, W.M., Hayes, K.A., and Cowie, R.H. 2013. Evaluating the efficacy of land snail survey techniques in Hawaii: implications for conservation throughout the Pacific. Biodivers. Conserv. 22(13-14):3223-3232.

Enge, K.M., Stevenson, D.J., Elliott, M.J., and Bauder, J.M. 2013. The historical and current distribution of the eastern indigo snake (Drymarchon couperi). Herpetol. Conserv. Biol. 8(2):288-307.

Evans, D.M., Goble, D.D., and Scott, J.M. 2013. New priorities as the Endangered Species Act turns 40. Front. Ecol. Environ. 11(10):519-519.

Farmer, N.A., and Karnauskas, M. 2013. Spatial distribution and conservation of speckled hind and warsaw grouper in the Atlantic Ocean off the southeastern U. S. PLoS ONE 8(11):e78682.

Ferrazzano, S., and Williamson, P.S. 2013. Benefits of mycorrhizal inoculation in reintroduction of endangered plant species under drought conditions. J. Arid Environ. 98:123-125.

Fitak, R.R., Koprowski, J.L., and Culver, M. 2013. Severe reduction in genetic variation in a montane isolate: the endangered Mount Graham red squirrel (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus grahamensis). Conserv. Genet. 14(6):1233-1241.

Freeland, J., Ciotir, C., and Kirk, H. 2013. Regional differences in the abundance of native, introduced, and hybrid Typha spp. in northeastern North America influence wetland invasions. Biol. Invasions 15(12):2651-2665.

Fridgen, C., Finnegan, L., Reaume, C., Cebek, J., Trottier, J., and Wilson, P.J. 2013. Conservation genetics of wood turtle (Glyptemys insculpta) populations in Ontario, Canada. Herpetol. Conserv. Biol. 8(2):351-358.

Fukuda, S., De Baets, B., Onikura, N., Nakajima, J., Mukai, T., and Mouton, A.M. 2013. Modelling the distribution of the pan-continental invasive fish Pseudorasbora parva based on landscape features in the northern Kyushu Island, Japan. Aquat. Conserv. 23(6):901-910.

Fuller, R.J. 2013. Searching for biodiversity gains through woodfuel and forest management. J. Appl. Ecol. 50(6):1295-1300.

Gajewski, Z., Sitek, E., Stolarczyk, P., Nowak, B., and Kapała, K. 2013. A current status of the population of Primula farinosa L. (Primulaceae) at the only one known site in Poland. Pol. J. Ecol. 61(4):797-804.

Gardner, C.J., Nicoll, M.E., Mbohoahy, T., Oleson, K.L.L., Ratsifandrihamanana, A.N., Ratsirarson, J., Rene de Roland, L.A., Virah-Sawmy, M., Zafindrasilivonona, B., and Davies, Z.G. 2013. Protected areas for conservation and poverty alleviation: experiences from Madagascar. J. Appl. Ecol. 50(6):1289-1294.

Gardner, T.A., Von Hase, A., Brownlie, S., Ekstrom, J.M.M., Pilgrim, J.D., Savy, C.E., Stephens, R.T.T., Treweek, J., Ussher, G.T., Ward, G., and Ten Kate, K. 2013. Biodiversity offsets and the challenge of achieving no net loss. Conserv. Biol. 27(6):1254-1264.

Ghabooli, S., Shiganova, T.A., Briski, E., Piraino, S., Fuentes, V., Thibault-Botha, D., Angel, D.L., Cristescu, M.E., and MacIsaac, H.J. 2013. Invasion pathway of the ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi in the Mediterranean Sea. PLoS ONE 8(11):e81067.

Glen, A.S., Atkinson, R., Campbell, K.J., Hagen, E., Holmes, N.D., Keitt, B.S., Parkes, J.P., Saunders, A., Sawyer, J., and Torres, H. 2013. Eradicating multiple invasive species on inhabited islands: the next big step in island restoration? Biol. Invasions 15(12):2589-2603.

Godley, J.S., and Moler, P.E. 2013. Population declines of eastern indigo snakes (Drymarchon couperi) over three decades in the Gulf Hammock Wildlife Management Area, Florida, USA. Herpetol. Conserv. Biol. 8(2):359-365.

Golawski, A., and Golawska, S. 2013. Are the birds dangerous for insect pollinators? The relationship between hymenopterans and the red-backed shrike. J. Insect Conserv. 17(6):1155-1160.

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Grumbine, R.E., and Xu, J.C. 2013. Recalibrating China's environmental policy: the next 10 years. Biol. Conserv. 166:287-292.

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Hu, J.H., Jiang, Z.G., and Mallon, D.P. 2013. Metapopulation viability of a globally endangered gazelle on the Northeast Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. Biol. Conserv. 166:23-32.

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Johnston, C.E., Henderson, A.R., and Hartup, W.W. 2013. Precipitous decline and conservation of Slackwater Darter (Etheostoma boschungi) in tributaries of the Tennessee River, Tennessee and Alabama. Biodivers. Conserv. 22(13-14):3247-3259.

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Kajzer-Bonk, J., Nowicki, P., Bonk, M., Skórka, P., Witek, M., and Woyciechowski, M. 2013. Local populations of endangered Maculinea (Phengaris) butterflies are flood resistant. J. Insect Conserv. 17(6):1105-1112.

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Koch, A., Ziegler, T., Böhme, W., Arida, E., and Auliya, M. 2013. Pressing problems: distribution, threats, and conservation status of the monitor lizards (Varanidae: Varanus spp.) of Southeast Asia and the Indo-Australian Archipelago. Herpetol. Conserv. Biol. 8:1-62.

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Lorenz, S., and Pusch, M.T. 2013. Filtration activity of invasive mussel species under wave disturbance conditions. Biol. Invasions 15(12):2681-2690.

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Marshall, M.E., Morrison, M.L., and Wilkins, R.N. 2013. Tree species composition and food availability affect productivity of an endangered species: the Golden-Cheeked Warbler. Condor 115(4):882-892.

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McCune, J.L., Pellatt, M.G., and Vellend, M. 2013. Multidisciplinary synthesis of long-term human-ecosystem interactions: a perspective from the Garry oak ecosystem of British Columbia. Biol. Conserv. 166:293-300.

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Onaindia, M., Ametzaga-Arregi, I., Sebastián, M.S., Mitxelena, A., Rodríguez-Loinaz, G., Peña, L., and Alday, J.G. 2013. Can understorey native woodland plant species regenerate under exotic pine plantations using natural succession? Forest Ecol. Manag. 308:136-144.

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Pekin, B.K. 2013. Effect of widespread agricultural chemical use on butterfly diversity across Turkish provinces. Conserv. Biol. 27(6):1439-1448.

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Pike, D.A., and Mitchell, J.C. 2013. Burrow-dwelling ecosystem engineers provide thermal refugia throughout the landscape. Anim. Conserv. 16(6):694-703.

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Piper, R.W., and Compton, S.G. 2013. How limited is dispersal in the rare beetle, Cryptocephalus decemmaculatus (Chrysomelidae, Cryptocephalinae)? J. Insect Conserv. 17(6):1229-1235.

Ponnikas, S., Kvist, L., Ollila, T., Stjernberg, T., and Orell, M. 2013. Genetic structure of an endangered raptor at individual and population levels. Conserv. Genet. 14(6):1135-1147.

Pooley, S. 2013. Historians are from Venus, ecologists are from Mars. Conserv. Biol. 27(6):1481-1483.

Popescu, V.D., Rozylowicz, L., Cogălniceanu, D., Niculae, I.M., and Cucu, A.L. 2013. Moving into protected areas? Setting conservation priorities for Romanian reptiles and amphibians at risk from climate change. PLoS ONE 8(11):e79330.

Pressey, R.L., Mills, M., Weeks, R., and Day, J.C. 2013. The plan of the day: managing the dynamic transition from regional conservation designs to local conservation actions. Biol. Conserv. 166:155-169.

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Qian, X., Wang, C.X., and Tian, M. 2013. Genetic diversity and population differentiation of Calanthe tsoongiana, a rare and endemic orchid in China. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 14(10):20399-20413.

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Ramage, B.S., Marshalek, E.C., Kitzes, J., and Potts, M.D. 2013. Conserving tropical biodiversity via strategic spatiotemporal harvest planning. J. Appl. Ecol. 50(6):1301-1310.

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Regnery, B., Couvet, D., and Kerbiriou, C. 2013. Offsets and conservation of the species of the EU Habitats and Birds Directives. Conserv. Biol. 27(6):1335-1343.

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Richter, A., Osborne, W., Hnatiuk, S., and Rowell, A. 2013. Moths in fragments: insights into the biology and ecology of the Australian endangered golden sun moth Synemon plana (Lepidoptera: Castniidae) in natural temperate and exotic grassland remnants. J. Insect Conserv. 17(6):1093-1104.

Richter, R., Berger, U.E., Dullinger, S., Essl, F., Leitner, M., Smith, M., and Vogl, G. 2013. Spread of invasive ragweed: climate change, management and how to reduce allergy costs. J. Appl. Ecol. 50(6):1422-1430.

Rigueira, D.M.G., da Rocha, P.L.B., and Mariano-Neto, E. 2013. Forest cover, extinction thresholds and time lags in woody plants (Myrtaceae) in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest: resources for conservation. Biodivers. Conserv. 22(13-14):3141-3163.

Rinella, M.J. 2013. Assessing invasiveness of exotic weeds outside their current invasive range. Invas. Plant Sci. Manage. 6(4):545-553.

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Roberts, D.L. 2013. Refuge-effect hypothesis and the demise of the dodo. Conserv. Biol. 27(6):1478-1480.

Robinson, N.M., Leonard, S.W.J., Ritchie, E.G., Bassett, M., Chia, E.K., Buckingham, S., Gibb, H., Bennett, A.F., and Clarke, M.F. 2013. Refuges for fauna in fire-prone landscapes: their ecological function and importance. J. Appl. Ecol. 50(6):1321-1329.

Rocha-Ortega, M., and Favila, M.E. 2013. The recovery of ground ant diversity in secondary Lacandon tropical forests. J. Insect Conserv. 17(6):1161-1167.

Rodda, M., Juhonewe, N.S., and Ercole, E. 2013. Hoya corymbosa (Apocynaceae, Asclepiadoideae), a new unusual species from Sabah, Borneo, and its systematic position based on phylogenetic analysis. Syst. Bot. 38(4):1125-1131.

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Saenz, D., Fucik, E.M., and Kwiatkowski, M.A. 2013. Synergistic effects of the invasive Chinese tallow (Triadica sebifera) and climate change on aquatic amphibian survival. Ecol. Evol. 3(14):4828-4840.

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Sanchez-Cuervo, A.M., and Aide, T.M. 2013. Identifying hotspots of deforestation and reforestation in Colombia (2001-2010): implications for protected areas. Ecosphere 4(11):art143.

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Sawyer, J. 2013. A network approach to plant conservation in New Zealand. Ann. Mo. Bot. Garden 99(2):231-235.

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Trainor, A.M., Walters, J.R., Urban, D.L., and Moody, A. 2013. Evaluating the effectiveness of a Safe Harbor Program for connecting wildlife populations. Anim. Conserv. 16(6):610-620.

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