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Department ofBotany



No. 362
February 2015


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In This Issue


Guidance Issued on Pollinator-Friendly Practices on Federal Property


The Smithsonian Butterfly Habitat Garden outside the National Museum of Natural History is an 11,000-square-foot area that supports plant species having specific relationships to the life cycles of eastern United States butterflies. (photo courtesy of Smithsonian Gardens)

The Smithsonian Butterfly Habitat Garden outside the National Museum of Natural History is an 11,000-square-foot area that supports plant species having specific relationships to the life cycles of eastern United States butterflies. (photo courtesy of Smithsonian Gardens)

In June 2014, a Presidential Memorandum entitled, "Creating a Federal Strategy to Promote the Health of Honey Bees and Other Pollinators," called for a revision of the Sustainable Practices for Designed Landscapes guidance on Federal properties. The revised guidance issued in October 2014 by the White House Council on Environmental Quality helps Federal agencies incorporate pollinator-friendly practices in new construction, building renovations, landscaping improvements, and in facility leasing agreements at Federal facilities and on Federal lands. Facility managers can use the updated guidance to actively examine their current buildings, grounds, and practices for opportunities to transition to a richer diversity of pollinator-friendly plant species.

By integrating pollinator-friendly strategies into everyday design, operations, and maintenance activities, Federal agencies can have a big impact. Every day, agency managers make routine decisions that could affect pollinator populations. The easy-to-use guide will help ensure the best possible decisions are made, supporting pollinator health and habitat on millions of acres of Federal land. Additionally, the guide will serve as a valuable resource for further research on pollinators and the plant species that support them.

An inter-agency working group prepared the revised guidance. The working group included representatives from the United States Department of Agriculture and Forest Service, the Smithsonian Institution, U.S. Botanic Garden, the General Services Administration, U.S. Geological Survey, the Department of Transportation, the Department of Defense, the Department of Education, the Department of Veterans Affairs, the National Science Foundation, the Department of Interior's Office of Planning and Management, with assistance provided from the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy. Representing the Smithsonian Institution was Gary Krupnick (National Museum of Natural History), and Graham Davis, William Donnelly, James Gagliardi, Jonathan Kavalier, and Jeffrey Schneider (Smithsonian Gardens). The Smithsonian Gardens NMNH Butterfly Habitat Garden and Urban Bird Habitat serve as exemplary models for pollinator-friendly habitat at Federal facilities.

The guidance is available online at http://www.whitehouse.gov/administration/eop/ceq/sustainability/landscaping-guidance.

Plant and animal diversity is a sign of a healthy ecosystem. This garden is an oasis for many bird species; it provides for their basic needs; food, water, shelter, and a place to raise their young. (photo courtesy of Smithsonian Gardens)

Plant and animal diversity is a sign of a healthy ecosystem. This garden is an oasis for many bird species; it provides for their basic needs; food, water, shelter, and a place to raise their young. (photo courtesy of Smithsonian Gardens)


Lionfish: Eyewitness to an Underwater Invasion


-Adapted from Smithsonianscience.org

Covered in venomous spines the exotic and strikingly banded Indo-Pacific lionfish would be a painful mouthful to any creature that may try to catch and eat it. Brought into the United States by aquarium hobbyists untold years ago, scientists believe a few of these fish were discarded live into the Atlantic off southern Florida sometime around the late 1980s. Now this voracious species is found as far north as Virginia and south to Venezuela. They are spreading still.

A lionfish in Bocas del Toro (Photo by Andrew Sellers)

A lionfish in Bocas del Toro (Photo by Andrew Sellers)

At the Smithsonian's Tropical Research Institute in Panama, Andrew Sellers is turning this invasion into opportunity by examining just what Atlantic parasites are adopting the lionfish as a host.

"Basically, I'm looking at how parasite abundance and diversity in the lionfish varies across latitudes," Sellers explains.  "It has been suggested that invasive species don't do as well in the tropics as they do in temperate areas, the theory being that stronger biotic interactions—competition for food, predators and parasitism—in the tropics may limit the success of an invasive species.

"As lionfish have spread so rapidly across such a broad latitudinal gradient, they make a very good model" says Sellers, who works in the Tropical Research Institute's invasive species lab run by marine biologist Mark Torchin.

In addition to Panama, Sellers has traveled to Florida, Mexico and Belize catching lionfish and closely examining them to see what parasites are living on and inside their bodies. "For external parasites we've found—isopods and turbellaria, a flatworm that infects the gills. We have found that external parasites infecting the lionfish are more diverse at low latitudes," he says.

"Inside the fish we've found both trematodes [worms also known as flukes] and nematodes."

In his analysis Sellers examines and records the condition of each individual fish—size, weight, length—to see if the parasites are having any impact on their health.

"Overall, we are finding the abundance of parasites on the lionfish is pretty low, which is what we'd expect in an invasive species," Sellers continues.

Sellers also has begun looking into lionfish interactions with cleaner fish in the Caribbean. These small fish set up cleaning stations on brain coral heads where other fish—called client fish—congregate to have parasites removed from their bodies.

"What I am looking at is whether potential native competitors to lionfish are receiving a benefit from these cleaner fish that lionfish are not, i.e., parasite removal," Sellers explains. "In general introduced species are believed to harbor fewer parasites than natives, however these cleaners may be affecting this imbalance by removing parasites from the native but not the invader."

Female lionfish reproduce by laying a buoyant egg mass that is fertilized by a male, Sellers explains. The egg mass is then carried off into the ocean currents—a very effective method of dispersal. By 2005 people began seeing lionfish in the Bahamas. "We started seeing them in Panama about 2008, 2009," Sellers says. "Now divers can find them everywhere along the coast from 0 to 300 feet down." Cold water intolerance has limited their spread north along the coast of the United States to just below New York.

"Basically it appears the Atlantic coast of Central and South America is a pretty good place for these fish," Sellers says. "It appears they have plenty of food, no enemies and few parasites."


Current Literature


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Abeli, T., Rossi, G., Smolders, A.J.P., and Orsenigo, S. 2014. Nitrogen pollution negatively affects Stratiotes aloides in Central-Eastern Europe. Implications for translocation actions. Aquat. Conserv. 24(5):724-729.

Abrahamson, W.G., and Kloet, S.P.V. 2014. The reproduction and ecology of Hypericum edisonianum: an endangered Florida endemic. Castanea 79(3):168-181.

Ackerman, J.D., Falcón, W., Molinari, J., Vega, C., Espino, I., and Cuevas, A.A. 2014. Biotic resistance and invasional meltdown: consequences of acquired interspecific interactions for an invasive orchid, Spathoglottis plicata in Puerto Rico. Biol. Invasions 16(11):2435-2447.

Acreman, M., Arthington, A.H., Colloff, M.J., Couch, C., Crossman, N.D., Dyer, F., Overton, I., Pollino, C.A., Stewardson, M.J., and Young, W. 2014. Environmental flows for natural, hybrid, and novel riverine ecosystems in a changing world. Front. Ecol. Environ. 12(8):466-473.

Adams, V.M., Álvarez-Romero, J.G., Carwardine, J., Cattarino, L., Hermoso, V., Kennard, M.J., Linke, S., Pressey, R.L., and Stoeckl, N. 2014. Planning across freshwater and terrestrial realms: cobenefits and tradeoffs between conservation actions. Conserv. Lett. 7(5):425-440.

Adams, W.M. 2014. The value of valuing nature. Science 346(6209):549-551.

Ahmed, S.E., Lees, A.C., Moura, N.G., Gardner, T.A., Barlow, J., Ferreira, J., and Ewers, R.M. 2014. Road networks predict human influence on Amazonian bird communities. Proc. Roy. Soc. B 281(1795):20141742.

Albano, P.G., Bongiovanni, B., D'Occhio, P., and Sabelli, B. 2014. Natural history museums as repositories of endangered diversity: the case of the United States Unionida in the Museo di Zoologia dell'Università di Bologna. Zoosyst. Evol. 90(2):105-111.

Albrecht, C., Foller, K., Clewing, C., Hauffe, T., and Wilke, T. 2014. Invaders versus endemics: alien gastropod species in ancient Lake Ohrid. Hydrobiologia 739(1):163-174.

Almeida-Gomes, M., Siqueira, C.C., Borges, V.N.T., Vrcibradic, D., Fusinatto, L.A., and Rocha, C.F.D. 2014. Herpetofauna of the Reserva Ecológica de Guapiaçu (REGUA) and its surrounding areas, in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Biota Neotrop. 14(3):15.

Alofs, K.M., González, A.V., and Fowler, N.L. 2014. Local native plant diversity responds to habitat loss and fragmentation over different time spans and spatial scales. Plant Ecol. 215(10):1139-1151.

Alvarado, S.T., Buisson, E., Rabarison, H., Rajeriarison, C., Birkinshaw, C., and Lowry, P.P. 2014. Comparison of plant communities on the Ibity and Itremo massifs, Madagascar, with contrasting conservation histories and current status. Plant Ecol. Divers. 7(4):497-508.

Andersen, A.N., Ribbons, R.R., Pettit, M., and Parr, C.L. 2014. Burning for biodiversity: highly resilient ant communities respond only to strongly contrasting fire regimes in Australia's seasonal tropics. J. Appl. Ecol. 51(5):1406-1413.

Andersen, D.C., Adair, E.C., Nelson, S.M., and Binkley, D. 2014. Can nitrogen fertilization aid restoration of mature tree productivity in degraded dryland riverine esosystems? Restor. Ecol. 22(5):582-589.

Aragón-Gastélum, J.L., Flores, J., Yáñez-Espinosa, L., Badano, E., Ramírez-Tobías, H.M., Rodas-Ortíz, J.P., and González-Salvatierra, C. 2014. Induced climate change impairs photosynthetic performance in Echinocactus platyacanthus, an especially protected Mexican cactus species. Flora 209(9):499-503.

Araldi, A., Barelli, C., Hodges, K., and Rovero, F. 2014. Density estimation of the endangered Udzungwa red colobus (Procolobus gordonorum) and other arboreal primates in the Udzungwa Mountains using systematic distance sampling. Int. J. Primatol. 35(5):941-956.

Arroyo-Rodríguez, V., and Fahrig, L. 2014. Why is a landscape perspective important in studies of primates? Am. J. Primatol. 76(10):901-909.

Augyte, S., and Pickart, A. 2014. Algal response to removal of the invasive cordgrass Spartina densiflora in a salt marsh at Humboldt Bay, California, USA. Nat. Areas J. 34(3):325-331.

Ausden, M. 2014. Climate change adaptation: putting principles into practice. Environ. Manage. 54(4):685-698.

Avery-Gomm, S., Rosenfeld, J.S., Richardson, J.S., and Pearson, M. 2014. Hydrological drought and the role of refugia in an endangered riffle-dwelling fish, Nooksack dace (Rhinichthys cataractae ssp.). Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 71(11):1625-1634.

Bahm, M.A., Barnes, T.G., and Jensen, K.C. 2014. Evaluation of herbicides for control of reed canarygrass (Phalaris arundinacea). Nat. Areas J. 34(4):459-464.

Baillie, S.M., Ritchie, P.A., and Brunton, D.H. 2014. Population genetic connectivity of an endemic New Zealand passerine after large-scale local extirpations: a model of re-colonization potential. Ibis 156(4):826-839.

Bainbridge, I. 2014. How can ecologists make conservation policy more evidence based? Ideas and examples from a devolved perspective. J. Appl. Ecol. 51(5):1153-1158.

Barausse, A., Correale, V., Curkovic, A., Finotto, L., Riginella, E., Visentin, E., and Mazzoldi, C. 2014. The role of fisheries and the environment in driving the decline of elasmobranchs in the northern Adriatic Sea. ICES J. Mar. Sci. 71(7):1593-1603.

Barnes, A.D., Jochum, M., Mumme, S., Haneda, N.F., Farajallah, A., Widarto, T.H., and Brose, U. 2014. Consequences of tropical land use for multitrophic biodiversity and ecosystem functioning. Nat. Commun. 5:5351.

Barton, P.S., Westgate, M.J., Lane, P.W., MacGregor, C., and Lindenmayer, D.B. 2014. Robustness of habitat-based surrogates of animal diversity: a multitaxa comparison over time. J. Appl. Ecol. 51(5):1434-1443.

Baugh, T. 2014. Management considerations for the restoration of bunched arrowhead Sagittaria fasciculata: an update. Nat. Areas J. 34(3):267-267.

Baugh, T., Schmidt, L.J., and Petite, D. 2014. River Fork Ranch thermal wetland. Nat. Areas J. 34(3):381-384.

Baur, B. 2014. Dispersal-limited species - A challenge for ecological restoration. Basic Appl. Ecol. 15(7):559-564.

Bell, K.L., Heard, T.A., Manion, G., Ferrier, S., and van Klinken, R.D. 2014. Characterising the phytophagous arthropod fauna of a single host plant species: assessing survey completeness at continental and local scales. Biodivers. Conserv. 23(12):2985-3003.

Benevides, E.A., Vallinoto, M.N.S., Filho, A.F.H., de Souza, J.R.B., Silva-Oliveira, G., Freitas, M.O., Ferreira, B.P., Hostim-Silva, M., Bertoncini, A.A., Blanchard, F., and Torres, R.A. 2014. When physical oceanography meets population genetics: the case study of the genetic/evolutionary discontinuity in the endangered goliath grouper (Epinephelus itajara; Perciformes: Epinephelidae) with comments on the conservation of the species. Biochem. Syst. Ecol. 56:255-266.

Bertolino, S., Girardello, M., and Amori, G. 2014. Identifying conservation priorities when data are scanty: a case study with small mammals in Italy. Mamm. Biol. 79(6):349-356.

Bezerra, B.M., Bastos, M., Souto, A., Keasey, M.P., Eason, P., Schiel, N., and Jones, G. 2014. Camera trap observations of nonhabituated critically endangered wild blonde capuchins, Sapajus flavius (formerly Cebus flavius). Int. J. Primatol. 35(5):895-907.

Billue, A.K. 2014. Extent of Alabama's terrestrial nature reserve system in representing ecosystem diversity: a coarse-filter gap analysis. Nat. Areas J. 34(4):495-504.

Bird, J.P., Carlile, N., and Miller, M.G.R. 2014. A review of records and research actions for the Critically Endangered Beck's Petrel Pseudobulweria becki. Bird Conserv. Int. 24(3):287-298.

Black, A.N., Weimann, S.R., Imhoff, V.E., Richter, M.L., and Itzkowitz, M. 2014. A differential prey response to invasive lionfish, Pterois volitans: prey naivete and risk-sensitive courtship. J. Exp. Marine Biol. Ecol. 460:1-7.

Bogdanović, S., Brullo, S., Rešetnik, I., Lakušić, D., Satovic, Z., and Liber, Z. 2014. Campanula skanderbegii: molecular and morphological evidence of a new Campanula species (Campanulaceae) endemic to Albania. Syst. Bot. 39(4):1250-1260.

Bolton, M., Stanbury, A., Baylis, A.M.M., and Cuthbert, R. 2014. Impact of introduced house mice (Mus musculus) on burrowing seabirds on Steeple Jason and Grand Jason Islands, Falklands, South Atlantic. Polar Biol. 37(11):1659-1668.

Bonetti, M.F., and Wiens, J.J. 2014. Evolution of climatic niche specialization: a phylogenetic analysis in amphibians. Proc. Roy. Soc. B 281(1795):20133229.

Boraks, A., and Broders, K.D. 2014. Butternut (Juglans cinerea) health, hybridization, and recruitment in the northeastern United States. Can. J. Forest Res. 44(10):1244-1252.

Borges, L.M., and Pirani, J.R. 2014. When the old guys knew better: the true identity of Mimosa longepedunculata and reestablishment of M. tocantina (Leguminosae, Mimosoideae). Phytotaxa 181(5):261-278.

Bouahim, S., Rhazi, L., Amami, B., Waterkeyn, A., Rhazi, M., Saber, E.R., Zouahri, A., Van den Broeck, M., Muller, S.D., Brendonck, L., and Grillas, P. 2014. Unravelling the impact of anthropogenic pressure on plant communities in Mediterranean temporary ponds. Mar. Freshwater Res. 65(10):918-929.

Bouchard, M., and Garet, J. 2014. A framework to optimize the restoration and retention of large mature forest tracts in managed boreal landscapes. Ecol. Appl. 24(7):1689-1704.

Boyer-Ontl, K.M., and Pruetz, J.D. 2014. Giving the forest eyes: the benefits of using camera traps to study unhabituated chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) in southeastern Senegal. Int. J. Primatol. 35(5):881-894.

Brambilla, M., Celada, C., and Gustin, M. 2014. Setting Favourable Habitat Reference Values for breeding birds: general principles and examples for passerine birds. Bird Conserv. Int. 24(3):263-271.

Brana, S., Vuković, N., and Kaligarič, M. 2014. Least adder's-tongue (Ophioglossum lusitanicum L.) in Croatia - distribution, ecology and conservation. Acta Bot. Croat. 73(2):471-480.

Branco, P., Segurado, P., Santos, J.M., and Ferreira, M.T. 2014. Prioritizing barrier removal to improve functional connectivity of rivers. J. Appl. Ecol. 51(5):1197-1206.

Brigić, A., Vujčić-Karlo, S., Alegro, A., Šegota, V., and Ternjej, I. 2014. Ecology, biology and conservation of Pterostichus rhaeticus Heer, 1837 (Coleoptera: Carabidae) at the edge of its distribution range, in the Western Balkans. Italian J. Zool. 81(4):517-529.

Brown, J.L., Collopy, M.W., and Smallwood, J.A. 2014. Habitat fragmentation reduces occupancy of nest boxes by an open-country raptor. Bird Conserv. Int. 24(3):364-378.

Burylo, M., Dutoit, T., and Rey, F. 2014. Species traits as practical tools for ecological restoration of marly eroded lands. Restor. Ecol. 22(5):633-640.

Bush, A., Hermoso, V., Linke, S., Nipperess, D., Turak, E., and Hughes, L. 2014. Freshwater conservation planning under climate change: demonstrating proactive approaches for Australian Odonata. J. Appl. Ecol. 51(5):1273-1281.

Butcher, R., and Thiele, K.R. 2014. An investigation of taxon boundaries in rare and range-restricted Synaphea (Proteaceae: Conosperminae) species from south-west Western Australia. Aust. Syst. Bot. 27(2):119-144.

Bylak, A., Kukuła, K., and Mitka, J. 2014. Beaver impact on stream fish life histories: the role of landscape and local attributes. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 71(11):1603-1615.

Bylsma, R.J., Clarkson, B.D., and Efford, J.T. 2014. Biological flora of New Zealand 14: Metrosideros excelsa, pohutukawa, New Zealand Christmas tree. New Zeal. J. Bot. 52(3):365-385.

Cabrelli, A.L., Stow, A.J., and Hughes, L. 2014. A framework for assessing the vulnerability of species to climate change: a case study of the Australian elapid snakes. Biodivers. Conserv. 23(12):3019-3034.

Campbell, J.W., Starring, A.M., and Smith, G.L. 2014. Flower visitors of Hymenocallis coronaria (rocky shoals spider-lily) of Landsford Canal State Park - South Carolina, USA. Nat. Areas J. 34(3):332-337.

Campos, B.R., and Burnett, R.D. 2014. Avian response to mechanical aspen restoration in Sierra Nevada coniferous forest. Restor. Ecol. 22(5):616-624.

Caners, R.T., and Lieffers, V.J. 2014. Divergent pathways of successional recovery for in situ oil sands exploration drilling pads on wooded moderate-rich fens in Alberta, Canada. Restor. Ecol. 22(5):657-667.

Cánovas, F., De la Rúa, P., Serrano, J., and Galián, J. 2014. Analysis of a contact area between two distinct evolutionary honeybee units: an ecological perspective. J. Insect Conserv. 18(5):927-937.

Caperta, A.D., Espírito-Santo, M.D., Silva, V., Ferreira, A., Paes, A.P., Róis, A.S., Costa, J.C., and Arsénio, P. 2014. Habitat specificity of a threatened and endemic, cliff-dwelling halophyte. AoB Plants 6:plu032.

Cardoso, D.B.O.S., Stirton, C.H., and Torke, B.M. 2014. Taxonomy of South American Ormosia (Leguminosae, Papilionoideae): recircumscription of O. costulata, reinstatement of O. trifoliolata, and the new species O. lewisii from the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. Syst. Bot. 39(4):1132-1141.

Cartwright, S.J., Nicoll, M.A.C., Jones, C.G., Tatayah, V., and Norris, K. 2014. Agriculture modifies the seasonal decline of breeding success in a tropical wild bird population. J. Appl. Ecol. 51(5):1387-1395.

Castilla, J.C., Manríquez, P.H., Delgado, A., Ortiz, V., Jara, M.E., and Varas, M. 2014. Rocky intertidal zonation pattern in Antofagasta, Chile: invasive species and shellfish gathering. PLoS ONE 9(10):e110301.

Challender, D.W.S., and MacMillan, D.C. 2014. Poaching is more than an enforcement problem. Conserv. Lett. 7(5):484-494.

Challender, D.W.S., and MacMillan, D.C. 2014. Transforming wildlife trade interventions: reply to Phelps et al. Conserv. Lett. 7(5):497-498.

Chan, F.T., Briski, E., Bailey, S.A., and MacIsaac, H.J. 2014. Richness-abundance relationships for zooplankton in ballast water: temperate versus Arctic comparisons. ICES J. Mar. Sci. 71(7):1876-1884.

Chapman, S., Mustin, K., Renwick, A.R., Segan, D.B., Hole, D.G., Pearson, R.G., and Watson, J.E.M. 2014. Publishing trends on climate change vulnerability in the conservation literature reveal a predominant focus on direct impacts and long time-scales. Divers. Distrib. 20(10):1221-1228.

Chauvenet, A.L.M., Hutson, A.M., Smith, G.C., and Aegerter, J.N. 2014. Demographic variation in the UK serotine bat: filling gaps in knowledge for management. Ecol. Evol. 4(19):3820-3829.

Chollett, I., Enríquez, S., and Mumby, P.J. 2014. Redefining thermal regimes to design reserves for coral reefs in the face of climate change. PLoS ONE 9(10):e110634.

Christe, C., Kozlowski, G., Frey, D., Fazan, L., Bétrisey, S., Pirintsos, S., Gratzfeld, J., and Naciri, Y. 2014. Do living ex situ collections capture the genetic variation of wild populations? A molecular analysis of two relict tree species, Zelkova abelica and Zelkova carpinifolia. Biodivers. Conserv. 23(12):2945-2959.

Christopher, C.C., Matter, S.F., and Cameron, G.N. 2014. Individual and interactive effects of Amur honeysuckle (Lonicera maackii) and white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) on herbs in a deciduous forest in the eastern United States. Biol. Invasions 16(11):2247-2261.

Chung, Y.A., Burkle, L.A., and Knight, T.M. 2014. Minimal effects of an invasive flowering shrub on the pollinator community of native forbs. PLoS ONE 9(10):e109088.

Çinar, M.E., and Bakir, K. 2014. ALien Biotic IndEX (ALEX) - A new index for assessing impacts of alien species on benthic communities. Mar. Pollut. Bull. 87(1-2):171-179.

Cliquet, A. 2014. International and European law on protected areas and climate change: need for adaptation or implementation? Environ. Manage. 54(4):720-731.

Cóbar-Carranza, A.J., García, R.A., Pauchard, A., and Peña, E. 2014. Effect of Pinus contorta invasion on forest fuel properties and its potential implications on the fire regime of Araucaria araucana and Nothofagus antarctica forests. Biol. Invasions 16(11):2273-2291.

Coelho, D., Hughes, S.J., Varandas, S., and Cortes, R.M.V. 2014. Conservation benefits of riparian buffers in urban areas: the case of the Rio Corgo (north Portugal). Fund. Appl. Limnol. 185(1):55-70.

Corbalan, V., Debandi, G., Martinez, F., and Ubeda, C. 2014. Prolonged larval development in the Critically Endangered Pehuenche's frog Alsodes pehuenche: implications for conservation. Amphibia-Reptilia 35(3):283-292.

Costantini, D., Dell'Omo, G., La Fata, I., and Casagrande, S. 2014. Reproductive performance of Eurasian Kestrel Falco tinnunculus in an agricultural landscape with a mosaic of land uses. Ibis 156(4):768-776.

Couto, R.S., Tenorio, V., Alzer, F.D.C., Lopes, R.C., Vieira, R.C., Mendonça, C.B.F., Gonçalves-Esteves, V., and Braga, J.M.A. 2014. Taxonomic revision of the Dioscorea campestris species assemblage (Dioscoreaceae). Syst. Bot. 39(4):1056-1069.

Cruz-Sánchez, M.A., Asis, J.D., González, J.A., Tormos, J., and Gayubo, S.F. 2014. Wildfires: its influence on the diversity parameters of predatory-insect communities in a Mediterranean agroecosystem of European interest. J. Insect Conserv. 18(5):903-908.

Crystal, P.A., and Jacobs, D.F. 2014. Drought and flood stress tolerance of butternut (Juglans cinerea) and naturally occurring hybrids: implications for restoration. Can. J. Forest Res. 44(10):1206-1216.

da Costa, C.M.Q., Barretto, J.W., and de Moura, R.D. 2014. Changes in the dung beetle community in response to restinga forest degradation. J. Insect Conserv. 18(5):895-902.

da Silva, E.C., and Omena, E.P. 2014. Population dynamics and reproductive biology of Achatina fulica Bowdich, 1822 (Mollusca, Gastropoda) in Salvador - Bahia. Biota Neotrop. 14(3):11.

Da Silva-Gonçalves, K.C., Baumgratz, J.F.A., and Nunes-Freitas, A.F. 2014. Melastomataceae in a continental Atlantic Forest island from southeastern Brazil. Phytotaxa 183(2):61-92.

da Silva, I.A.A., Pereira, A.F.D., and Barros, I.C.L. 2014. Fragmentation and loss of habitat: consequences for the fern communities in Atlantic forest remnants in Alagoas, north-eastern Brazil. Plant Ecol. Divers. 7(4):509-517.

da Silva, M.J., and Antunes, L.L.C. 2014. An update of the Brazilian species of Aeschynomene sect. Ochopodium ser. Viscidulae including a new species and a new synonym. Phytotaxa 184(1):31-38.

da Silva, M.J., Ramos, T.P.A., Diniz, V.D., Ramos, R.T.D., and Medeiros, E.S.F. 2014. Ichthyofauna of Seridó/Borborema: a semi-arid region of Brazil. Biota Neotrop. 14(3):6.

da Silva, R.A., Rocha, J., Silva, A., García-Cabral, I., Amich, F., and Crespí, A.L. 2014. The Iberian species of Scilia (Subfamily Scilloideae, Family Asparagaceae) under climatic change scenarios in southwestern Europe. Syst. Bot. 39(4):1083-1098.

Dalerum, F. 2014. Identifying the role of conservation biology for solving the environmental crisis. Ambio 43(7):839-846.

Dalmolim, E.B., and Zanin, A. 2014. A new species of Bothriochloa (Poaceae, Andropogoneae) endemic to montane grasslands of Santa Catarina, Brazil. Phytotaxa 183(1):44-50.

Dar, P.A., and Reshi, Z.A. 2015. Do alien plant invasions cause biotic homogenization of terrestrial ecosystems in the Kashmir Valley, India? Trop. Ecol. 56(1):111-123.

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Davies, K.W., and Bates, J.D. 2014. Attempting to restore herbaceous understories in Wyoming big sagebrush communities with mowing and seeding. Restor. Ecol. 22(5):608-615.

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Santana, J., Reino, L., Stoate, C., Borralho, R., Carvalho, C.R., Schindler, S., Moreira, F., Bugalho, M.N., Ribeiro, P.F., Santos, J.L., Vaz, A., Morgado, R., Porto, M., and Beja, P. 2014. Mixed effects of long-term conservation investment in Natura 2000 farmland. Conserv. Lett. 7(5):467-477.

Sarojinidevi, N., and Reddivenkataraju, R. 2014. Euphorbia kadapensis (Euphorbiaceae), a new species from southern India. Phytotaxa 181(3):179-183.

Saupe, E.E., Hendricks, J.R., Portell, R.W., Dowsett, H.J., Haywood, A., Hunter, S.J., and Lieberman, B.S. 2014. Macroevolutionary consequences of profound climate change on niche evolution in marine molluscs over the past three million years. Proc. Roy. Soc. B 281(1795):20141995.

Schmiing, M., Diogo, H., Santos, R.S., and Afonso, P. 2014. Assessing hotspots within hotspots to conserve biodiversity and support fisheries management. Mar. Ecol. Progr. Ser. 513:187-199.

Schuchert, P., Shuttleworth, C.M., McInnes, C.J., Everest, D.J., and Rushton, S.P. 2014. Landscape scale impacts of culling upon a European grey squirrel population: can trapping reduce population size and decrease the threat of squirrelpox virus infection for the native red squirrel? Biol. Invasions 16(11):2381-2391.

Schweizer, M., Aye, R., Kashkarov, R., and Roth, T. 2014. Conservation action based on threatened species capture taxonomic and phylogenetic richness in breeding and wintering populations of Central Asian birds. PLoS ONE 9(10):e110511.

Sciandrello, S., and D'Agostino, S. 2014. Distribution patterns and floristic analysis of the Colymbada tauromenitana (Guss.) Holub populations in Sicily (Italy). Acta Bot. Croat. 73(2):385-400.

Scridel, D. 2014. Ecology and conservation of birds in upland and alpine habitats: a report on the BOU's Annual Conference held at the University of Leicester, 1-3 April 2014. Ibis 156(4):896-900.

Shackleton, R.T., Le Maitre, D.C., Pasiecznik, N.M., and Richardson, D.M. 2014. Prosopis: a global assessment of the biogeography, benefits, impacts and management of one of the world's worst woody invasive plant taxa. AoB Plants 6:plu027.

Sharma, A.K., Saini, M., Singh, S.D., Prakash, V., Das, A., Dasan, R.B., Pandey, S., Bohara, D., Galligan, T.H., Green, R.E., Knopp, D., and Cuthbert, R.J. 2014. Diclofenac is toxic to the Steppe Eagle Aquila nipalensis: widening the diversity of raptors threatened by NSAID misuse in South Asia. Bird Conserv. Int. 24(3):282-286.

Sharma, P., Uniyal, P.L., and Slowik, J. 2014. Community involvement and conservation of Taxus baccata in Pangi Valley, Himachal Pradesh. Nat. Areas J. 34(4):470-474.

Shrestha, T.K., Aryal, A., Rai, R.K., Lamsal, R.P., Koirala, S., Jnawali, D., Kafle, R., Bhandari, B.P., and Raubenheimer, D. 2014. Balancing wildlife and human needs: the protected forest approach in Nepal. Nat. Areas J. 34(3):376-380.

Si, C.C., Dai, Z.C., Lin, Y., Qi, S.S., Huang, P., Miao, S.L., and Du, D.L. 2014. Local adaptation and phenotypic plasticity both occurred in Wedelia trilobata invasion across a tropical island. Biol. Invasions 16(11):2323-2337.

Siesa, M.E., Padoa-Schioppa, E., Ott, J., De Bernardi, F., and Ficetola, G.F. 2014. Assessing the consequences of biological invasions on species with complex life cycles: impact of the alien crayfish Procambarus clarkii on Odonata. Ecol. Indic. 46:70-77.

Signorile, A.L., Paoloni, D., and Reuman, D.C. 2014. Grey squirrels in central Italy: a new threat for endemic red squirrel subspecies. Biol. Invasions 16(11):2339-2350.

Silva, D.J., Santos, M., and Canale, G.R. 2014. The importance of remnant native vegetation of Amazonian submontane forest for the conservation of lizards. Braz. J. Biol. 74(3):523-528.

Singleton, R.L., and Roberts, C.M. 2014. The contribution of very large marine protected areas to marine conservation: giant leaps or smoke and mirrors? Mar. Pollut. Bull. 87(1-2):7-10.

Snijman, D.A. 2014. A taxonomic revision of the genus Pauridia (Hypoxidaceae) in southern Africa. Phytotaxa 182(1):1-114.

Soga, M., Yamaura, Y., Koike, S., and Gaston, K.J. 2014. Land sharing vs. land sparing: does the compact city reconcile urban development and biodiversity conservation? J. Appl. Ecol. 51(5):1378-1386.

Soissons, L.M., Han, Q.Y., Li, B.Q., van Katwijk, M.M., Ysebaert, T., Herman, P.M.J., and Bouma, T.J. 2014. Cover versus recovery: contrasting responses of two indicators in seagrass beds. Mar. Pollut. Bull. 87(1-2):211-219.

Sparkes, J.H., de Lange, P.J., and Blanchon, D.J. 2014. Notes on Caloplaca allanii Zahlbr. (Teloschistaceae) a poorly known West Auckland, North Island, New Zealand endemic. New Zeal. J. Bot. 52(3):304-309.

Stabili, L., Licciano, M., Lezzi, M., and Giangrande, A. 2014. Microbiological accumulation by the Mediterranean invasive alien species Branchiomma bairdi (Annelida, Sabellidae): potential tool for bioremediation. Mar. Pollut. Bull. 86(1-2):325-331.

Stahlheber, K.A., and D'Antonio, C.M. 2014. Do tree canopies enhance perennial grass restoration in California oak savannas? Restor. Ecol. 22(5):574-581.

Steichen, J.L., Schulze, A., Brinkmeyer, R., and Quigg, A. 2014. All aboard! A biological survey of ballast water onboard vessels spanning the North Atlantic Ocean. Mar. Pollut. Bull. 87(1-2):201-210.

Stenzel, S., Feilhauer, H., Mack, B., Metz, A., and Schmidtlein, S. 2014. Remote sensing of scattered Natura 2000 habitats using a one-class classifier. Int. J. Appl. Earth Obs. 33:211-217.

Stinson, K.A., and Seidler, T.G. 2014. Physiological constraints on the spread of Alliaria petiolata populations in Massachusetts. Ecosphere 5(8):96.

Stojanovic, D., Webb, M.H., Alderman, R., Porfirio, L.L., and Heinsohn, R. 2014. Discovery of a novel predator reveals extreme but highly variable mortality for an endangered migratory bird. Divers. Distrib. 20(10):1200-1207.

Štokmane, M., and Spuņģis, V. 2014. Diversity of grass-dwelling spiders (Arachnida: Araneae) in calcareous fens of the Coastal Lowland, Latvia. J. Insect Conserv. 18(5):757-769.

Stuhldreher, G., and Fartmann, T. 2014. When habitat management can be a bad thing: effects of habitat quality, isolation and climate on a declining grassland butterfly. J. Insect Conserv. 18(5):965-979.

Svriz, M., Damascos, M.A., Lediuk, K.D., Varela, S.A., and Barthélémy, D. 2014. Effect of light on the growth and photosynthesis of an invasive shrub in its native range. AoB Plants 6:plu033.

Takala, T., Kouki, J., and Tahvanainen, T. 2014. Bryophytes and their microhabitats in coniferous forest pastures: should they be considered in the pasture management? Biodivers. Conserv. 23(12):3127-3142.

Talle, M., Bergman, K.O., Paltto, H., Pihlgren, A., Svensson, R., Westerberg, L., Wissman, J., and Milberg, P. 2014. Mowing for biodiversity: grass trimmer and knife mower perform equally well. Biodivers. Conserv. 23(12):3073-3089.

Tantipisanuh, N., Gale, G.A., and Pollino, C. 2014. Bayesian networks for habitat suitability modeling: a potential tool for conservation planning with scarce resources. Ecol. Appl. 24(7):1705-1718.

Tawatao, N., Lucey, J.M., Senior, M., Benedick, S., Khen, C.V., Hill, J.K., and Hamer, K.C. 2014. Biodiversity of leaf-litter ants in fragmented tropical rainforests of Borneo: the value of publically and privately managed forest fragments. Biodivers. Conserv. 23(12):3113-3126.

Taylor, M.M., Hild, A.L., Shaw, N.L., Norton, U., and Collier, T.R. 2014. Plant recruitment and soil microbial characteristics of rehabilitation seedings following wildfire in northern Utah. Restor. Ecol. 22(5):598-607.

Tella, J.L., and Hiraldo, F. 2014. Illegal and legal parrot trade shows a long-term, cross-cultural preference for the most attractive species increasing their risk of extinction. PLoS ONE 9(9):e107546.

Thornton, D.H., and Murray, D.L. 2014. Influence of hybridization on niche shifts in expanding coyote populations. Divers. Distrib. 20(11):1355-1364.

Tiedemann, R., Schneider, A.R.R., Havenstein, K., Blanck, T., Meier, E., Raffel, M., Zwartepoorte, H., and Plath, M. 2014. New microsatellite markers allow high-resolution taxon delimitation in critically endangered Asian box turtles, genus Cuora. Salamandra 50(3):139-146.

Toledo, D., Sanderson, M., Johnson, H., Reeves, J.L., Derner, J.D., Vermeire, L., and Hendrickson, J. 2014. Evaluating plant biodiversity measurements and exotic species detection in National Resources Inventory Sampling protocols using examples from the Northern Great Plains of the USA. Ecol. Indic. 46:149-155.

Tomović, G., Niketić, M., Lakušić, D., Ranđelović, V., and Stevanović, V. 2014. Balkan endemic plants in Central Serbia and Kosovo regions: distribution patterns, ecological characteristics, and centres of diversity. Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 176(2):173-202.

Torrubia, S., McRae, B.H., Lawler, J.J., Hall, S.A., Halabisky, M., Langdon, J., and Case, M. 2014. Getting the most connectivity per conservation dollar. Front. Ecol. Environ. 12(9):491-497.

Tveraa, T., Stien, A., Brøseth, H., and Yoccoz, N.G. 2014. The role of predation and food limitation on claims for compensation, reindeer demography and population dynamics. J. Appl. Ecol. 51(5):1264-1272.

Uden, D.R., Hellman, M.L., Angeler, D.G., and Allen, C.R. 2014. The role of reserves and anthropogenic habitats for functional connectivity and resilience of ephemeral wetlands. Ecol. Appl. 24(7):1569-1582.

Ulrich, E., and Perkins, L. 2014. Bromus inermis and Elymus canadensis but not Poa pratensis demonstrate strong competitive effects and all benefit from priority. Plant Ecol. 215(11):1269-1275.

Urgenson, L.S., Reichard, S.H., and Halpern, C.B. 2014. Habitat factors and species' traits influence riparian community recovery following removal of bohemian knotweed (Polygonum x bohemicum). Northwest Sci. 88(3):246-260.

Vale, Á., Pérez-Obregón, R.A., Faife-Cabrera, M., Álvarez, J.C., and Rojas, D. 2014. A new orchid species from the keys of central Cuba and a checklist of Cuban Encyclia (Orchidaceae, Laeliinae). Syst. Bot. 39(4):1076-1082.

Valenzuela-Quiñonez, F., Garza, J.C., De-Anda-Montañez, J.A., and García-de-León, F.J. 2014. Inferring past demographic changes in a critically endangered marine fish after fishery collapse. ICES J. Mar. Sci. 71(7):1619-1628.

van Grunsven, R.H.A., Yuwati, T.W., Kowalchuk, G.A., van der Putten, W.H., and Veenendaal, E.M. 2014. The northward shifting neophyte Tragopogon dubius is just as effective in forming mycorrhizal associations as the native T. pratensis. Plant Ecol. Divers. 7(4):533-539.

VanderWerf, E.A., Young, L.C., Crow, S.E., Opie, E., Yamazaki, H., Miller, C.J., Anderson, D.G., Brown, L.S., Smith, D.G., and Eijzenga, J. 2014. Increase in wedge-tailed shearwaters and changes in soil nutrients following removal of alien mammalian predators and nitrogen-fixing plants at Kaena Point, Hawaii. Restor. Ecol. 22(5):676-684.

Varone, L., Logarzo, G.A., Briano, J.A., Hight, S.D., and Carpenter, J.E. 2014. Cactoblastis cactorum (Berg) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) use of Opuntia host species in Argentina. Biol. Invasions 16(11):2367-2380.

Vasconcelos, P.B., Araújo, G.M., and Bruna, E.M. 2014. The role of roadsides in conserving Cerrado plant diversity. Biodivers. Conserv. 23(12):3035-3050.

Vaughn, N.R., Asner, G.P., and Giardina, C.P. 2014. Centennial impacts of fragmentation on the canopy structure of tropical montane forest. Ecol. Appl. 24(7):1638-1650.

Venâncio, N.M., Lima, A.P., de Souza, M.B., and Magnusson, W.E. 2014. Between-year consistency of anuran assemblages in temporary ponds in a deforested area in Western Amazonia. Herp. J. 24(3):155-160.

Ventura, A.D.B., and Lana, P.D. 2014. A new empirical index for assessing the vulnerability of pen-urban mangroves. J. Environ. Manage. 145:289-298.

Viall, E.M., Gentry, L.F., Hopkins, D.G., Ganguli, A.C., and Stahl, P. 2014. Legacy effects of oil road reclamation on soil biology and plant community composition. Restor. Ecol. 22(5):625-632.

Vieira, R., Finn, J.T., and Bradley, B.A. 2014. How does the landscape context of occurrence data influence models of invasion risk? A comparison of independent datasets in Massachusetts, USA. Landscape Ecol. 29(9):1601-1612.

Vivian, L.M., Ward, K.A., Zwart, A.B., and Godfree, R.C. 2014. Environmental water allocations are insufficient to control an invasive wetland plant: evidence from a highly regulated floodplain wetland. J. Appl. Ecol. 51(5):1292-1303.

Walankiewicz, W., Czeszczewik, D., Stański, T., Sahel, M., and Ruczyński, I. 2014. Tree cavity resources in spruce-pine managed and protected stands of the Białowieża Forest, Poland. Nat. Areas J. 34(4):423-428.

Walcott, J., and Horrocks, J.A. 2014. Design of a protected area for inter-nesting hawksbills in Barbados: an evidence-based approach. Bull. Mar. Sci. 90(4):969-987.

Walker, R., Rafeliarisoa, T., Currylow, A., Rakotoniaina, J.C., and Louis, E. 2014. Short term monitoring reveals the rapid decline of southern Madagascar's Critically Endangered tortoise species. Herp. J. 24(3):193-196.

Walsh, R.P., Arnold, P.M., and Michaels, H.J. 2014. Effects of pollination limitation and seed predation on female reproductive success of a deceptive orchid. AoB Plants 6:plu031.

Waltham, N.J., Barry, M., McAlister, T., Weber, T., and Groth, D. 2014. Protecting the green behind the gold: catchment-wide restoration efforts necessary to achieve nutrient and sediment load reduction targets in Gold Coast City, Australia. Environ. Manage. 54(4):840-851.

Wang, S.X., Guo, H., Wang, X.A., Fan, W.Y., and Duan, R.Y. 2014. Multiple-scale assessment of understory herb species diversity in pine plantations after long-term restoration. Nord. J. Bot. 32(5):680-688.

Weber, S.B., Weber, N., Ellick, J., Avery, A., Frauenstein, R., Godley, B.J., Sim, J., Williams, N., and Broderick, A.C. 2014. Recovery of the South Atlantic's largest green turtle nesting population. Biodivers. Conserv. 23(12):3005-3018.

Weyenberg, S.A., and Pavlovic, N.B. 2014. Vegetation dynamics after spring and summer fires in red and white pine stands at Voyageurs National Park. Nat. Areas J. 34(4):443-458.

White, N.E., Bunce, M., Mawson, P.R., Dawson, R., Saunders, D.A., and Allentoft, M.E. 2014. Identifying conservation units after large-scale land clearing: a spatio-temporal molecular survey of endangered white-tailed black cockatoos (Calyptorhynchus spp.). Divers. Distrib. 20(10):1208-1220.

Wilson, J.R., Valencia, S.R., Kay, M.C., and Lenihan, H.S. 2014. Integration of no-take marine reserves in the assessment of data-limited Fisheries. Conserv. Lett. 7(5):451-458.

Winqvist, C., Bengtsson, J., Öckinger, E., Aavik, T., Berendse, F., Clement, L.W., Fischer, C., Flohre, A., Geiger, F., Liira, J., Thies, C., Tscharntke, T., Weisser, W.W., and Bommarco, R. 2014. Species' traits influence ground beetle responses to farm and landscape level agricultural intensification in Europe. J. Insect Conserv. 18(5):837-846.

Wright, J.T., Byers, J.E., DeVore, J.L., and Sotka, E.E. 2014. Engineering or food? mechanisms of facilitation by a habitatforming invasive seaweed. Ecology 95(10):2699-2706.

Xiao, J., Wang, Y.F., Shi, P., Yang, L., and Chen, L.D. 2014. Potential effects of large linear pipeline construction on soil and vegetation in ecologically fragile regions. Environ. Monit. Assess. 186(11):8037-8048.

Yu, X.Q., He, T.H., Zhao, J.L., and Li, Q.M. 2014. Invasion genetics of Chromolaena odorata (Asteraceae): extremely low diversity across Asia. Biol. Invasions 16(11):2351-2366.

Zaccara, S., Antognazza, C.M., Buonerba, L., Britton, R., and Crosa, G. 2014. Human-mediated contact zone between endemic and invasive Barbus species (Osteichthyes: Cyprinidae) in a regulated lowland river: genetic inferences and conservation implications. Italian J. Zool. 81(4):571-583.

Zamorano-Elgueta, C., Cayuela, L., Rey-Benayas, J.M., Donoso, P.J., Geneletti, D., and Hobbs, R.J. 2014. The differential influences of human-induced disturbances on tree regeneration community: a landscape approach. Ecosphere 5(7):90.

Zauli, A., Chiari, S., Hedenström, E., Svensson, G.P., and Carpaneto, G.M. 2014. Using odour traps for population monitoring and dispersal analysis of the threatened saproxylic beetles Osmoderma eremita and Elater ferrugineus in central Italy. J. Insect Conserv. 18(5):801-813.

Zhang, Y., Zhao, S.W., Liu, D.Y., Zhang, Q.X., and Cheng, J. 2014. Flowering phenology and reproductive characteristics of Cypripedium macranthos (Orchidaceae) in China and their implication in conservation. Pakistan J. Bot. 46(4):1303-1308.

Zhou, T.H., Wu, K.X., Qian, Z.Q., Zhao, G.F., Liu, Z.L., and Li, S. 2014. Genetic diversity of the threatened Chinese endemic plant, Sinowilsonia henryi Hemsi. (Hamamelidaceae), revealed by inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers. Biochem. Syst. Ecol. 56:171-177.


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